Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house



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GRAVATT, WILLIAM LOYALL: Protestant Episcopal bishop of West Virginia; b. at Port Royal, Va., Dec. 15, 1858. He studied at the Virginia Military College, Blacksburg, Va., and was graduated at the Virginia Theological Seminary in 1884. He became curate of St. Paul's, Richmond, Va., 1884; rector of St. Peter's, Norfolk, Va., 1887; of Zion Church, Charlestown, W. Va., 1893, and was oonee­crated bishop coadjutor of West Virginia 1899.

GRAVES, ANSON ROGERS: Protestant Epis­copal missionary bishop of Laramie; b. at Wells, Vt., Apr. 13, 1842. He was educated at Hobart College (B.A.,1866) and at the General Theological Seminary (1870). He was then curate of Grace, Brooklyn, and of Gethsemane, Minneapolis, and rector of St. Luke's, Plattemouth, Neb., All Saints', Northfield, Minn., All Saints', Littleton, N. H., St. Peter's, Ben­nington, Vt., and Gethsemane, Minneapolis. In 1890 he was consecrated missionary bishop of The Platte, the name of his diocese later beging changed to Laramie.

GRAVES. FREDERICK ROGERS: Protestant Episcopal bishop of Shanghai, China; b. at Auburn, N. Y., Oct. 24, 1858. He was educated at Hobart College (B.A., 1878) and the General Theological Seminary (1881). Since 1881 he has been stationed in China, being at Wu‑Chang 1881‑85, and pro­fessor in the Theological School of St. John's College, Shanghai, 1885,87. He was professor in the Theo­logical School at Wu‑Chang, 1887‑93, and in the latter year was consecrated missionary bishop of Shanghai. He has translated a number of theo­logical works into Chinese, among which special mention may be made of eight books of Joseph Bingham's Antiquities of the Christian Church and commentaries on Isaiah and the Psalms.

GRAY FRIARS: A popular English name for the Franciscans, from the color of their dress.

GRAY NUNS. See CHARITY, SISTSBS ox, 1.

GRAY SISTERS (Swurv Krises). See ELIzABrTH, SAINT, SISTERS OF.



GRAY, GEORGE BUCHANAN: English Con­gregationalist; b. at Blandford (45 m. s.e. of Bris­tol), Dorsetshire, Jan.13,1865. He was educated at New College and University College, London (B.A., 1886), and Mansfield College, Oxford. He entered the Independent ministry in 1893 and was fellow and tutor in Mansfield College from 1891 to 1900. Since 1900 he has been professor of Hebrew and Old Testa­ment exegesis in the same institution, and was likewise lecturer on the Old Testament to the



49


RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA


Friends' Summer School in 1897‑1899. He has been a member of the Board of the Faculty of Oriental languages in Oxford University since 1896, and of the general and executive committees of the Pales­tine Exploration Fund since 1905. In theology he is a liberal Evangelical. He has written Studies in Hebrew Proper Names (London, 1896); The Divine Discipline of Israel (1900); Numbers in The Temple Bible (1902); and Critical and Exegetical Commen­tary on Numbers (Edinburgh, 1903).

GRAY, GEORGE ZABRISKIE: Protestant Epis­copalian; b. in New York City July 14, 1838; d. at Sharon Springs, N. Y., Aug. 4, 1889. He. was educa­ted at the University of the City of New York (A.B., 1858), the Theological Seminary at Alexandria, Va., and the Episcopal Divinity School, Philadelphia (1862). After being rector of St. Paul's, Kinder­hook, N. Y., in 1863‑65, and at Trinity, Bergen Point, N. J., in 1865‑76, he was dean and professor of systematic divinity at the Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass. He wrote The Children's Crusade: An Episode of the Thirteenth Century (Boston, 1872) which made his literary reputation and still holds its place; The Scriptural Doctrine of Recognition in the World to Come (New York, 1875); Husband and Wife: or, The Theory of Marriage and its Consequences (Boston, 1885); and The Church's Certain Faith (New York, 1890).

GRAY, WILLIAM CRANE: Protestant Episco­pal missionary bishop of Southern Florida; b. at Lambertville, N. J., Sept. 6,1835. He was educated at Kenyon College, where he took the college and the theological courses simultaneously, being graduated in 1859. From 1860 to 1881 he was rector of St. James's, Bolivar, Tenn., where, soon after the close of the Civil War, he established St. James's Girls' School (now called St. Katharine's School). He was then rector of the Church of the Advent, Nashville, Tenn., from 1881 to 1892, and in the latter year was conse­crated missionary bishop of southern Florida. In theology he holds firmly to the fundamental doc­trines of the Church‑the Scriptures, the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds, the Sacraments, and the three­fold ministry with apostolic succession‑but lays less stress on details of ritual and matters of opinion not concerned with these essential tenets.

GRAY, WILLIAM CUNNINGHAM: Presbyte­rian layman; b. at Pleasant Run, O., Oct. 17, 1830; d. at Oak Park, Ill., Sept. 29, 1901. He was edu­cated at Farmers' College, College Hill, O. (A. B., 1850), and after being admitted to the bar in 1852 was a political editor until 1870. From the latter year until his death he was editor of the Interior, a Presbyterian organ, which he made one of the lead­ing periodicals of the denomination. He was also the author of Camp‑Fire Musings ; Life and Good Times in the Woods (New York, 1894).

GREAT BIBLE. See BIBLE VERSIONS, B, IV., §4.
GREECE.

I. In the Apostolic Age. Paul at Athens (§ 2)_

Government under the Corinth (1 3),

Romans. The Pro‑ NicopoGs (§ 4).

co8sul Gallic (¢ I), II. Modern Greece,

I. In the Apostolic Age: The name Hellalg (E,V.

"Greece ") occurs in the New Testament Only in Acts

V.‑‑4


Gravamina Greece


xa. 2. From the connection the province of Achaia exclusive of Macedonia is evidently meant, especially Corinth, though the city is not mentioned. With

the destruction of Corinth and the over‑

t. Govern‑ throw of the Achean league under meat under Mummius in 146 B.C., Greece became a the Romans. Roman province, administered by the

The Procon‑ consul, proconsul, or pretor of Mace­sul Gallic. donia. After the battle of Actium (31 B.C.) Augustus made Achaea an inde­pendent province comprising, besides the southern part of Greece, Eubaea and moat of the Cyclades, the latter remaining so attached till the third century when they were connected with the newly estab­lished "island eparchy." When the provinces were divided into senatorial and imperial, Greece was al­lotted to the senate. Tiberius united it again with Macedonia, but under Claudius in 44 A.D. the former order was reestablished. During the period 44‑67 A.D., when Christianity took root in Achaea, it was a senatorial province and was governed by proconsuls, assisted by a legate and queator. They had the com­mand of the provincial army and jurisdiction in crim­inal and civil affairs. One of the beat‑known pro­consuls was Gallic (Acts aviii. 12) or Lucius Annaeus Novatua, son of Marcus Animus Seneca the elder and elder brother of the famous Seneca. Having been adopted by Lucius Junius Gallic, he took the name Junius Gallic. The date of Gallio's proconsulate in Acha:a is very doubtful and no dependence can be placed on mention of him as a basis for the chronol­ogy of Paul's life. More important, however, is his attitude toward the tumults caused by Paul's Preaching. The Jews of Corinth accused Paul not of political offense, as did those of Thessalonica (Acts suit. 7), but of preaching a new religion "contrary to the law" (Acts aviii. 13)‑no doubt the Mosaic law, not the Roman. Gallic was free to interfere or let the matter drop; the important point was whether the apostasy from Judaism was proven and the new religion appeared important or dangerous. Since the Jews were divided among themselves, Gallic considered the whole matter a quarrel of the Jews especially as there was no qreestion of "wrong or wicked lewdness" (Acts xviii. 14‑16). Gallio's disposition to hear the Jews in case of a wrong indicates that at Corinth, as elsewhere, the Jews had no jurisdiction in criminal matters. As a whole the Greek cities had certain liberties under the Roman administration. Some enjoyed an espe­cially favored position, being treated as civitntes fcederattv.

The condition of the land at the time of Strabo's visit in 29 B.c. was deplorable. Under Roman sway the situation gradually improved, but even in the Apostolic Age the condition was unfortunate. It is


esWMY suggestive that in his mis­z. Paul at sionary journey between


Athens.


Berea and

Athens Paul found no opportunity




a longer stay or for missionary effort. At all events, Athena was the first point which he considered promising se a missionary field. In Paul's time Athens had risen in importance. In spite of its decay, it was revered by the Romans and the entire Hellenistic world, and had a powerful attraction for the educated. Many cultivated Ro‑



Greece Green

THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 50


mans were settled there at that time (cf. Acts xvii. 21); and there were also Jews there (Acts xvii. 17). Paul may have been interested in the votive offer­ings of Herod (Josephus, War, I., xxi. 11) and while walking through the city (Acts xvii. 23) must have been greatly impressed by the profusion of sano­tuaries. Of the many altars one especially attracted his attention, that devoted to "the unknown god" (Acts xvii. 23). He disputed in the synagogue, and appeared daily in the market and held discussions with those who chanced to be there (Acts xvii. 17), including Epicureans and Stoics. He was brought before the court of the Areopagus (Acts xvii. 19), which met in the market before the royal colonnade (Pausanias I., iii. 1), no doubt to determine whether he and his preaching should be tolerated in Athens. That "Areopagus" in the narrative means the court, not merely the locality where it met, is shown by the mention of "Dionysius the Areopagite" (Acts xvii. 34.)

Not being successful at Athens, Paul went to Corinth, which became the center of his missionary work in Greece. There he wrote his epistles to the Thessalonians, to the Romans, perhaps also to the Galatians. To the Corinthians he wrote several, perhaps four, epistles (see PAUL THE APOSTLE),

since the Christians of Achma caused 3. Corinth. him much trouble. For Paul's mis‑

sionary method, for th3 difficulties to be overcome, for the typical experiences in the lives of the congregations, there is nothing more instruc­tive and characteristic than what may be learned from all sources with regard to the Corinthian Church. At Corinth was to be found a mixture of Romans, Greeks, and Orientals, a cosmo­politan syncretistic "heathenism." That many Jews lived there is a matter of course (Acts xviii. 4, 7).

The city of Corinth was one of the most flourishing commercial cities of antiquity, and its situation between two seas made it the natural emporium be­tween the Orient and the Occident. Naturally it had two ports. The western, Lecteeum, north of Corinth, was formerly connected with the city by walls; the eastern seaport was Cenchrea (Rom. xvi. 1; Acts xviii. 18), with a Christian congregation of its own. In the city was a sanctuary of the Ephesian Artemis; in the market a statue of Athene and a sanctuary of the Capitoline Zeus. On a rock which afforded a beautiful view stood the temple cf Aphro­dite. There were also two sanctuaries of Isis, two of Serapis, altars to Helios, a temple of Anangke and Bia, and one of the mother of the gods. It can easily be imagined that in such a city immorality abounded; the catalogue of vices in Rom. i. 18‑32 was written at Corinth, as was I Thess. iv. 1‑12; and the epistles to the Corinthians show that Paul had to oppose there the base viciousness of heathenism. A great attraction for Greeks and Romans and for the rabble were the Isthmian games, and it is perhaps not acci­dental that Paul betrays an intimate knowledge of the stadium (cf. I Cor. ix. 24‑27). The congregation in Corinth was composed of members belonging to the lower class of the population (I Cor. i. 26 sqq.), so that, since it was there less possible than else­where to speak to people of the lower and higher


ranks at the same time, Paul there preached to the people. According to his own statement (I Cor. ii. 1 sqq.), he pursued there a method different from that followed in Athens. Like a popular speaker he relied entirely upon convincing, spiritual preaching, laying aside philosophic refinements. But this did not exclude the well‑considered rhetorical form which he used in the epistles to the Corinthians. The rhetoric employed by him was the kind used by the popular orators among the Cynics, as may be seen from the diatribes of Epictetus and the much earlier Teles. About the time of Paul, or a little later, the cynic Demetrius, the friend of Seneca, labored at Corinth, and no doubt the apostle in­tentionally adopted the method of these popular orators.

A word may be added about Nioopolis (the mod­

ern Prevesa, situated in Albania, the old Epirus, at

the outlet of the Gulf of Arta). Zahn



4. Nicopolis. (Einleitung in das Neue Testament, i.,

Leipsic, 1900, pp. 434‑435) has proved

that Titus iii. 12 refers to this city. This Roman

colony (Aclia Niwpolis) was established by Augus­

tus in memory of the battle of Actium. Tacitus



(Annalea, ii. 53) speaks of it as belonging to Achma.

Its special attractions were the sanctuary of Apollo

and the Actian games indroduced by Augustus.

Here again it was a modern, flourishing city that

Paul selected for a longer residence. Nicopolis was

afterward the scene of the labors of the Stoic Epio­

tetus. (JOHANNES WEISS.)

II. Modern Greece: The present kingdom of Greece dates from 1832. It comprises a continental portion, the Xgean Archipelago, and the Ionian Islands, with an area of 25,014 square miles, and a population of about 2,600,000, which belongs almost solidly to the Eastern Orthodox confession. Its Church (the "Church in Greece") is autonomous, having no hierarchical connection with the patriarch of Constantinople, and has been so, essentially, since 1833, although the separation was formally made by the constitution of 1852. The dignity of archbishop was abolished, save that a priority was reserved for the metropolitan of Athens, and the Church was rec­ognized as a State Church in the national constitu­tion. Since 1852 the highest authority in all affairs of church government has been exercised by the "Holy Synod," which is composed of the metropoli­tan and four other bishops, the latter being called in turn to officiate thus at Athens for the term of one year. The government convenes the synod, pays the salaries of these officers', and guarantees the validity of the synod's enactments by counter‑signature of the state commissioner. Further a general coun­cil of the bishops and qualified abbots may be con­vened as supreme tribunal. The Holy Synod elects and ordains bishops, who, however, must be con­firmed by the government. In like manner the Holy Synod examines and appoints the remaining clergy. In case of an ecclesiastical assignment, in respect to educational institutions, the erection of a convent, and the alteration of feast‑days, the government's consent is required. The church administration is vested in thirty‑two bishops (besides the metropoli­tan), twenty‑two of whom are stationed on the main­land. There are also many monasteries; in 1898





61 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA d'

Green


the number was 198, including nine nunneries; though, all told, they sheltered only some 1,500 monks and nuns. The number of pastoral cures was 4,025, with 5,670 clergy, only 242 of whom were un­married. Most of them were without higher scholas­tic education, the number with only common‑school training being 4,116. The clerical stipends are mea­ger, usually being derived solely from voluntary gifts and surplice‑fees. Besides three so‑called clerical schools (at Tripolis, Chalcis, and Syra), which have scant attendance, there is a theological seminary at Athens.

Of other Christian confessions, only the Roman Catholic Church has an appreciable following, with a membership of about 22,000. The hierarchical es­tablishment indicates a propagandist attitude of this Church in Greece, there being (since 1875) three provinces, Athens, Corfu, and Naxos. The latter comprises five suffragan sees, Andros, Syra, Tino, Santorin, and Milo. The archbishop of Corfu has also jurisdiction over the dioceses of Zante and Cephalonia; these two sees have but little over 7,000 adherents, a number surpassed by the single diocese of Syra. The number of secular and clois­tered clergy is considerable; six male and seven female orders or congregations, mainly from France, are active in the country.

The number and significance of the Protestants is alight, there being only four small congregations, three in the capital and one at Pirieus. The so­called court congregation includes Protestant Ger­mans, Swiss, and French; it is in charge of the clergyman whom the Protestant king (a prince of Denmark) maintains as preacher. The Anglican congregation numbers about 120. It is difficult to estimate the number of Greek Protestants, since not a few of them do not formally separate from the old Orthodox congregations. The congregation at Pirteus has grown slowly. A popular tumult, incited by attempts at proselyting, led to the destruction of its house of worship in 1888. Occasional Protestant services are held in other places, e.g., in Patras and Volo. There are some 6,000 Jews, more than half of whom belong to the Sephardim; and, notwithstand­ing copious emigration, there are still about 24,000 Mohammedans, mostly in Thessaly.

Popular education has been considerably pro­moted by compulsory schooling from the age of six to thirteen, though in many districts attendance is not enforced. There are 3,263 common schools, 285 public high schools, 39 state gymnasia, ten normal schools for men and three for women, and a number of private and technical schools. The University of Athens is a collective center for modern Greek scholarship and culture, with some 2,600 students from all parts of the Levant. It embraces faculties of law, medicine, philosophy, science, and theology. WILHELm GOETZ.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: On I. the three books indispensable are:

G. Finlay, Hint. of Greece, Vol. i., London, 1877; G. Herts­

berg, Die Gewhwhte Gnechunlande unter der Herrschatt der

Remer, vols. i. ii., Halls, 1866; T. Mommeen, Rsmischs

Geschidte, ii. 42‑b0, v. 230‑294, Berlin, 1903‑04. Con­

sult also: W. M. Ramsay, Historical Geography of Asia



Minor, London, 1890; idem, The Church in the Roman

Empire, New York, 1893; idem, St. Paul the Traveller,

ib. 1896; and literature under LB=i; PAUL; and works


on the Church history of the Apostolic Age; also DB, ii. 280‑‑263; %L, v. 1200‑27.

On IL: Finlay, ut sup., vols., vi.‑vii.; T. G. Clark, Christianity East and West, London, 1889; R. Curzon, Visits to the Monasteries of the Levant, ib. 1897; R. B. C. Sheridan, The (reek Catholic Church, O3dord, 1901; C. Berth, Die orientaliache Chriatsnheit der MitWmeerlander, Berlin, 1902; I. Silbernagl, Verfassunp and pepenw8rtiper Bestand aamtlicher Kirchen des Orients, Regensburg, 1904.


GREEK CHURCH. See EASTERN CHURCH.
GREEN, ASHBEL: American Presbyterian, president of Princeton College; b. at Hanover, Mor­ris County, N. J., July 6, 1762; d. in Philadelphia May 19, 1848. He served as a sergeant in the Revo­lutionary War till the spring of 1782, when he entered Princeton (B.A., 1783). He was a tutor at Prince­ton (178385), professor of mathematics and natural philosophy (1785‑87), pastor of the Second Presby­terian Church, Philadelphia (1787‑1812), chaplain to Congress (1792‑1800), and president of Princeton College (1812‑22). He was one of the founders of the Princeton Theological Seminary and president of its board of directors 1812‑48. On resigning the presidency of Princeton in 1822 he returned to Phila­delphia and edited the Christian Advocate 1822‑34, and also The Assembly's Magazine during a part of this time. He was moderator of the General Assem­bly in 1824, and a member of that body in 1837,1838, and 1839. He wielded great influence in the Presby­terian Church, took a strong stand in favor of the Old School party, and was largely instrumental in bring­ing about the disruption of 1837. His principal works are: Sermons on the Assembly's Catechism (1818); History of Presbyterian Missions (1820); and Discourses Delivered in the College of New Jersey, Including a Historical Sketch of the College (1822).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A volume of Memoirs, begun by himself, was completed by J. H. Jones, New York, 1849. Con­sult W. B. Sprague, Annals of the American Pulpit, iii. 479‑496, New York, 1858; R. E. Thompson, in American Church History Series, vol. vi., passim, ib. 1895.


GREEN, EDMUND TYRRELL: Church of Eng­land; b. at Westminster Mar. 19, 1864. He was ed­ucated at St. John's College, Oxford (B.A., 1886). From 1887 to 1890 he was curate of St. Bamabas, Oxford, and was then applointed lecturer in Hebrew and theology in.St. David's College, Lampeter,Wales. Six years later he became professor of the same sub­jects, a position which he still retains, in addition to being lecturer in parochalia since 1896. He was lec­turer in architecture in 1902. Besides his profes­sorial duties, he has held many parochial missions and in 1904 delivered a course of apologetic lectures at Southampton. In theology he belongs to the An­glo‑0atholic school of the Church of England. He has written Notes on the Teaching of St. Paul (Lon­don, 1893); The Thirty‑Nine Articles and the Age of the Reformation (1896); The Sinner's Restoration (1899); The Church of Christ (1902); and How to Preach (1905). He has also edited Jeremiah and Lamentations in The Temple Bible (London, 1902).


GREEN, JOSEPH HENRY: English surgeon and student of philosophy; b. in London Nov.l, 1791; d. at The Mount, Hadley, near Barnet (11 m.






Green THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 62

Qreenup


n.n.w. of London), Dec. 13, 1863. He received his

medical education in German universities, and in

the College of Surgeons, London (M.D., 1815), where

he became professor of anatomy in 1824. He was

also surgeon to St. Thomas' Hospital (1820‑52),

professor of anatomy to the Royal Academy (1825­

1852), professor of surgery at King's College (1830­

1837), a member of the council of the College of

Surgeons (1835‑63), a member of the court of ex­

aminers (1$46‑63), president of the college (1849­

1850,1858‑59), and president of the General Medical

Council (1860‑63). He was a personal friend and

disciple of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and became his

literary executor. In 1836 he retired to the count 'ry

and spent the rest of his life in philosophical and

linguistic study with a view to publishing a monu­

mental exposition of Coleridge's system. He em­

bodied the results of his philosophical studies in



Vital Dynamics (London, 1840); Mental Dynamics

(1847); in the Introduction to his edition of Cole­

ridge's Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit (1849);

and particularly in the posthumous Spiritual



Philosophy: Founded on the Teaching of Samuel

Taylor Coleridge, edited, with a Memoir of Green,

by John Simon (2 vols., 1865), the best expo­

sition of Coleridge's philosophy that has yet ap­

peared.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Consult, besides the Memoir prefixed to

Spiritual Philosophy, ut sup., DNB, xxii. 49‑51.

GREEN, SAMUEL GOSNELL: English Baptist;

b. at Falmouth (66 m. w.s.w. of Plymouth), Corn­

wall, Dec, 20, 1822; d. in London Sept. 15, 1905.

He was educated at Stepney (now Regent's Park)

College (B.A., University of London, 1844). He

was successively pastor at High Wycombe, Bucks.

(1844‑47), and Taunton (1847‑51), then classical

tutor (1851‑63) and president (1863‑76) of Horton

College, Bradford, which was removed to Rawdon

in 1859. In 1876 he was chosen book editor of the

Religious Tract Society, London, of which he sub­

sequently became secretary, retiring from active

life in 1899. He was a trustee of the John Rylands

Library, Manchester, and a vice‑president of the

British and Foreign Bible Society. In theology he

was a liberal Evangelical. His principal works are:



Addresses to Children (London, 1849); The Working

Classes of Great Britain (1850); Lectures to Children

on the Bible (1856); Lectures to Children on Scrip­

ture Doctrine (1856); Biible Sketches for Young

People (2 vols., 1865‑70); Handbook to the Grammar

of the Greek New Testament (1870); The Written

Word; or, the Contents and Interpretation of Holy

Scripture briefly considered (1871); Life and Letters

of the Apostle Peter (1873); Kings of Israel and

Judah (1876); Pen and Pencil Pictures (4 vols.,

1876‑83); What do 1 believe f (1880); Christian.



Ministry to the Young (1883); Wycliffe Anecdotes

(1884); The Christian Creed and the Creed of Chris­



tendom (1898); The Story of the Religious Tract

Society (1899); Handbook of Old Testament Hebrew

(1901); and Handbook of Church History (1904).

He edited a new edition of P. Lorimer's translation

of G. V. Lechler's Wiclif (London, 1884); an

enlarged edition of the Annotated Paragraph Bible

(1894); and a thoroughly revised edition of J. Angus'



$0le Handbook (1904); besides being chairman of


the editorial committee of a New Baptist Church Hymnal.


GREEN, THOMAS HILL: English philosopher; b. at Birkin (10 m. s.e. of Leeds), Yorkshire, Apr. 7, 1836; d. at Oxford Mar. 26, 1882. He was edu­cated at Rugby and at Balliol College, Oxford (B.A., 1859; M.A., 1862), where he was elected fellow in 1860. His life henceforth was devoted chiefly to teaching in the university, first as tutor, after 1878 as Whyte professor of moral philosophy. Certain scruples prevented him from entering the ministry, though on taking his M.A. degree he signed the Thirty‑Nine Articles. He was a disciple of Rant and Hegel, but by his independent treatment of philo­sophical problems he won, and still holds, extremely high rank as an original thinker. By his trenchant criticism of Hume, from the idealistic viewpoint, he broke the sway of empiricism in England and after­ward became the founder of the so‑called Neo‑Hege­lian school, which is now practically dominant in English and American speculation. Briefly, his view is, that only the experienced is real, and that finite experience forms a system of relations which are caught up in one eternal self‑conscious whole, via., the Absolute or God. While for God the world is, for man it becomes; and human experience is only God partially and gradually revealing himself in man. Green's ethics is based on his idealistic meta­physics. The ethical ideal, the end in which the ef­fort of a moral agent "can really find rest," is re­vealed to the self‑conscious subject by the reason; and the difference between a good man and a bad man is, that while the one wills what the eternal and divine intelligence reproduced in him demands, the other wills contrary to reason, and therefore in vio­lation of divine law. Green's character is described in Mrs. Humphry Ward's Robert Elsmere, under the name of Mr. Gray. His principal works are, the famous Introduction to Hume's Treatise of Human Nature (i. 1‑310, London, 1874); his posthumous Prolegomena to Ethics (ed. A. C. Bradley, Oxford, 1883), one of the most valuable contributions to con­structive philosophy ever made by an Englishman; and The Witness of God, and Faith (London, 1883), two lay sermons delivered to his pupils at Oxford. His Works, exclusive of the Prolegomena, were edited by R. L. Nettleship (3 vols., London, 1885,88). .

BIBraodBAPBy: A Life, by R. L. Nettleship, was prefixed to vol. iii. of the Works, reprinted separately, London, 1908. Consult: DNB, xxii. 55‑56; W. H. Fairbrother, The Philosophy o/ Thomas Hill Green, New York, 1896; full bibliography in Baldwin. Dictionary; III., i. 228.


GREEN THURSDAY. See HoLy WEEK, § 4.


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