being successfully upheld. The Arian Goths appear in sharp contrast to the splendid organization of the Catholic Church. Their spiritual life was perhaps higher than that of their opponents, and their moral standards were admittedly superior. They were more tolerant and their theology was simple and based on the Scriptures. As a young nation they rejected asceticism and monasticism. But on the other hand their clergy, cut off, as they were, from the learning of the ancient world, were inferior to the Catholic priesthood and showed with time actual degeneration. More than this, the Arian Church had no unity inasmuch as each Gothic kingdom possessed its national Church.
Over both churches the Gothic kings asserted
sovereign powers. Thus Theodoric intervened in
contested papal elections and exercised the right of
deposition over bishops; among the Visigoths of
France and Spain the decision of the national
synods needed the royal confirmation.
g. The But whereas the relations between the
Gothic king and his Arian followers were
Kings. simplified by the immediate depend
ence of the latter upon their sovereign,
his policy toward the Catholics was made difficult
by the fact that the justifiable exercise of authority
might be denounced as persecution and lead to
difficulties with the power of the Catholic Byzantines
or Franks to whom the subjects of Arian rulers
looked for protection. Indeed, however tolerant
the Arian ruler may have been, his Catholic bishops
were sure to be engaged in chronic conspiracy with
outside powers, forcing their sovereign finally to
acts of violence. This is exemplified in the case of
In the Visigothic kingdom the relations between the two sects were more friendly in the beginning, owing to the fact that the Goths had arrived in Gaul as defenders of the provinces against foreign invasion. Dissension first appears under Euric (48G‑485) who was driven by political 6. The Visi‑ need to violent measures. Danger gothe. appeared when Clovis, king of the Franks, a convert to Catholic Chris. tianity, after overthrowing the Romans in Gaul under Syagrius (486), began his attack on the Visigothic kingdom. Alaric II. (485‑507) sought to gain the good‑will of his Catholic subjects by a policy of mildness and concession, but was impelled to persecution by the traitorous negotiations between his bishops and the Franks. In the battle of Voug16 he lost life and kingdom, and, though the V‑3
intervention of Theodoric saved some remnant of the Visigothic power in France for the time, the end came under Amalric (531) when the Visigothic kingdom was restricted to the Spanish peninsula. In Spain there ensued a period of comparative quiet during which the Catholic Church profited by the full toleration it enjoyed to extend and confirm its power while the Gothic kingship grew weaker in the strife between the rulers and the rebellious nobility. After the fall of the Vandal and Ostrogothic kingdoms and the conversion of the Suevi and the Burgundians the Visigoths were the only Germanic people of Arian faith. Leovigild (589588) restored the old splendor of the kingdom by bringing the entire Iberian peninsula under his sway, but his son Receared (588‑801) embraced the Catholic creed and thereby initiated a process of rapid assimilation between Goths and Romans which was to result in the development of the Spanish people. Church and State were brought closely together and the ascendancy of one over the other depended entirely upon the personality of the kings. These, however, showed little ability to check the forces of disorder and dissolution. Seventeen kings ruled during the last century of Visigothic power and the end came in 711 when the Gothic army usJer Roderic was overwhelmed by the Arabs under Tarik at the Wady Bekka.
BmwOGHApHT: Among the sources may be mentioned: Lex Wisipothorum, in Bouquet, Recuei'., vol. xiv.; Jordanis, De oripine at actibus Getarum, ad. T. Mommseu in MGH, Aud. ant., v. 1 (1882), 53‑138. For the history consult: F. Dab‑, Die Kdnipe der Germanen, parts 2‑0, Munich, 1881‑71; C. Kingsley, The Roman and the Teuton, Cambridge, 1884; T. Hodgkin, Italy and Her Invaders, 4 vols., Oxford, 1880‑Sb; G. Kaufmann, Deutsche Gesehichte, i. 238 eqq., ii. 47, Leipsio, 1881; H. Bradley, The Goths, London, 1888; W. M. and C. D. Ramsay, The Gothic Compendium, ib. 1889 (deals with history and language); B. Rappaport, Die Einfdlle der Gothen in dos r6mische Reich, Leipsia, 1899; P. Villari, Le Invasioni barbariche in Italia, Milan, 1900; and especially, Gibbon, Decline and Fall, consult Index.
On the relations with Christianity consult: W. Bessell, UebMr dos Lebsn des Ulfilas and die Bekthrung der Gothen sum Chriatenthum, GUtingen, 1880; A. Helfferieh, Der wsstpothiache Arianismus, Berlin, 1880; J. G. W. Uhlhorn, The Conflict of Christianity with Heathenism, New York, 1879; GSrree, in TBK, lxvi (1893), 708‑734; F. Kauffmann, in Zeitschrift far deutsche Philokyis, xxx (1897), 93‑112; Meander, Christian Church, ii. passim, iii. 149‑180 et passim.
On Alaric consult: A. S. D. Merry, Rfcite de rhist. romaine au 6. sitcla; Alaric, Paris, 1880; Meander, Christian Church. ii. 180. On Ulfilas: G. Waits, Leben and Lvhm des Ulfilas Hanover, 184o; 1 Gaugengigl, Ulfilas, 2 vols., Passau, 1853; C. A. Scott, Ulfilas, Apoetlv of the Goths, Cambridge, 1885; Meander, Christian Church, ii. 150159, 472‑473, On Theodoric: T. .Hodgkin, Theodorie the Goth, London, 1891.
On the Gothic Literature: W. Braune, Gouache Grammatik, Halle, 1887, Eng. tmnal., New York, 1883; T. L. M. Douse. Introduction . . . to the Gothic of Ulfas, Lon. don, 1888; G. H. Batg, Comparative Glossary o/ the Gothic Language, Mayville, 1887; idem, The First Germanic Bible, New York, 1891; E. Sievers, Geschichfe der pothiscken Litteratur, vol. ii., part 1, Strasburg, 1890; J. Wright, A Primer of the Gothic Language, London, 1899.
GOTTESKASTEft, LUTHERISCHER (" Lutheran.
Poor‑box"): The name of a number of societies of Lutherans in Germany aiming to help and support in church matters Lutherans living abroad
Gotteekasten THE NEW SCHAFF‑HEZROG 34
(see DIASPORA). The German Lutheran Church
has ever been responsive to the needs of its breth
ren. 3n the hundred years between
Beginning 1677 and 1777 the churches in Ham
of burg made eighty collections for for
Movement. sign congregations. Through G. A.
Francke and others, ministers were sent
to America, among them H. M. Muhlenberg (q.v.),
in 1742. Tobias Kissling, a merchant of Nurem
berg, beginning in 17¢3, made 106 personal visits
to the scattered congregations in Upper Austria,
Styria, and Carinthia and spent,the greater part of
and in the latter year the Bavarian Gotteskasten was
reinstituted. Gotteskasten were then established
in Wiirttemberg, Reuss, Sleswick‑Holstein, Ham
burg, Oldenburg, Brunswick, Hesse, and Thuringia.
The " Lutherische Hilfsverein " was founded in
Lippe‑Detmold, and in 1889 the " Evangelisch
lutherische Gesellschaft in Elsass‑Lothringen "
joined the union of Gotteskasten, which had been
perfected at Hanover in 1880. The rules adopted
at that time are in the main still authoritative.
A certain society, selected for five years, acts as the
head and arranges for an annual conference. A
special branch of the work‑the administration of
the Lutherstift in Kbniggr#tz, the work in Austria,
in Brazil, etc.‑is assigned Jo each society. Since
1880 a periodical, Der lutherische Gotleskasten, has
been published quarterly by the Bavarian society. The annual income is from 110,000 to 120,000 marks. A summary of the work of the Gotteskasten may be divided into three heads: (1) Aid to Lutherans among Roman Catholics‑in Bavaria, the greater part of Hanover, Paris, the Austrian Summary Empire, Peru, and Brazil. The first of Work. minister was sent to Brazil in 1897; in 1905 thirteen ministers were at work there, preaching was carried on at thirty‑eight places in three States, and the formation of a synod was contemplated. In Peru the Hanover Gotteskasten founded the united congregation of CallaoLima in 1897‑98. In Austria‑Hungary the most work has been done for the Lutheran Czechs. Congregations have been formed among them and preaching stations established, and they have been helped to maintain their parochial schools. The " Lutherstift " has been founded at Kdniggratz to provide Christian family life, religious instruction, and Sunday services for Lutheran students in the schools. Promising students of theology are aided to continue their training at German universities, and help has also been given to Lutheran students at Vienna. (2) Aid to Lutherans among Reformed and other Evangelical confessions‑in certain German cities (Metz, where a self‑supporting congregation was established in nine years; Miihlhausen; Borkum; Blumenthal; etc.), some Austrian congregations, Lippe‑Detmold, Switzerland, North America., South Africa, and Australia. The work here has been to supply ministers, help students, and support weak congregations. The Lutheran Emigrants' Mission (see EMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS, MIBBION WORK AMONG)also receives support from the Gotteskasten as a part of their work. (3) Aid to Lutherans among the United‑Bremerhafen, three congregations in Baden, the Breslau synod and the Immanuel synod, now united with it. According to the order of the sovereign, dated Sept. 27, 1817, the Lutheran Church exists no longer in the ancient provinces of Prussia. Reformed ministers can be appointed for so‑called Lutheran congregations and vice versa, not to mention the doctrine of the Lord's Supper. Nevertheless, some refused to join the union and such are entitled to the support of strict Lutherans. The matter, however, is beset with difficulties.
BIBwoaEAPBY: W. Funks, Dan Werk der luther£aden Gob tmkanten, Hanover, 1883; C. Hofstatter, Gustav‑AdolfVerein and luderische Gotteekasten, Erlangen, 1881; G. C. N<ingk, Der Gudav‑Adolf‑Veretn and der luthsriarAe Gotteskasten, Bernburg, 1884; J. Hieronymus, Ana der lutheriachen Diaspora, Bischofewald, 1897; M. Ahner, Der lutheriache Gotteskaeten, Leipsie, 1898; idem, GustauAdolf‑Verein and Gotteskantsn, Leipsie, 1898.
GOTTHARD (GODEHARD), SAINT: Bishop of Hildesheim; b. at Ritenbach in Bavaria, near the monastery of Nieder‑Altaich (Altaha), c. 961; d. at Hildesheim May 5, 1038. His father was a servant of the monastery of Niedet‑Altaich and he received his education in the monastery school and the court of Archbishop Frederick of Salzburg. He was received into the monastery by Abbot Erkambert in his thirty‑first year, and succeeded him in 997. The emperor Henry II. summoned him
to reform the decayed monastery of Hersfeld in Hesse, and later that of Tegernsee. In 1012 he was able to return to Altaich, but was often called upon for counsel by the emperor, who nominated him to the bishopric of Hildesheim in 1022. He maintained the condition of the (jiocese at the height at which his predecessor Bernward (q.v.) had left it, and even improved it in some regards. He consecrated more than thirty new churches during his episcopate, and partly restored the cathedral; he promoted the cause of education, and reconstructed the system of the Hildesheim school. He remained a monk at heart, and kept his clergy under strict discipline. At the request of St. Bernard, he was canonized by Innocent III. in a council at Reims, 1131; and Bernard founded in his honor a monastery at Hildesheim, to which his remains were translated from the cathedral.
Bmwoo6AYH7: The two early lives and other documents, ed. Pr. H. Peru, are in MGH, Script., a (1854), 162‑218; one of these lives and other documents are in ASB, May, i. 502‑530, of. Wattenbach, DGQ, ii (1894), 18‑26. Consult: J. M. Kratz, Der Dom au Hiideaheim, vol, iii., Hildesheim, 1840; H. A. Liintzel, Gesehichte der itdceae and Btadt Hildasheim, 2 vols., ib. 1858; F. X. 8ulzbeck, Lcben des GoWard, Regensburg, 1863; L. Lennsen, Beitrege our %ritik Hildeahtimer Gesdtichtaqueuen des 11. Jahrhunderts, pp. 1‑24, Tiibingen, 1878; H. Bresslau, in Jahrbacker des deutarhen Reicu unter Konrad 11., i. 353‑360 Leipsic, 1879 (against Lennsen).
GOTTHEIL, get'hail, GUSTAV: American Jewish rabbi; b. at Pinne (30 m. n.w. of Posen), Prussia, May 28, 1827; d. in New York City Apr. 15, 1903. He was educated in his native city and at the universities of Berlin and Breslau (Ph.D., 1853). In 1855 he became the assistant of Samuel Holdheim at. the Berlin Reformgenowenschaft, where he remained until 1860. In the latter year he accepted a call to Manchester, England, as rabbi to the Congregation of British Jews (Reformed) in that city, being also teacher of German in Owens College, Manchester. In 1873 he left Manchester for New York City to be the assistant of Samuel Adler, senior rabbi of Temple Emanu‑El, of which he became rabbi eighteen months later on Adler's retirement. He himself retired as rabbi emeritus in 1899. During his rabbinate he was one of the founders of a Jewish theological seminary in New York City. He likewise established the Sisterhood of Personal Service, founded the Association of Eastern Rabbis (later amalgamated with the Central Conference of American Rabbis), and was also a founder of the (American) Jewish Publication Society (of which he was elected president), and of the New York State Conference of Religions, vicepresident of the Federation of American Zionists, and chairman of the Revision Committee of the Union Prayer‑Book. In honor of his seventy‑fifth birthday the Gustav Gottheil Lectureship in Semitic Languages was established at Columbia University. His theological position was that of Reformed Judaism. He lectured repeatedly on Jewish subjects in Protestant Churches, and in addition to numerous lectures and contributions to periodicals, wrote Sun and Shield (New York, 1896), besides editing Hymns and Anthems (1887).
GOTTHEIL, RICHARD JAMES HORATIO: American Jewish Orientalist, son of the preceding, b. at Manchester, England, Oct.13,1862. He was educated at Columbia College (A.B.,1881), the universities of Berlin, Tiibingen and Leipsic (Ph.D., 1886), the Lehranstalt fiir die Wissenschaft des Judenthums, Berlin, and the Veitel Ephraim Beth Hamidrash in the same city. He has been professor of rabbinic literature and Semitic languages in Columbia University since 1887, and was also president of the Federation of American Zionists from 1898 to 1904. Since 1903 he has been vice‑president of the American Jewish Historical Society, and is also vicepresident and one of the founders of the JudsP.ans. He is likewise president of the Jewish Religious School Union, which he established, and is head of the Oriental department of the New York Public Library. He is editor of the Columbia University Oriental Series and (together with Morris Jastrow) of the Semitic Study Series, and was editor of the departments of Jewish history from Ezra to 1492 and of the history of post‑Talmudic literature on the Jewish Encyclopedia (12 vols., New York, 19011906). In addition to numerous contributions to Oriental and popular periodicals, and besides many articles in standard works of reference, he has edited A Idst of Plants and their Properties from the Mendrat %udhshh o f Gregorius bar Ebhrdyd (Berlin, 1886); A Treatise on Syriac Grammar by Mar Mid of Sdbhd (Berlin, 1887); and Selections from the Syriac Julian Romance (Leyden, 1906).
GOTTI, GIROLAMO MARIA: Cardinal priest; b. at Genoa, Italy, Mar. 29, 1834. At the age of sixteen he entered the Order of Discalced Carmelites in his native city, and after completing his education there, was appointed professor of philosophy and theology in the same monastery, as well as instructor in mathematics at the royal school for naval cadets at Genoa. In 1870 he was summoned to Rome by the General of his Order to act as his adviser at the Vatican Council, and two years later he became Procurator‑General of the Discalced Carmelites. In 1881 he was chosen General, and in this capacity traveled both in Europe and Palestine. He was consecrated titular archbishop of Petra in 1892 and sent to Brazil as papal internuncio, and in 1895 was created cardinal priest of Santa Maria della Scala. He was likewise appointed Prefect of the Congregation of Indulgences and Relies, holding this office until 1899, when he became Prefect of the Congregation of Bishops and Regulars. In 1902 he succeeded Cardinal Ledochowski as Prefect of the Congregation of the Propaganda, and is likewise a member of several other Roman Congregations.
GOTTSCHALK: 1. A monk who started a famous controversy concerning predestination in the ninth century; b. c. 805; d. at the monastery of Hautvilliers, near Reims, 868 or 869. He was the son of BernO, a Saxon count, and was sent to the abbey of Fidda in early youth, but later felt little inclination toward the spiritual calling. A synod at Mainz in 829 declared in favor of releasing him from his vow; but his abbot, Rabanus Maurus (q.v.), refused to do so, and Gottschalk was sent to
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
the monastery of Orbais, in the diocese of Soissons, where he remained a monk. He studied with passionate energy, especially Augustine, whose doctrine of predestination he carried to its extreme logical conclusions. Everything he believed‑evil as well as good, condemnation as well as salvation‑is foreordained of God. From 837 to 839 he visited Italy. Wherever he went, he preached his doctrine with fervent enthusiasm and gained a considerable number of adherents. On his return he was ordained priest, and then undertook a second visit to Italy, from 845 to 848. There he enjoyed for two years the hospitality of the Count of Friuli; but Rabanus, now archbishop of Mainz, warned the count against the heresies of the subtle monk. Gottschalk then wandered, preaching, through Dalmatia, Pannonia, and Styria, and finally returned to Germany. He arrived in Mainz while the general diet was sitting there in 848, and laid his affirmation of the twofold predestination before a synod of German bishops convened by Rabanus, accusing the latter of SemiPelagianism. His doctrines were condemned as heretical, and he was sent to Hinemar (q.v.), archbishop of Reims and his metropolitan superior, to be imprisoned and punished. In the spring of 849 Hincmar convened a synod of French bishops at Quiercy; the doctrines of Gottschalk were condemned, he was compelled to throw his papers into the fire and was imprisoned in the dungeon of the monastery of Hautvilliers, where he remained until his death, becoming insane in the latter years of his life.
The controversy by no means reached an end with the imprisonment of Gottschalk. Powerful men, like the learned Ratramnus of Corbie, Bishop Prudentius of Troyes, Abbot Lupus of Ferrii'res, and Archbishop Remigius of Lyons (qq.v.) took his part and advocated with him the doctrine of Augustine. Gottschalk himself found opportunity now and then to take part in the controversy; he addressed a letter to Amolo, archbishop of Lyons (q.v.), in 851 and appealed to the pope in 866. Hinomar wrote . against Gottschalk Ad reclums et simPliees in Remenai parochia, and Rabanus Maurus, Amalarius of Metz, and Johannes Scotus Erigena supported him. A synod at Quiercy (853) decided for Hincmar; synods at Paris (853), Valence (855), and Langres (859), for the Augustinian teaching. Futile attempts at a settlement were made at SavonniEres (859) and Toney (860). In the end both sides became tired of the unprofitable strife, and Hincmar had the last word in his De prtedestinatione Des et ltibero arbOrio.
In purity, knowledge, and natural endowments Gottschalk was one of the foremost men of his time, but. the monastery was not the proper sphere for his activity. In his doctrine he started from the conception of the unchangeableness of God, who from eternity has ordered all his decrees in virtue of his prescience. Christ did not die for all, but only for the elect, and the true Church consists only of the elect. Gottschalk carried on an extensive correspondence with the most prominent men of his time. Of his writings there is still extant a letter to Ratramnus, a number of poems, two confessions of his faith (cf. MPL, cxxi. 346 sqq.), and