Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house

Download 4.32 Mb.
Size4.32 Mb.
1   ...   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   ...   40

GRANADA, ARCHBISHOPRIC OF: An ancient metropolitan see in Spain. The city is identical with the ancient Illiberris or Elvira, which was early the seat of a bishop and is best known for the synod held there early in the fourth century (see ELvmA, SYNOD OF). It was occupied by the Moors in the eighth century and later became the capital of a powerful kingdom. The bishops of Elvira or Granada for a long time after the Moorish conquest were merely titular. After the capture of Granada by Ferdinand the Catholic in 1492, an archiepisco­pal see was founded there, with Isabella's confessor Fernando Mendoza de Talavera, then bishop of Avila, as its first incumbent. Alexander VI. gave the sees of Guadix and Almeria to the new prov­ince, and added that of Malaga in 1493. Since the Concordat of 1851 the suffragan sees have been Almeria, Cartagena or Murcia, Gaudix, Jaen, and Malaga. Notable archbishops were Caspar de Avalcz, (1529‑45), who established the university and under whom John of God founded the Brothers of Charity (see CHARrrx, BROTHERS or), and Pedro Guerrero (1546‑76), one of the most learned theo­logians at the Council of Trent. The population of the diocese is about 230,000.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Flores, Espaia Saprada, vol. xii., 51 vols., Madrid, 1754 eqq.; J. Hidalgo Morales., Ilibena o Granada, Granada, 1842; P. B. Gams, Kirchenpeschichte von Spanien, vols. L ‑ii., 3 vols., Regensburg, 1862‑79; J. P. Kirsch and V. Luksch, lUushierte Geschichte der kathols­scAen Kirche, pp. 306, 492 eqq., Munich, 1905; KL, v. 1013‑16.


copal bishop; b. at Norfolk, Va., Dec. 5, 1829. He was educated at Randolph, Macon College, Boydton, Va. (A.B., 1848), and entered the Methodist Epis‑



copal ministry in the Virginia Conference is 1848• He was assigned to the Eastville Circuit, Va. (1848­1849), Farmville, Va. (1849‑50), Lynchburg, Va. (1850‑b1), Loudoun Circuit, Va. (1853), Randolph, Macon College, Va. (1854‑55), Charlottesville, Va. (1856), Washington (1857‑58), University of Vir­ginia (1859‑60), Market Street, Petersburg, Va. (1865‑68), Centenary Church, Richmond, Va. (1868­1872), and Broad Street Church, Richmond, Va. (1872‑75), interrupted only by illness in 1852 and by his duties as chaplain in the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia from 1861 to the close of the Civil War. In 1875 he was appointed pro­fessor of moral philosophy in Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn., and held this position until 1882, when he was elected bishop. He was retired from active service in 1902. In theology he is an ortho­dox member of his denomination and is an Evan­gelical Arminian. He has written A Bible Dictionary for Sunday Schools and Families (Nashville, Tenn., 1885); Twelve Sermons (1896); and Experience the Crowning Evidence of Christianity (1900).
GRANT, ABRAHAM: African Methodist Epis­copal bishop; b. at Lake City, Fla., Aug. 25, 1848. He was born a elave, and after the close of the Civil War acquired au education in missionary and night­schools. He joined the African Methodist Episco­pal Church in 1868 and for five years was a class leader and steward. He was licensed to preach in 1873 and became an elder three years later, and in 1888 he was elected bishop.
GRANT, ASAHEL: American physician and

missionary; b. at Marshall, Allegany Countyipr N. Y.,

Aug. 17, 1807; d'. at Mosul, Asiatic Turkey, . 24,

1844. He studied medicine at Pittsfield, Mass.,

and was practising his profession at Utica, N. Y.,

when, in 1834, he first became interested in missions.

In 1835 he went to Urumiah as a missionary of the

American Board. He gained the confidence of the

Persian officials, and of the Nestorian priests and

bishops, founded schools and did much to allevi­

ate the sufferings of the Nestoriane in the war with

the Kurds. After the massacres of 1843 he nettled

at Mosul. He published The Ne&onans, or the Loaf

Trtbea (London and Boston, 1841).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. C. Lathrop, Memoir o/ Asahel Grant, New York, 1844; T. Lawrie, Dr. Grant and the Moun­tain Neatoriana, Boston, 1858.

GRANT, SIR ROBERT: Governor of Bengal, India; b. in Bengal in 1779; d. at Dalpoorie, West­ern India, July 9, 1838. He wan educated at Mag­dalen College, Cambridge (B.A., 1801; M.A., 1804), and wan admitted to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 180?. Prior to his appointment to the governor­ehip of Bengal in 1834 he wan a member of the House of Commons for fifteen years, in which body he championed the movement for repealing the civil disabilities of the Jews. He published three works dealing with Indian affairs and a number of hymns. Twelve of these, most of which were orig­inally contributed to the Christian Observer, were collected by his brother Charles, Lord Glenelg, under the title Sacred Poems (London, 1839). Two of them, "When gathering clouds around I



view," and "Savior, when in duet to thee," rank with the beat of modern hymns.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: DNB, soil. 402: 8. W. Duffield, English Hymns, p. 27 et passim, New York, 1888; Julian, Hym­rwloQy. PP. 449‑4b0.

GRAPHEUS (De Schryver, Scribortiua), COR­ftELIUS: ,Humanist; b. at Aalet (Aloat, 15 m. w.n.w.. of Brussels), in Flanders, 1482; d. at Ant­werp, Dec. 19, 1558. While town clerk of Antwerp, he published the two works of Johann von Goch, Epistttla apologetics contra Dominicanum quendam and De libertste Christians, accompanying them with caustic prefaces dated respectively Aug. 23, 1520, and Mar. 29, 1521. In both prefaces he complains of the clergy's forgetfulness of duty, and of the sup­pression of the truth of the Gospel. He was soon arrested by the Inquisition, and early in Feb., 1522, he was taken to Brussels, being obliged to make a formal recantation both there and at Antwerp. He was not reinstated in office, however, until 1540. OTTO CLEMEN.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. J. van der Aa, Biographiach woorden­boek der Nederlanden, Haarlem, 1852 eqq.; C. Ullmann, Reformers before the Reformation, i. 18, 138‑142, 397, 402­418, Edinburgh, 1877; O. Clemen, Johann Pupper von Loch, 1.eipsic, 1898; P. Kalkoff, Die Antdnpe der Gepen­reformation in den Nieder7anden, i. 57; ii. 70‑71, Halls, 1903; sources may be found in P. Fredericq, Corpus docu­msntorum inqu%aiEionia Airreticce pravitatis Neederiandicce,

iii., nos. 60, 84, 74, 77. 83, 85, 90, 107, 108, 129, The Hague, 1889 eqq.


terms applied in the Roman Catholic Church to

iescripte by which the pope, as a grace or favor,

generally in response to a request, confers a dis­

pensation, an indulgence, a privilege, an exemption,

a benefice, or an expectancy. The usual formula

"Fiat ut petitur" or "Conceeaum," involves the

tacit condition that the grounds adduced in the

request are truthfully stated. If the grace is given

in the form "Placet motu proprio," it in independent

of the grounds stated and operative even if they

should prove invalid. (P. Hlxscaluat.)

GRATIAN, gr6'shi‑an: 1. Roman emperor, 375­383; b. at Sirmium, 359; killed at Lyons Aug 25, 383. He followed his father, Valentinian L, on the throne of the Went in 375, while his uncle, Valens (q.v.), governed the East until his death in 378, when Theodosius succeeded him. In 383 Gratian was murdered in Gaul by his general Maximus, who had assumed the title of emperor and made war upon him.

The policy which Gratian pursued with respect to the Church, and which was carried still farther by Theodosius (q.v.), was of decisive consequences. Religious liberty had reigned, at leant nominally, since the Edict of Milan (313; Bee CONSTANTINE THE GREAT AND HIS SONS, L, §4), but none of the powerful ecclesiastical parties in the empire was satisfied with it, while an equal tolerance of all parties would have entailed unceasing religious wars and threatened the existence of the empire. On the other hand, pagan­ism had already received such a blow by the most far‑reaching laws that a serious and lasting resistance was not expected from it. Thus the time had come in which the rulers of the State, by elevating the confession of one of the ecclesiastical parties to the



state religion and suppressing all others, could bring about the only kind of peace either attainable or desirable, if the empire and civilization were to be maintained. Gratian accordingly established the orthodox State Church, while Theodosius began with the systematic suppression of paganism. It is impossible to tell how far Gratian was influenced by the Christian bishops in his work, but his attachment to the Nicene faith was without doubt due largely to the personal influence of Ambrose. In 376 Gratian forbade all heretics to assemble for any religious purpose, confiscated the property belonging to their churches, and transferred the buildings to the ortho­dox, whom he favored at the same time by a series of laws. In the same year (376) he issued an edict concerning ecclesiastical jurisdiction. In 377 he exempted all officers of the orthodox Church, down to the ostiarii, from municipal services and per­sonal taxes, and in 379 he even made the retail trade which the lower clergy carried on in Illyria, Italy, and Gaul free of duty. In the Roman schism Gratian took the part of Damasus (see DAMASUS I.), whom he appointed judge of appeal over all Occi­dental bishops. Nevertheless, he rejected the demand of the Roman synod of 378 to free the bishops of the cities from the jurisdiction of the State. In 381 the Council of Constantinople pro­nounced the anathema against all non‑Nicene par­ties.

After the accession of Theodosius, paganism was treated with the same severity as heretical Christi­anity. According to his edict of 381, apostates from Christianity to paganism lost their right to make a will, this being only the beginning of a number of special edicts. Gratian does not seem to have attacked paganism with the same severity as Theodosius; but he, too, beginning in 382, issued a number of edicts for his provinces under the imme­diate influence of Ambrose. All sacerdotal privi­leges and all state support were withdrawn from paganism, and real estate belonging to the pagan temples was confiscated. The altar of victory in the hall of the senate was removed; and Gratian declined to accept the emblems of the office of ponttfex maximus. Shortly before his downfall, he issued a law punishing apostasy to paganism and Judaism with the loss of citizenship. Thus the orthodox State Church came into existence, but neither Gratian nor Theodosius created it; it was no act of deep political insight, but the necessary result of historical development. (ADOLP HARNACIC.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources from the Christian side are the histories of Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret, Rufinus and Sulpicius Severus, with which cf. Ammianus Marcellinus, Roman History, in Bohn's Classical Library, London, 1887. Consult: J. C. L. Gieseler, Church History, ed. H. B. Smith, i. 282‑283, New York, 1868; C. Wordsworth, Chow=h Hist. to the Council of Chalcadon, vol. iii., ib.1885; Gibbon, Decline and Pall, chaps. azv.‑zavii.; Neander; Christian Church, vol. ii. passim; Schaff, Christian Church, ik. 61‑62; w. Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, ii. 301‑303, London, 1890.

2. Compiler of the Decretum Gratiani. He was a Camaldolensian monk, teacher of canon law in the monastery of St. Felix at Bologna, and prepared his work between 1139 and 1142. Nothing more is known of his life. See CANON LAw, II.


GRATRY, grd"trf', AUGUSTE JOSEPH AL­PHONSE: French Roman Catholic; b. at Lille Mar. 30,1805; d. at Montreux (14 m. s.e. of Lausanne) Feb. 6,1872. He was educated at the college of his native city, at the Acole Polytechnique, and at the College Stanislas, Paris. Entering the priesthood at Stras­burg, he was successively professor at the Catholic seminary there (1832‑42), director of the College Stanislas (1842‑47), and almoner of the Itcole Nor­male (1847‑52). He was decorated with the order of the Legion of Honor in 1845. In 1852, with Abby Petetot, he established anew the Oratory of the Immaculate Conception, and devoted himself chiefly to the education of Parisian youth till 1869, when his connection with Pyre Hyacinths and the International League of Peace forced him to retire from the Oratory. He was appointed vicar‑general to the bishop of Orleans in 1861, and professor of morals at the Sorbonne in 1863, and elected a mem­ber of the Academy in 1867. During the Vatican Council he published four letters against the doc­trine of papal infallibility, but accepted the dogma when it was promulgated. His principal works are: Coors de philosophic (6 vols., Paris, 1855‑57); Les Sources, coraseils pour la conduits de l'esprit (2 vols., 18612); La Philosophic du credo (1861); La Paiz (1861); Ctrmmentaire sur l'Evangite selon saint Matthieu (2 vole., 1863‑65); Les Saphistes et la critique (1864); Jesus‑Christ. Mponse h M. Renan (1864; Eng. transl., London, 1868); and La Morale et la lai de l'histoire (2 vols., 1868).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Besides Gratry's (Euvrea poathumea, aou­venira de ma jeunesae, Paris, 1874, consult: B. Chauvelot, Le Pyre Graft, Paris, 1862; A. L. A. Perraud, Le Pyre Gratry; sea derniera 9oura, Paris, 1872, Eng. tranal., Last Days of Pyre Gratry, London, 1872; E. Peyrat, Le Pyre Gratry, Paris, 1890; A. Chauvin, La Pyre Gratry, ib. 1901; Lichtenberger, ESR, v. 865‑674.

GRAD, RUDOLF FRIEDRICH: German Lu­theran; b. at Heringen‑on‑the‑Z'ferra (4 m. a.e. of Nordhausen), Hesse, Apr. 20, 1835; d. at KlSnigs­berg Aug. 5, 1893. He studied at Leipsic under Liebner and Kahnis, under Hofmann at Erlangen, and under A. F. C. Vilmar at Marburg. After being a private tutor from 1857 to 1860, he returned to Marburg, fast as lecturer and then (1861) as privat­docent. In 1865 he was made professor extraor­dinary, but in 1866 was called to Kdnigaberg as ordinary professor of New Testament exegesis. He also lectured occasionally on dogmatics and apologetics, and was an admirable speaker upon subjects outside his official sphere.

In harmony with the influence of Hofmann and Vilmar, Grau's theological position was decidedly Lutheran, and he emphasized it by entering the Lutheran Union of his province and by his active association, both personally and by correspondence, with the leading Lutheran theologians of his day. In this same spirit he took a warm interest in American Lutheranism, although he was not in entire sympathy with the conservatism of the latter body. His Lutheranism was far more practical than dog­matic in character, and throughout his activity the apologetic defense of Christian belief against the hostile tendencies of the period found frequent presentation in his writings.

Grau's writings fall into two categories, apolo‑



getic and exegetic, the former being both the more numerous and the more important. Here belongs his Semiten and Indogermanen, eine Apologie des Christentums vom, Standpunkte der VolkerpsYcho­Wie (Stuttgart, 1864), in which he assailed Renan's view that the Semites were an inferior race, and emphasized the Biblical presentation of the mono­theism of the Semitic stock. This work was, in a certain sense, continued and supplemented in his Ursprunge and Ziele unserer Kulturentwickdung (Gilteraloh 1875; Eng. transl., by Sir M. Williams under the title of Goal o f the Human Race, London, 1892),which emphasized the importance of the Ham­ites as a leading factor in the ancient culture‑his­tory of mankind, while at the same time the "Ham­itization of Rome and the Roman spirit " at the end of the republic and during the empire was empha­sized as a warning precedent for certain tendencies of modern times. He likewise wrote numerous minor apologetic essays, chiefly in the Beweis des Glau­bens, of which he became associate editor at its establishment in 1865. Among these essays spe­cial mention may be made of his Ueber den Glauben als die h6ehste Vernunft (1865); Der Glaube als die wahre Lebensphilosophie (1881); Das Geheimnis der Judenfrage (1881); Ueber J. G. Hamanas Stellung zu Religion and Christentum (1888); and Einem unbekannten Gott (1889). Many of his later essays express considerable bitterness against modern theol­ogy especially of Ritachl's school.

Grau's first exegetical work was his Zur Einfuhr­ung in das Schrifttum des NeuenTestaments (Stutt­gart, 1868), which was fully developed in his F,nt­wickelung8geschichte des neutestamentlichen Schrift­tums (2 v ols., 1871). These were followed by his Bxblische Theologie des Neuen Testaments (Nbrd­lingen, 1883; 3d ed., 1889) and Das Selbstbe­wusstsein Jesu (1887). During the final years of his fife Grau began a more comprehensive work on the theology of the Old Testament, but only a frag­ment appeared after his death under the title of Das Yolk Gottes and sein Gesetz (Giitersloh, 1894). He likewise wrote several briefer monographs on Old Testament themes, and prepared two works for a more general circle of readers. In collaboration with other scholars, he edited a New Testament Bibelwerk fur die Gemeinde (2 vols., Bielefeld, 1887­1880; 2d ed., 1889‑90), to which he himself contribu­ted the exegesis of Matthew, John, the two Epistles to the Corinthians, and Revelation. Two years before his death appeared Luther, Katechiamus erkldrt aus biblischer Theologie (Gtiteraloh, 1891).

(O. Z6CSiMt.)

B:Brroaaerar: C. W. von Kugelpn, Rudolf Grau, ein

akademiaeher 'e‑e der dutkeriechen Kirche, Munich 1894; O. ZSokier, in Beweia dea Gtaubew, 1893, pp. 357‑370.

GRAUL, KARL: German Lutheran missionary; b. at Worhtz (9 m. e. of Dessau) Feb. 6, 1814; d. at Erlangen Nov. 10, 1864. In 1836 be entered the University of Leipsic, and after the completion of his theological studies spent two years in Italy as a private tutor. Returning to Germany he became a teacher at Dessau and published Ha mmersehaage in Dreizeilern (Leipsic, 1843) against the lax tend­ency of the times. Meanwhile the missionary com­mittee at Dresden called him as their director in

Gratiaa Qraal

1842. Graul entered his new position in 1844, at the time when the question of creeds in missionary work was being agitated. He labored in the spirit of his predecessor Wermelskirch, looking upon the missionary society as a distinctive outgrowth of the Lutheran Church and its creed, in opposition to the ideas of the missionary institute at Basel; and the Dresden society soon became the bond of union between most of the Lutheran Churches, not only of Germany, but also of foreign countries. At the same time Graul developed an important literary activity. It was his idea from the beginning to bring missions into close touch with scientific the­ology by eradicating the prejudice between mis­sionaries and theologians, and thus both to assign to missionary work its important place in the sphere of the theological science, and to lay a solid founda­tion for it. He accordingly required of missionaries a thorough education in scientific theology, and to attain this he removed the institute from Dresden to Leipsic, the seat of the university (1848). It was an early desire of Graul to be personally ac­quainted with the mission fields of India, and in 1849 he undertook a journey thither, returning in 1853 with a thorough knowledge of the country and of the Tamil language and literature. Henceforth the main efforts of his life were directed toward a thorough instruction of his pupils in Tamil. For this purpose he had collected in India a large Tamil library, and the principal literary work of his life was the Bibliotheca tamulica (3 vols., Leipsic, 1854­1856).

Graul desired to Christianize the Tamil people as a whole, rather than to convert individuals. He accordingly advocated a considerate treatment of the distinctions of caste among the Hindus, dis­tinguishing a civil and a religious aspect of caste. The question engendered many controversies, most of the other missionary societies in India, espe­cially the English, holding different views on the subject. Graul had occasion, while in India, to defend the principles of his society in an English polemical treatise. As the dispute was continued in Germany Graul thoroughly discussed the question in Die Stellung der evangelischrlutherischen Mission in Leipzig zur ostindischen Kasten frage (Leipsie, 1861). He admits that caste, although originally a distinc­tion of purely national and social significance, shows in its present form a religious character, and that as such it is entirely contrary to the spirit of the Gos­pel. But, he continues, the practise of caste loses its force in native congregations of Christians be­cause they all without distinction partake of the cup ill the Lord's Supper, and the express doctrine

of Holy Scripture concerning the common origin of human society deprives the institution of caste of

its pagan basis. In 1860 Graul retired as director of the missionary institute of Leipsic, because of the continuance of violent attacks and for the sake of his health; and in 1861 he removed to Erlangen, intending to establish himself as teacher in the uni­versity; but death prevented the execution of his

During his activity at Dresden he wrote Un‑
terscheidungskhren der verschiedenen christlichen Bekerantnisse (Leipaie,1845); Die evangelisch‑lutheri‑



ache Miasionsanatalt zu Dresden an die eaangelisch­

lutherische Kirche aller Lands; Vorwdrls otter Riick­

wdrts t (1845); Die chrislichen MissaonspldUe auf der

ganzen Erde (1847). A fruit of his studies on Irenteus

was Die christliche Kirche an der Schwelle des irendi­

when Zeitalters (1860). His Ueber Stedlung and Bedew

tung der chridlichen Mission im Ganzen der Universi­

tatawi8senschaf ten (Erlangen, 1864) is an exposition of

the ruling principle of his life. His last work was

Indiache Sinnpflanzen and Blumen zur Kennzeichnung

des indischen, vornehmlichtamuliachenGeistes (1864).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Hermann, Dr. Graul and seine Bedew tuns fair die tutherische Mission, Halle, 1866; Lichten­berger, ESR, v. 674‑676.

GRAVAMINA (Lat.,=" Grievances"): In his­torical terminology the official compilation of the grievances of the German nation against the Papal Court. Such formal complaints became more and more frequent, especially in the second half of the fifteenth century, and in the course of time developed into a constantly recurring subject of consideration or menace in the German diets far into the period of the Reformation. Their origin maybe traced to the complaints or propositions of reform which the Ger­man nation, like other nations, laid before the Coun­cil of Constance and the Council of Basel (qq.v.). Efforts at an ecclesiastical reformation accom­panied those directed against abuses in the empire, and it is to be noted that the prime source of complaint, as well as of opposition, was the higher clergy. The general desire received a more tangible form in the Gravamina Alemanim na­tionia which were laid before the Diet of Frankfort in Aug., 1456, in which the unfulfilled hopes of the pre­ceding councils again found expression; but condi­tions did not change. In the latter years of the century, under the influence of Berthold of Mains, complaints about the investiture of foreigners with German prebends became more urgent. Another chief point of complaint was directed against ques­tionaries and mendicant friars. While thus far spiritual princes had been the leaders of the move­ment, so that secular princes and their desires came into consideration only secondarily, a change took place in the latter period of the reign of Maximilian I. (d. 1514); but it was at the Diet of Augsburg in 1518 that the Gravamina first received real official form, when a memorial was prepared stating reasons for the refusal to pay ecclesiastical tithes. The move­ment reached its culmination at the Diet of Worms (1521), where it was advocated even by Roman Cath­olic princes, like George of Saxony, who disavowed Luther, but favored a reformation after the concep­tion of Erasmus. A commission, composed of spirit­ual and secular members, was immediately entrusted with the compilation of the complaints. Their dis­cussions resulted in the famous "One hundred [more precisely one hundred and two] Gravamina of the German Nation," Deutsche Reichatagsakten, 2d ser., ii., Gotha, 1896, no. 96, which attack not only papal encroachments, but abuses of ecclesiastical jurisdic­tion and the immoral life of the clergy in general. Nevertheless, they remained only a provisional draft, and no result followed from them even though they were repeated in another form at the Diet of Nurem­berg (1522‑23; cf. O. Redlich, Der Re6chdag zu Nurnr

berg I Slog‑83, Leipsic, 1887, pp.120,144; Gebhardt, pp. 133 eqq.); but, as an official accusation of the German nation, they form an important historical document concerning the conditions of the time.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. F. Georgi, Imperatorsm impernique principum ac procsrum fotiusque nationis Germanica grava­mina adroarsus curiam Romanam totumque axleaiastieum ordinum, Frankfort, 1725; G. M. Weber, Die hundert Bo­echwerden der puammten deutechen Nation, Erlangen, 1829 (teat alone); W. Roesmann, Betrarhtungen fiber doe Zsit­alter der Reformation mit archivalisehen Bsilapen, Jens, 1858; Deutsche Reiehetagsakten, new series, vol. ii., ad. A. Wrede, Goths, 1898; B. Gebhwdt, Die Gravamina der deutschsn Nation oepsn den ramischen Hof, Breslau, 1895.

Download 4.32 Mb.

Share with your friends:
1   ...   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   ...   40

The database is protected by copyright © 2022
send message

    Main page