princes would remain loyal to the king. However, the pope's calculation proved correct; the princes fell away from the king. The Saxons found the moment opportune for a new uprising, and in Oct., 1076, the princes assembled at Tribur on the Rhine to confer about the election of a new king. Although they disagreed in the matter, Henry was obliged to promise the pope obedience and satisfaction, but even so his crown gained little security. The rebellious princes agreed to deprive him of the crown, unless the ban were removed within a year, and also resolved to invite the pope to a diet of the princes at Augsburg, set for Feb. 2, 1077. Henry clearly discerned his predicament; he could save his kingdom only by obtaining release from the ban. Straightway he despatched messengers to the pope, and declared himself ready to make full satisfaction; but Gregory refused to release him. Henry now hurried in person to Italy and put upon the pope the moral obligation of absolving him before going to Germany. The Alpine passes being held by the South German princes, he traveled through Burgundy, setting out from Speyer shortly before Christmas, and reaching northern Italy in good season. Gregory had already started on his journey to Germany, but was awaiting the promised escort of the German princes. Upon tidings of the king's arrival in Lombardy, he fled to Canowa (11 m. e.w. of Reggio),
Gregory Yes.‑Vln. THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 62
the castle of Countess Matilda of Tuscany. Henry appeared before the gate of this castle, a penitent, and succeeded in inducing Gregory to release him, though not without reservation; for he did not revoke the sentence of deposition.
Only a transient peace ensued between Henry and Gregory upon this basis. When, several weeks later, on motion of some of the German princes,
Rudolph of Swabia was elected oppoSecond Ex‑ anion king at Forchheim, Gregory did
communi‑ not declare against him. He treated
cation of the matter of Henry's or Rudolph's Henry,iogo. legitimacy rather as an open question, Henry's Tri‑ and hoped to be able to decide the disumph, io84. puce as judge. Finally, when Ru‑
dolph, on Jan. 27, 1080, won a great victory‑so the report went‑near Flarchheim, Gregory again placed Henry under the ban and sentence of deposition. But this time public opinion was against him, whereas in 1078 it had sided with him; furthermore, on Oct. 15, 1080, Rudolph died, and Hermann of Luxemburg, later elected in his stead, could not materially strengthen the papal position in Germany. Henry IV. was now able to take the offensive against Gregory. At Briaen (June 25, 1080), Gregory was solemnly repudiated, and Guibert of Ravenna (q.v.) was made oounterpope. In the following year, Henry marched to Italy, since Gregory was to be conquered only in Rome. This was accomplished in 1084. A faction of the clergy fell away from Gregory, thirteen cardinals turned their backs on him, and the Roman people, weary of the war, delivered the city to the German king. Guibert of Ravenna was now enthroned (Mar. 24) as Clement III. and Henry IV. was crowned emperor by him on Mar. 31. Not until May did the Norman prince Robert Guiseard march to Gregory's aid. He forced Henry to retreat, but by his plundering of Rome the cause of Gregory, who was held responsible therefor, was lost forever. Gregory lived a year longer in exile at Salerno, forsaken by his friends but unbroken in spirit. He died May 25, 1085.
The concentration of his strength upon Germany prevented Gregory from acting with similar energy
in other countries. He projected
Gregory's great things in the Orient; but he did
Policy and not succeed in abolishing the schism
Achieve‑ between East and West, nor could he meats out‑ institute a crusade or form a union
side of with the Armenians. He made good Germany. some political claims on Dalmatia,
Corsica, and Sardinia; and he cherished the vain hope of founding a papal feudal kingdom in Spain. He once threatened excommunication and interdict, and even deposition, against Philip I. of France, who had aroused his ill‑will by reason of simony and ecclesiastical oppressions; but he did not enforce these penalties‑although the king showed no improvement‑because he was unwilling to provide Henry IV. with a confederate. William I. of England also derived advantage from the conflicts in Germany. For; in spite of his marital relations, in spite of his appointment of bishops and abbots, in spite of his forbidding the bishops to visit Rome, and of many other
things, he was spared the Roman censures. Gregory maintained favorable relations with Denmark, whose King Svend II., Estridsen, was summoned ‑without practical result‑to transform his kingdom into a feudal dependency upon the apostolic prince. He directed like hopes toward Russia; and he affirmed that the Roman Church had long held a right of possession in respect to Hungary. He also kept Poland and Bohemia in view; even as his provident care was likewise engaged by north Africa, oppressed by the Saracens.
Gregory's administrative activity thus encompassed the entire Christian world, operating along definite lines, and clearly pursuing well‑defined aims. Of fundamental significance The Aims were his ideas as to the essence of the and Means. State. The Augustinian theory that The Inves‑ the State is a product of sin was shared titure Con‑ by him; only, inasmuch as the logical
troversy. sequel of a permanent conflict with
the State as such was not within prac
tical realization, he recognized the coexistence of
State and Church as of divine ordination, at the
same time vigorously affirming the obligation to
subordinate the State to the Church. From these
premises he deduced the right of excommunicating
and deposing incompetent rulers and of confirming
the status of a German king. The attempts to per
suade particular States into a relation of spiritual
dependency on the Roman see show that he had
consciously in view the goal of subjecting temporal
States to the Church; that is, to found a theocracy
or to create an ecumenical papal dominion. He
endeavored to apply these principles in filling spir
itual vacancies, and in this way the dispute as to
Investiture (q.v.) came about. Inaugurated by a law
promulgated in 1049, under Leo IX., it filled West
ern Christendom down to the Concordat of Worms
in 1122. It is manifest from the laws enacted un
der Gregory in 1075, 1078, and 1080 that he pur
posed to withdraw appointments to spiritual posi
tions from the influence of the king for the sake of
securing this influence for himself, and so to sub
stitute papal nomination for the previous royal
nomination. But even had this goal been attained,
Gregory was not yet at the end of his aspirations;
for even if the king no longer had influence on epis
retain all the sovereign rights, allodia, and fiefs
which had been conveyed to them as princes of'the
realm. By this process, however, the king's right
to church property of the realm would have been
annulled, and the pope, as feudal suzerain, would
have acquired the right of administration over the
goods of the Church.
In the internal direction of the Church, Gregory's efforts to enforce the celibacy of the clergy and to extirpate simony took front rank at the outset. The legislation of Leo IX. The Internal on celibacy was energetically sustained Adminiatra‑ by Gregory, and the "Nicolaitan hertion of the esy" was combated in all countries,
Church. ‑though with spirited protests on the
part of many married ecclesiastics.
The difficulty of abolishing simony was increased
by the fact that in the course of time the practise
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•MA‑.ne AXODO'OvlaaaozoaoHH snoiolzau 99
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are: ATnaates R07aani, in MGH,
script., v (1844), 468‑480; Landulfus. Historia Mod' olansis, ib. xx (1868), 17‑49; Eccehard,Chronicon, ib. vi. (1844) 33‑265; Jaffd, Regesta, i. 821‑$22. Consult: J. Langen, Geschichte der r6mischen Kirche, vol. iv., Bonn, 1893; F. Gregorovius, Hist. of the City of Rome, iv. 372374, 384‑387, 394‑396, London, 1896; Hefele, Coucilienpeschichte, v. 327 et passim. Gregory VIII. (Albertus de Moray: Pope _'1187.
He was born in Benevento between 1105 and 1110,
was a Benedictine and cardinal, and after the death
of Urban III. was almost unanimously chosen pope
on Oct. 21, 1187. He was imbued with the ideal
of strict asceticism, which he sought to apply both
in the curia and among the clergy. He had the
plan of a crusade particularly at heart, and to this
end he strove to reach an understanding with Em
peror Frederick I., and attempted to mediate be
tween the cities of Pisa and Genoa. In the midst
of his projects he was suddenly overtaken by death,
on Dee. 17. CARL MIRBT.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Three of his Rpistola are in Bouquet, Re‑
cueil, xix. 330‑331; twenty‑seven Bpistola et privilegia are in MPL, ccii. 1537‑64. Consult: Jaffd, Repesta, ii. 528‑535, 770; J. M. watterich, Pontihcum Romanorum vita, ii. 683‑692, Leipsic, 1862; P. Nadig, Grepors Vlll. 57‑tdgipes Pontifikat, Basel,1890; J. Langen, Gosdhichte der rsmischen Kirche, iv. 570 eqq., Bonn 1893; F. Gregorovius, Hist. of the City of Rome, iv. 614‑815, London, 1896; Hauck, KD, pp. 912, 919; Bower, Popes, ii. 528‑529; Milman, Latin Christianity, iv. 444‑445. Gregory IX. (Count Hugo‑Ugolino‑of Segni): Pope 1227‑41. He was born at Anagni perhaps about 1145, and began his spiritual career under Innocent III., his uncle, who created him cardinal deacon and afterward appointed him cardinal bishop of Ostia. Honorius III. (1216‑27) honored him with important commissions. His name is likewise intimately connected with the history of the rise of the Franciscan order, while Dominic, the founder of the Dominican order, likewise had his support. After the death of Honorius III., Cardinal Ugolino was elected as Pope Gregory IX.
Gregory quickly came into strained relations with Frederick II. of Germany, although they had previously been on good terms. The causes of estrangement lay in the general trend
Gregory of the imperial policy. At the Diet and Fred‑ of Frankfort, 1220, Frederick had had erick II. of his son Henry elected king of the RoGermany. mans; the administration of Sicily had been ceded to Frederick by Honorius III.; and, after putting affairs in order there, he had undertaken to win back the German imperial rights in northern Italy, where the Lombards had curtailed them. In this enlargement of the imperial power, Gregory perceived a danger for the Roman see. His distrust was enhanced by the fact that Frederick had postponed the fulfilment of his promise to proceed to the Holy Land. At the appointed term (Aug., 1227) he had indeed stationed himself at the head of the crusaders, assembled at Brindisi; but the epidemic which carried off thousands of pilgrims seized him as well, and compelled him to remain in Otranto. Gregory, not making a full examination of the circumstances, excommunicated the emperor (Sept. 27, 1227), and justified this condemnation in an encyclical. Frederick,
too, made public defense of himself, and in the follow=ing year actually began the crusade‑‑against the pope's protest and under difficult conditions. Despite all this, he succeeded, by a treaty with the sultan Kamil of Egypt (Feb. 18, 1229), in achieving more than the other crusaders before him. The main gain was that Jerusalem was again turned over to the Christians, with the right of fortification. But the patriarch of Jerusalem, after Frederick had put on the crown of the kingdom of Jeruear lem, covered the sacred sites with a sentence of interdict. In view of this hostility, and upon receipt of tidings of the pope's encroachment on Sicily, Frederick resolved on a speedy return. He soon succeeded in expelling the papal soldiers; and in the year following, by the Peace of Ceperano (Aug. 28, 1230), after great concessions he was released from the ban.
There now followed nine years of peace, but the fundamental conflict of papal and imperial interests continued, and finally led to another open rupture. Gregory allied himself with Frederick's adversaries, the Lombards, and on Mar. 20, 1239, put the emperor under the ban for the second time. Both pope and emperor vindicated their cause in public, but Gregory, not disposed to peace, formed the design, in 1241, of having Frederick sentenced in Rome by an ecumenical council. The plan failed, however, since the imperial and Pisan fleet defeated the Genoese fleet southeastward of Elba, and the extra‑Italian prelates happened, to be aboard the vanquished squadron. Gregory was not even turned from his bitter opposition to the emperor by the great surging of the Tatars toward Central Europe in 1241, until the battle near Liegnitz (Apr. 9, 1241) checked their progress.
Gregory's relations with other countries quite receded into the background in contrast with his struggle with Germany. Under his contemporary,
St. Louis of France (1226‑70), that Relations country was consolidated into a
with Other strong hereditary kingdom. In Eng‑
Countries. land, the clergy vigorously reacted
Gregory's against the curia's practise of be‑
Importance stowing the lucrative benefices upon
and foreigners. Gregory also gave atten
Character. tion to crusading plane, and was
occupied with thoughts of missions. His early relations with the mendicant orders proved to their advantage, though the division among the Franciscans began even in his time. His converting the battle against heresy, on the conclusion of the Albigensian wars, into a permanent institution of the Church came to be of epoch‑making significance for the medieval Church, for the laws affecting heresy, as developed in his time, maintained themselves (see INQUISITION). His importance for medieval philosophy and theology was due to the fact that he approved the study of Aristotle. Finally, Gregory's pontificate was of the utmost importance in the sphere of canon law, since through his chaplain, Raymond of Pennaforte, he had a collection of decretals compiled which gained universal recognition as a codification of canon law (see CANON LAW, IL) and thus contributed to the victory of the pope's legislative authority. Greg‑
86 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Gregory VIII.‑8.
cry died Aug. 22, 1241. He may be called great
in his zeal for the Church. That he was blinded by
his hatred of Frederick and unscrupulous in his
choice of aggressive measures is the blot on his
reputation. CARL MrRHT.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources for a history are: The Rpistolm, in MGH, Bpist. smc. xiii., i (1883), 261‑739; MGH, Log., ii. 1 (1837), 274‑276, 299‑300; his treaty of peace with Frederick II., in MGH, Leg., i. 1 (1837), 334‑337; lu Repistres de Gregoire IX. Recucdl des bullet de cs pope . ed. L. Auvray, Paris, 1890‑99; A. Huillard‑Bre‑
holles, Historia diplomatica Priderici 11., 6 vols., Paris, 1852‑61 (a collection of documents, letters, eta.); A. Potthast, Regesta pontifcum Romanorum, i. 880‑939, ii. 2099‑2110, 2136‑37, Berlin, 1874‑75; Vita Greporii IX., in L. A. Muratori, Script.. rer. Itai., iii. 1, pp. 575587, 25 vols., Milan, 1723‑51, also ad. J. Marx, Berlin, 1889. Pertinent documents are to be found in Thatcher and McNeal, Source Book, pp. 240‑259, 590‑591, and in Reich, Documents, pp. 266‑270, 308‑318. Consult: E. Winkelmann, Geschichte Kaiser Friedrichs 11. and seiner Reiche, 2 vols., Berlin, 1863‑65; A. Pichler, Geschichte der kirchlichen Trennunp ewiechen dam Orient and Occident, i. 323 sqq., Munich, 1864; B. Haurcau, GrAgoire IX. at la philosophic d'Aristote Paris, 1872; P. Balan, Storia di Gregorio IX. a dei suoi tempi, odena, 1872; H. Reuter, Geschichte der religidiaen Aufkl4runp in Mittelalter, vol. ii., Berlin, 1877• W. Felten, Papat Gregor IX., Freiburg, 1886; C. Rodenberg, Kaiser Friedrich 11. and die deutsehe Kirche, in Hiatorische Auf,Uee rum Andenken an G. Waits, pp. 228‑248, Hanover, 1886; idem, Die Vorserkandlungen sum Frieden von San Germano, 1889‑1030, in NA, xviii (1892), 177‑205; E. Michael, in ZKT, ii (1888), 290‑301; F. Gregorovius Hint. of the City o/ Rome, r. 142‑217, London, 1897; M. Halbe, Friedrich ll. and der apostoliache Stuhl, Berlin, 1896; R. R6hricht, Geechirhte des K6nigreichs Jerusalem 1101‑1281, pp. 757‑796, Innsbruck, 1898• J. Bryce, The Holy Roman Empire, pp. 102, 209, 218, New York, 1904; Hefele, Concilienpeschichte, v. 955 sqq.; Neander, Christian Church, iv. 17$‑‑183; Bower. Popes, ii. 557‑559; Milman, Latin Christianity, v. 321‑452.
For his relation to the crusades consult: J. I. Mom.
bert, Short Hint. of the Crusades, pp. 246 et passim, New York, 1894; T. A. Archer and C. L. Kingsford, The Crusades, pp. 380‑383, 386, 428, ib. 1895; J. M. Ludlow, The Age of the Crusade#, p. 300 et passim, ib. 1896.
Gregory %. (Teobaldo Visconti): Pope 1271‑76.
He was born in Piacenza in 1210 and was archdea
con of Lidge when he was chosen pope on Sept. 1,
1271. The Roman see had been unoccupied for
nearly three years (since the death of Clement IV.,
Nov. 29, 1268), the cardinals in session at Viterbo,
divided into a French and an Italian party, being
unable to agree until finally they reached a com
promise in the election of Teobaldo Visconti. At
the time he was in the Holy Land as a crusader.
Upon the news of his elevation, he set out from
Acre Nov. 19, arrived at Brindisi Jan. 1, 1272, and,
Lyons, 1274. Saracens and the corruption of morals
among clergy and laity. It was form
ally decided, on Apr. 13, 1273, that the coun
cil should convene at Lyons. Of the princes in
vited only James I. of Aragon attended in person;
but many ambassadors were present, and about
sixteen hundred prelates, among whom were five
hundred bishops. The first session of the council,
which is usually designated by the Roman Catholic Church as the Fourteenth Ecumenical Council, was opened on May 7, 1274; the sixth and last session was held on July 17.
Gregory cherished peculiar interest for the Holy Land and large resources were obtained from
France and England, which enabled
A Crusade the new patriarch of Jerusalem whom
Attempted. Gregory had installed (Archbishop
Thomas of Cosenza) td afford sustenance to the Christian army. Moreover, on the initiative of King Charles of Sicily, a ten years' truce had been concluded in Csesarea between Sultan Bibars and King Hugo of Cyprus‑at least as far as Ptolemais and Nazareth were concerned. There shortly ensued, however, all kinds of untoward circumstances. Prince Edward of England left the Holy Land; the new patriarch proved incompetent; and the strife between Hugo of Cyprus and Maria of Antioch over the crown of Jerusalem continued. The council failed to support the operations in the East. The pope contrived, indeed, to have a tithe of the church revenues appropriated for six years to the prospective crusade; but no great or adequate action was taken.
Emperor Michael Paheologas of Byzantium had sent ambassadors to Lyons; and to gain Gregory's assistance against the aggressive designs of Charles of Sicily, he evinced great cordiality toward the pope's ecclesiastical plans. The Byzantine dele‑
gates accepted the filwqrte clause in
Union the creed; the primacy of Rome was
with the acknowledged in an imperial com‑
Eastern munication that was read in public;
Church. and the logothete took the oath in the
emperor's name that he solemnly abjured all schism. In short, the submission to the Roman see was complete.
The Council of Lyons was also important for Gregory's relations with Germany. When, after the death of Richard of Cornwall (Apr. 2, 1272),
of France, which was backed by Charles of Sicily. On the other hand, at the clove of July, 1273, he addressed to the German eleAorr the mandate to hold a new election promptly, and threatened, were this avoided, himself to appoint a king. Count Rudolph of Hapsburg was accordingly elected at Frankfort, Oct. 1, 1273. King Ottoear of Bohemia lodging a protest against tke election it was only after receiving extensive concessions that Gregory gave an affirmative decision in behalf of Rudolph's petition for imperial coroner tion. The pope had no success in. his attempt to move Ottocar of Bohemia to submit to Rudolph; but he succeeded in procuring the renunciation by Alfonso of Castile of all claims to the German empire. Rudolph of Hapsburg was recognized by Gregory in a written proclamation dated Sept. 26, 1274. After further concessions at Lausanne (Oct. 21, 1275), the day for the imperial coronation was set for Feb. 2, 1276.