GRAVATT, WILLIAM LOYALL: Protestant Episcopal bishop of West Virginia; b. at Port Royal, Va., Dec. 15, 1858. He studied at the Virginia Military College, Blacksburg, Va., and was graduated at the Virginia Theological Seminary in 1884. He became curate of St. Paul's, Richmond, Va., 1884; rector of St. Peter's, Norfolk, Va., 1887; of Zion Church, Charlestown, W. Va., 1893, and was ooneecrated bishop coadjutor of West Virginia 1899.
GRAVES, ANSON ROGERS: Protestant Episcopal missionary bishop of Laramie; b. at Wells, Vt., Apr. 13, 1842. He was educated at Hobart College (B.A.,1866) and at the General Theological Seminary (1870). He was then curate of Grace, Brooklyn, and of Gethsemane, Minneapolis, and rector of St. Luke's, Plattemouth, Neb., All Saints', Northfield, Minn., All Saints', Littleton, N. H., St. Peter's, Bennington, Vt., and Gethsemane, Minneapolis. In 1890 he was consecrated missionary bishop of The Platte, the name of his diocese later beging changed to Laramie.
GRAVES. FREDERICK ROGERS:Protestant Episcopal bishop of Shanghai, China; b. at Auburn, N. Y., Oct. 24, 1858. He was educated at Hobart College (B.A., 1878) and the General Theological Seminary (1881). Since 1881 he has been stationed in China, being at Wu‑Chang 1881‑85, and professor in the Theological School of St. John's College, Shanghai, 1885,87. He was professor in the Theological School at Wu‑Chang, 1887‑93, and in the latter year was consecrated missionary bishop of Shanghai. He has translated a number of theological works into Chinese, among which special mention may be made of eight books of Joseph Bingham's Antiquities of the Christian Church and commentaries on Isaiah and the Psalms.
GRAY FRIARS:A popular English name for the Franciscans, from the color of their dress.
GRAY NUNS. See CHARITY, SISTSBS ox, 1.
GRAY SISTERS (Swurv Krises). See ELIzABrTH, SAINT, SISTERS OF.
GRAY, GEORGE BUCHANAN: English Congregationalist; b. at Blandford (45 m. s.e. of Bristol), Dorsetshire, Jan.13,1865. He was educated at New College and University College, London (B.A., 1886), and Mansfield College, Oxford. He entered the Independent ministry in 1893 and was fellow and tutor in Mansfield College from 1891 to 1900. Since 1900 he has been professor of Hebrew and Old Testament exegesis in the same institution, and was likewise lecturer on the Old Testament to the
Friends' Summer School in 1897‑1899. He has been a member of the Board of the Faculty of Oriental languages in Oxford University since 1896, and of the general and executive committees of the Palestine Exploration Fund since 1905. In theology he is a liberal Evangelical. He has written Studies in Hebrew Proper Names (London, 1896); The Divine Discipline of Israel (1900); Numbers in The Temple Bible (1902); and Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Numbers (Edinburgh, 1903).
GRAY, GEORGE ZABRISKIE: Protestant Episcopalian; b. in New York City July 14, 1838; d. at Sharon Springs, N. Y., Aug. 4, 1889. He. was educated at the University of the City of New York (A.B., 1858), the Theological Seminary at Alexandria, Va., and the Episcopal Divinity School, Philadelphia (1862). After being rector of St. Paul's, Kinderhook, N. Y., in 1863‑65, and at Trinity, Bergen Point, N. J., in 1865‑76, he was dean and professor of systematic divinity at the Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass. He wrote The Children's Crusade: An Episode of the Thirteenth Century (Boston, 1872) which made his literary reputation and still holds its place; The Scriptural Doctrine of Recognition in the World to Come (New York, 1875); Husband and Wife: or, The Theory of Marriage and its Consequences (Boston, 1885); and The Church's Certain Faith (New York, 1890).
GRAY, WILLIAM CRANE: Protestant Episcopal missionary bishop of Southern Florida; b. at Lambertville, N. J., Sept. 6,1835. He was educated at Kenyon College, where he took the college and the theological courses simultaneously, being graduated in 1859. From 1860 to 1881 he was rector of St. James's, Bolivar, Tenn., where, soon after the close of the Civil War, he established St. James's Girls' School (now called St. Katharine's School). He was then rector of the Church of the Advent, Nashville, Tenn., from 1881 to 1892, and in the latter year was consecrated missionary bishop of southern Florida. In theology he holds firmly to the fundamental doctrines of the Church‑the Scriptures, the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds, the Sacraments, and the threefold ministry with apostolic succession‑but lays less stress on details of ritual and matters of opinion not concerned with these essential tenets.
GRAY, WILLIAM CUNNINGHAM: Presbyterian layman; b. at Pleasant Run, O., Oct. 17, 1830; d. at Oak Park, Ill., Sept. 29, 1901. He was educated at Farmers' College, College Hill, O. (A. B., 1850), and after being admitted to the bar in 1852 was a political editor until 1870. From the latter year until his death he was editor of the Interior, a Presbyterian organ, which he made one of the leading periodicals of the denomination. He was also the author of Camp‑Fire Musings ; Life and Good Times in the Woods (New York, 1894).
GREAT BIBLE. See BIBLE VERSIONS, B, IV., §4.
I. In the Apostolic Age. Paul at Athens (§ 2)_
Government under the Corinth (1 3),
Romans. The Pro‑ NicopoGs (§ 4).
co8sul Gallic (¢ I), II. Modern Greece,
I. In the Apostolic Age: The name Hellalg (E,V.
"Greece ") occurs in the New Testament Only in Acts
xa. 2. From the connection the province of Achaia exclusive of Macedonia is evidently meant, especially Corinth, though the city is not mentioned. With
the destruction of Corinth and the over‑
t. Govern‑ throw of the Achean league under meat under Mummius in 146 B.C., Greece became a the Romans. Roman province, administered by the
The Procon‑ consul, proconsul, or pretor of Macesul Gallic. donia. After the battle of Actium (31 B.C.) Augustus made Achaea an independent province comprising, besides the southern part of Greece, Eubaea and moat of the Cyclades, the latter remaining so attached till the third century when they were connected with the newly established "island eparchy." When the provinces were divided into senatorial and imperial, Greece was allotted to the senate. Tiberius united it again with Macedonia, but under Claudius in 44 A.D. the former order was reestablished. During the period 44‑67 A.D., when Christianity took root in Achaea, it was a senatorial province and was governed by proconsuls, assisted by a legate and queator. They had the command of the provincial army and jurisdiction in criminal and civil affairs. One of the beat‑known proconsuls was Gallic (Acts aviii. 12) or Lucius Annaeus Novatua, son of Marcus Animus Seneca the elder and elder brother of the famous Seneca. Having been adopted by Lucius Junius Gallic, he took the name Junius Gallic. The date of Gallio's proconsulate in Acha:a is very doubtful and no dependence can be placed on mention of him as a basis for the chronology of Paul's life. More important, however, is his attitude toward the tumults caused by Paul's Preaching. The Jews of Corinth accused Paul not of political offense, as did those of Thessalonica (Acts suit. 7), but of preaching a new religion "contrary to the law" (Acts aviii. 13)‑no doubt the Mosaic law, not the Roman. Gallic was free to interfere or let the matter drop; the important point was whether the apostasy from Judaism was proven and the new religion appeared important or dangerous. Since the Jews were divided among themselves, Gallic considered the whole matter a quarrel of the Jews especially as there was no qreestion of "wrong or wicked lewdness" (Acts xviii. 14‑16). Gallio's disposition to hear the Jews in case of a wrong indicates that at Corinth, as elsewhere, the Jews had no jurisdiction in criminal matters. As a whole the Greek cities had certain liberties under the Roman administration. Some enjoyed an especially favored position, being treated as civitntes fcederattv.
The condition of the land at the time of Strabo's visit in 29 B.c. was deplorable. Under Roman sway the situation gradually improved, but even in the Apostolic Age the condition was unfortunate. It is
esWMY suggestive that in his misz. Paul at sionary journey between
Athens Paul found no opportunity
a longer stay or for missionary effort. At all events, Athena was the first point which he considered promising se a missionary field. In Paul's time Athens had risen in importance. In spite of its decay, it was revered by the Romans and the entire Hellenistic world, and had a powerful attraction for the educated. Many cultivated Ro‑
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 50
mans were settled there at that time (cf. Acts xvii. 21); and there were also Jews there (Acts xvii. 17). Paul may have been interested in the votive offerings of Herod (Josephus, War, I., xxi. 11) and while walking through the city (Acts xvii. 23) must have been greatly impressed by the profusion of sanotuaries. Of the many altars one especially attracted his attention, that devoted to "the unknown god" (Acts xvii. 23). He disputed in the synagogue, and appeared daily in the market and held discussions with those who chanced to be there (Acts xvii. 17), including Epicureans and Stoics. He was brought before the court of the Areopagus (Acts xvii. 19), which met in the market before the royal colonnade (Pausanias I., iii. 1), no doubt to determine whether he and his preaching should be tolerated in Athens. That "Areopagus" in the narrative means the court, not merely the locality where it met, is shown by the mention of "Dionysius the Areopagite" (Acts xvii. 34.)
Not being successful at Athens, Paul went to Corinth, which became the center of his missionary work in Greece. There he wrote his epistles to the Thessalonians, to the Romans, perhaps also to the Galatians. To the Corinthians he wrote several, perhaps four, epistles (see PAUL THE APOSTLE),
since the Christians of Achma caused 3. Corinth. him much trouble. For Paul's mis‑
sionary method, for th3 difficulties to be overcome, for the typical experiences in the lives of the congregations, there is nothing more instructive and characteristic than what may be learned from all sources with regard to the Corinthian Church. At Corinth was to be found a mixture of Romans, Greeks, and Orientals, a cosmopolitan syncretistic "heathenism." That many Jews lived there is a matter of course (Acts xviii. 4, 7).
The city of Corinth was one of the most flourishing commercial cities of antiquity, and its situation between two seas made it the natural emporium between the Orient and the Occident. Naturally it had two ports. The western, Lecteeum, north of Corinth, was formerly connected with the city by walls; the eastern seaport was Cenchrea (Rom. xvi. 1; Acts xviii. 18), with a Christian congregation of its own. In the city was a sanctuary of the Ephesian Artemis; in the market a statue of Athene and a sanctuary of the Capitoline Zeus. On a rock which afforded a beautiful view stood the temple cf Aphrodite. There were also two sanctuaries of Isis, two of Serapis, altars to Helios, a temple of Anangke and Bia, and one of the mother of the gods. It can easily be imagined that in such a city immorality abounded; the catalogue of vices in Rom. i. 18‑32 was written at Corinth, as was I Thess. iv. 1‑12; and the epistles to the Corinthians show that Paul had to oppose there the base viciousness of heathenism. A great attraction for Greeks and Romans and for the rabble were the Isthmian games, and it is perhaps not accidental that Paul betrays an intimate knowledge of the stadium (cf. I Cor. ix. 24‑27). The congregation in Corinth was composed of members belonging to the lower class of the population (I Cor. i. 26 sqq.), so that, since it was there less possible than elsewhere to speak to people of the lower and higher
ranks at the same time, Paul there preached to the people. According to his own statement (I Cor. ii. 1 sqq.), he pursued there a method different from that followed in Athens. Like a popular speaker he relied entirely upon convincing, spiritual preaching, laying aside philosophic refinements. But this did not exclude the well‑considered rhetorical form which he used in the epistles to the Corinthians. The rhetoric employed by him was the kind used by the popular orators among the Cynics, as may be seen from the diatribes of Epictetus and the much earlier Teles. About the time of Paul, or a little later, the cynic Demetrius, the friend of Seneca, labored at Corinth, and no doubt the apostle intentionally adopted the method of these popular orators.
A word may be added about Nioopolis (the mod
ern Prevesa, situated in Albania, the old Epirus, at
the outlet of the Gulf of Arta). Zahn
4. Nicopolis. (Einleitung in das Neue Testament, i.,
Leipsic, 1900, pp. 434‑435) has proved
that Titus iii. 12 refers to this city. This Roman
colony (Aclia Niwpolis) was established by Augus
tus in memory of the battle of Actium. Tacitus
(Annalea, ii. 53) speaks of it as belonging to Achma.
Its special attractions were the sanctuary of Apollo
and the Actian games indroduced by Augustus.
Here again it was a modern, flourishing city that
Paul selected for a longer residence. Nicopolis was
afterward the scene of the labors of the Stoic Epio
tetus. (JOHANNES WEISS.)
II. Modern Greece: The present kingdom of Greece dates from 1832. It comprises a continental portion, the Xgean Archipelago, and the Ionian Islands, with an area of 25,014 square miles, and a population of about 2,600,000, which belongs almost solidly to the Eastern Orthodox confession. Its Church (the "Church in Greece") is autonomous, having no hierarchical connection with the patriarch of Constantinople, and has been so, essentially, since 1833, although the separation was formally made by the constitution of 1852. The dignity of archbishop was abolished, save that a priority was reserved for the metropolitan of Athens, and the Church was recognized as a State Church in the national constitution. Since 1852 the highest authority in all affairs of church government has been exercised by the "Holy Synod," which is composed of the metropolitan and four other bishops, the latter being called in turn to officiate thus at Athens for the term of one year. The government convenes the synod, pays the salaries of these officers', and guarantees the validity of the synod's enactments by counter‑signature of the state commissioner. Further a general council of the bishops and qualified abbots may be convened as supreme tribunal. The Holy Synod elects and ordains bishops, who, however, must be confirmed by the government. In like manner the Holy Synod examines and appoints the remaining clergy. In case of an ecclesiastical assignment, in respect to educational institutions, the erection of a convent, and the alteration of feast‑days, the government's consent is required. The church administration is vested in thirty‑two bishops (besides the metropolitan), twenty‑two of whom are stationed on the mainland. There are also many monasteries; in 1898
61 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA d'
the number was 198, including nine nunneries; though, all told, they sheltered only some 1,500 monks and nuns. The number of pastoral cures was 4,025, with 5,670 clergy, only 242 of whom were unmarried. Most of them were without higher scholastic education, the number with only common‑school training being 4,116. The clerical stipends are meager, usually being derived solely from voluntary gifts and surplice‑fees. Besides three so‑called clerical schools (at Tripolis, Chalcis, and Syra), which have scant attendance, there is a theological seminary at Athens.
Of other Christian confessions, only the Roman Catholic Church has an appreciable following, with a membership of about 22,000. The hierarchical establishment indicates a propagandist attitude of this Church in Greece, there being (since 1875) three provinces, Athens, Corfu, and Naxos. The latter comprises five suffragan sees, Andros, Syra, Tino, Santorin, and Milo. The archbishop of Corfu has also jurisdiction over the dioceses of Zante and Cephalonia; these two sees have but little over 7,000 adherents, a number surpassed by the single diocese of Syra. The number of secular and cloistered clergy is considerable; six male and seven female orders or congregations, mainly from France, are active in the country.
The number and significance of the Protestants is alight, there being only four small congregations, three in the capital and one at Pirieus. The socalled court congregation includes Protestant Germans, Swiss, and French; it is in charge of the clergyman whom the Protestant king (a prince of Denmark) maintains as preacher. The Anglican congregation numbers about 120. It is difficult to estimate the number of Greek Protestants, since not a few of them do not formally separate from the old Orthodox congregations. The congregation at Pirteus has grown slowly. A popular tumult, incited by attempts at proselyting, led to the destruction of its house of worship in 1888. Occasional Protestant services are held in other places, e.g., in Patras and Volo. There are some 6,000 Jews, more than half of whom belong to the Sephardim; and, notwithstanding copious emigration, there are still about 24,000 Mohammedans, mostly in Thessaly.
Popular education has been considerably promoted by compulsory schooling from the age of six to thirteen, though in many districts attendance is not enforced. There are 3,263 common schools, 285 public high schools, 39 state gymnasia, ten normal schools for men and three for women, and a number of private and technical schools. The University of Athens is a collective center for modern Greek scholarship and culture, with some 2,600 students from all parts of the Levant. It embraces faculties of law, medicine, philosophy, science, and theology. WILHELm GOETZ.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: On I. the three books indispensable are:
G. Finlay, Hint. of Greece, Vol. i., London, 1877; G. Herts
berg, Die Gewhwhte Gnechunlande unter der Herrschatt der
Remer, vols. i. ii., Halls, 1866; T. Mommeen, Rsmischs
Geschidte, ii. 42‑b0, v. 230‑294, Berlin, 1903‑04. Con
sult also: W. M. Ramsay, Historical Geography of Asia
Empire, New York, 1893; idem, St. Paul the Traveller,
ib. 1896; and literature under LB=i; PAUL; and works
on the Church history of the Apostolic Age; also DB, ii. 280‑‑263; %L, v. 1200‑27.
On IL: Finlay, ut sup., vols., vi.‑vii.; T. G. Clark, Christianity East and West, London, 1889; R. Curzon, Visits to the Monasteries of the Levant, ib. 1897; R. B. C. Sheridan, The (reek Catholic Church, O3dord, 1901; C. Berth, Die orientaliache Chriatsnheit der MitWmeerlander, Berlin, 1902; I. Silbernagl, Verfassunp and pepenw8rtiper Bestand aamtlicher Kirchen des Orients, Regensburg, 1904.
GREEK CHURCH. See EASTERN CHURCH.
GREEN, ASHBEL: American Presbyterian, president of Princeton College; b. at Hanover, Morris County, N. J., July 6, 1762; d. in Philadelphia May 19, 1848. He served as a sergeant in the Revolutionary War till the spring of 1782, when he entered Princeton (B.A., 1783). He was a tutor at Princeton (178385), professor of mathematics and natural philosophy (1785‑87), pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia (1787‑1812), chaplain to Congress (1792‑1800), and president of Princeton College (1812‑22). He was one of the founders of the Princeton Theological Seminary and president of its board of directors 1812‑48. On resigning the presidency of Princeton in 1822 he returned to Philadelphia and edited the Christian Advocate 1822‑34, and also The Assembly's Magazine during a part of this time. He was moderator of the General Assembly in 1824, and a member of that body in 1837,1838, and 1839. He wielded great influence in the Presbyterian Church, took a strong stand in favor of the Old School party, and was largely instrumental in bringing about the disruption of 1837. His principal works are: Sermons on the Assembly's Catechism (1818); History of Presbyterian Missions (1820); and Discourses Delivered in the College of New Jersey, Including a Historical Sketch of the College (1822).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A volume of Memoirs, begun by himself, was completed by J. H. Jones, New York, 1849. Consult W. B. Sprague, Annals of the American Pulpit, iii. 479‑496, New York, 1858; R. E. Thompson, in American Church History Series, vol. vi., passim, ib. 1895.
GREEN, EDMUND TYRRELL: Church of England; b. at Westminster Mar. 19, 1864. He was educated at St. John's College, Oxford (B.A., 1886). From 1887 to 1890 he was curate of St. Bamabas, Oxford, and was then applointed lecturer in Hebrew and theology in.St. David's College, Lampeter,Wales. Six years later he became professor of the same subjects, a position which he still retains, in addition to being lecturer in parochalia since 1896. He was lecturer in architecture in 1902. Besides his professorial duties, he has held many parochial missions and in 1904 delivered a course of apologetic lectures at Southampton. In theology he belongs to the Anglo‑0atholic school of the Church of England. He has written Notes on the Teaching of St. Paul (London, 1893); The Thirty‑Nine Articles and the Age of the Reformation (1896); The Sinner's Restoration (1899); The Church of Christ (1902); and How to Preach (1905). He has also edited Jeremiah and Lamentations in The Temple Bible (London, 1902).
GREEN, JOSEPH HENRY: English surgeon and student of philosophy; b. in London Nov.l, 1791; d. at The Mount, Hadley, near Barnet (11 m.
Green THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG62
n.n.w. of London), Dec. 13, 1863. He received his
medical education in German universities, and in
the College of Surgeons, London (M.D., 1815), where
he became professor of anatomy in 1824. He was
also surgeon to St. Thomas' Hospital (1820‑52),
professor of anatomy to the Royal Academy (1825
1852), professor of surgery at King's College (1830
1837), a member of the council of the College of
Surgeons (1835‑63), a member of the court of ex
aminers (1$46‑63), president of the college (1849
1850,1858‑59), and president of the General Medical
Council (1860‑63). He was a personal friend and
disciple of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and became his
literary executor. In 1836 he retired to the count 'ry
and spent the rest of his life in philosophical and
linguistic study with a view to publishing a monu
mental exposition of Coleridge's system. He em
bodied the results of his philosophical studies in
Vital Dynamics (London, 1840); Mental Dynamics
(1847); in the Introduction to his edition of Cole
ridge's Confessions of an Inquiring Spirit (1849);
and particularly in the posthumous Spiritual
Philosophy: Founded on the Teaching of Samuel
Taylor Coleridge, edited, with a Memoir of Green,
by John Simon (2 vols., 1865), the best expo
sition of Coleridge's philosophy that has yet ap
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Consult, besides the Memoir prefixed to
life in 1899. He was a trustee of the John Rylands
Library, Manchester, and a vice‑president of the
British and Foreign Bible Society. In theology he
was a liberal Evangelical. His principal works are:
Addresses to Children (London, 1849); The Working
Classes of Great Britain (1850); Lectures to Children
on the Bible (1856); Lectures to Children on Scrip
ture Doctrine (1856); Biible Sketches for Young
People (2 vols., 1865‑70); Handbook to the Grammar
of the Greek New Testament (1870); The Written
Word; or, the Contents and Interpretation of Holy
Scripture briefly considered (1871); Life and Letters
of the Apostle Peter (1873); Kings of Israel and
Judah (1876); Pen and Pencil Pictures (4 vols.,
1876‑83); What do 1 believe f (1880); Christian.
Ministry to the Young (1883); Wycliffe Anecdotes
(1884); The Christian Creed and the Creed of Chris
tendom (1898); The Story of the Religious Tract
Society (1899); Handbook of Old Testament Hebrew
(1901); and Handbook of Church History (1904).
He edited a new edition of P. Lorimer's translation
of G. V. Lechler's Wiclif (London, 1884); an
enlarged edition of the Annotated Paragraph Bible
(1894); and a thoroughly revised edition of J. Angus'
$0le Handbook (1904); besides being chairman of
the editorial committee of a New Baptist Church Hymnal.
GREEN, THOMAS HILL: English philosopher; b. at Birkin (10 m. s.e. of Leeds), Yorkshire, Apr. 7, 1836; d. at Oxford Mar. 26, 1882. He was educated at Rugby and at Balliol College, Oxford (B.A., 1859; M.A., 1862), where he was elected fellow in 1860. His life henceforth was devoted chiefly to teaching in the university, first as tutor, after 1878 as Whyte professor of moral philosophy. Certain scruples prevented him from entering the ministry, though on taking his M.A. degree he signed the Thirty‑Nine Articles. He was a disciple of Rant and Hegel, but by his independent treatment of philosophical problems he won, and still holds, extremely high rank as an original thinker. By his trenchant criticism of Hume, from the idealistic viewpoint, he broke the sway of empiricism in England and afterward became the founder of the so‑called Neo‑Hegelian school, which is now practically dominant in English and American speculation. Briefly, his view is, that only the experienced is real, and that finite experience forms a system of relations which are caught up in one eternal self‑conscious whole, via., the Absolute or God. While for God the world is, for man it becomes; and human experience is only God partially and gradually revealing himself in man. Green's ethics is based on his idealistic metaphysics. The ethical ideal, the end in which the effort of a moral agent "can really find rest," is revealed to the self‑conscious subject by the reason; and the difference between a good man and a bad man is, that while the one wills what the eternal and divine intelligence reproduced in him demands, the other wills contrary to reason, and therefore in violation of divine law. Green's character is described in Mrs. Humphry Ward's Robert Elsmere, under the name of Mr. Gray. His principal works are, the famous Introduction to Hume's Treatise of Human Nature (i. 1‑310, London, 1874); his posthumous Prolegomena to Ethics (ed. A. C. Bradley, Oxford, 1883), one of the most valuable contributions to constructive philosophy ever made by an Englishman; and The Witness of God, and Faith (London, 1883), two lay sermons delivered to his pupils at Oxford. His Works, exclusive of the Prolegomena, were edited by R. L. Nettleship (3 vols., London, 1885,88). .
BIBraodBAPBy: A Life, by R. L. Nettleship, was prefixed to vol. iii. of the Works, reprinted separately, London, 1908. Consult: DNB, xxii. 55‑56; W. H. Fairbrother, The Philosophy o/ Thomas Hill Green, New York, 1896; full bibliography in Baldwin. Dictionary; III., i. 228.