MACKAY, ALEXANDER MURDOCH: Missionary to Uganda; b, at Rhymie (31 m. n.w. of Aberdeen) Oct. 13, 1849; d. at Uganda Feb. 4, 1890. He studied at the Free Church Training School for Teachers at Edinburgh, at Edinburgh University, and in Berlin. He displayed a great aptitude for mechanics, and spent several years as a draftsman in Germany. In 1875 he offered his services as a missionary to the Church Missionary Society, was accepted, reached Zanzibar on his way to his field May 30, 1876, and Uganda in Nov., 1878. There, largely through his knowledge of practical mechanics, he enjoyed the protection of Mutesa; but when Mwanga came to the throne in 1884, Mackay's position becape difficult because of the king's opposition, arid there was little change when Kiwewa succeeded to the throne in 1888. Mackay still held on, however, and it is largely due to his courage, energy, and devotion that the mission in Uganda is in its present flourishing condition (see AFRICA, IL, Uganda). He fell a victim to malarial fever, and succumbed after four days of illness, having spent fourteen years in Africa, without once having visited his native country.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Alexander M. Mackay, Pioneer Missionary of the Church Missionary Society in Uganda; by his Sinter, new ed., London, 1899; Alexander Mackay, Missionary Hero of Uganda, ib. 1893.
MACKAY‑SMITH, ALEXANDER:.Protestant Episcopal bishop‑coadjutor of Pennsylvania; b. at New Haven, Conn., June 2, 1850. He was educated at Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. (A.B., 1872), and received his theological training partly in the General Theological Seminary and partly in England and Germany. He was ordered deacon in 1876 and advanced to the priesthood in the following year. After being successively curate of Grace Church, Boston (1877‑80), and St. Thomas's, New York City (1880‑86), he was first archdeacon of New York from 1887 to 1893, and from the latter year to 1902 was rector of St. John's, Washington, D. C. In 1902 he was consecrated bishopcoadjutor of Pennsylvania, after having declined the coadjutor‑bishopric of Kansas.
McKENZIE, ALEXANDER: Congregationalist; b, at New Bedford, Mass., Dec. 14, 1830. He wag educated at Phillips Academy, Andover, Harvard College (A.B., 1859), and Andover Theological Seminary, graduating in 1861. Ordained in 1861, he became pastor of the South Church in Augusta, Me., in 1861, and of the First Church in Cambridge, Mass., in 1867. In 1882 he acted as lecturer on theology of the New Testament in Andover Theological Seminary and in Harvard Divinity School. He wrote: Two Boys (Boston, 1870); History of First Church in Cambridge (1873); Cambridge Sermons (1883); Some Things Abroad (1887); Christ Himself (1891); A Door Opened (1898); Divine Force in Life of the World (1899); and Getting One's Bearing (New York, 1903).
MACKENZIE, CHARLES FREDERICK: Bishop of Central Africa; b. at Portmore (5 m. n. of Peebles), Peeblesshire, Scotland, Apr. 10, 1825; d. on the island of Malo (at the confluence of the Shire and Ruo rivers; 415 m. w.s.w. of Mozambique), British Central Africa, Jan. 31, 1862. He was educated at Cambridge (B.A., 1848; M.A., 1851), and became fellow of Caius College and curate of Haslingfield, Cambridgeshire, in 1851. In 1855 he accompanied J. W. Colenso, bishop of Natal, to Africa. He officiated as priest among the English settlers, first at Durban, and afterward at a post on the Umhlali river. In 1859 he returned to England, but in 1860 he sailed for Cape Town as head of the Universities' Mission to Central Africa. There he was consecrated bishop of Central Africa Jan. 1, 1861. He settled at Magomero, in the Manganja territory, and labored there for almost a year. While hurrying to meet Livingstone he fell ill of a fever and died.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Goodwin, Memoir of Bishop Mackenzie, London, 1865; Francis Awdry, An Elder Sister: a short Sketch of Annie Mackenzie and her Brother, the Missionary Bishop, London, 1878; DNB, xxxv. 138‑138.
MACKENZIE, JOHN KENNETH:Medical missionary; b. at Yarmouth, Eng., Aug. 25, 1850; d. at Tien‑tsin, China, Apr. 1, 1888. His education was in a Bristol private school, his conversion took place in one of the Moody and Sankey meetings held in Bristol in 1867, where he had held a clerkship for a couple of years. He then joined the Presbyterian Church. Determining to become a medical missionary he studied at Bristol and London from 1870 to 1874 and went to China under appointment of the London Missionary Society. He opened the medical station at Hankow in 1875 and stayed there till 1879, when from motives of health he moved to Tien‑tsin where he conducted the hospital till his death. He was a man of unusual gifts and by his professional skill, his ability to win the confidence of the Chinese, and his devoted life ranks with the best of the missionaries, although his career was so short.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Mrs. Mary Isabella Bryson, John Kenneth
Mackenzie, Medical Missionary in China, London, 1891.
MACKENZIE, WILLIAM DOUGLAS:Congregationalist; b. at Fauresmith (80 m. s.e. of Kimberley), Orange Free Colony, South Africa, July 16, 1859. He was educated at the University of Edin‑
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
burgh (M.A., 1881), the Congregational Theological Hall, Edinburgh, and the universities of Gottingen and Marburg (1881,82). He then entered the ministry of his denomination, and held successive pastorates at Montrose, Kincardineshire (18821889), and Morningside, Edinburgh (1889‑95). From 1895 to 1903 he was professor of systematic theology in Chicago Theological Seminary, and since 1904 has been professor of the same subject and president of Hartford Theological Seminary. He has written: The Ethics of Gambling (London, 1893); The Revelation of the Christ (1893); Christianity and the Progress of Man (Chicago, 1897); South Africa: Its History, Heroes, and Wars (1900); and John Mackenzie, South African Missionary and Statesman (biography of his father; New York, 1902).
McKIBBIN, WILLIAM: Presbyterian; b. at Pittsburg, Pa., May 24, 1850. He was educated at Princeton College (A.B., 1869), and after studying law at Philadelphia, entered Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa., from which he was graduated in 1873. He then held successive pastorates at the Seventh Presbyterian Church, Pittsburg (1873‑74), Central Presbyterian Church, St. Paul, Minn. (1874‑79), Second Presbyterian Church, Pittaburg (188088), and First Presbyterian Church, Walnut Hills, Cincinnati, O. (1888‑1904). Since 1904 he has been president and professor of systematic theology in Lane Theological Seminary, Cincinnati.
MACKIE, GEORGE MONRO: Scotch Presbyterian; b. at Banchory (15 m. s.w. of Aberdeen), Kincardineshire, Oct. 27, 1853. He was educated at the University of Aberdeen and the Divinity Hall of Edinburgh University, and since 1880 has been minister of the Anglo‑American congregation and missionary of the Church of Scotland Jewish Mission at Beirut, Syria. In addition to his missionary and pastoral work, he has devoted himself to the study of oriental life as illustrative of the Bible, and in theology holds " that a man becomes a Christian by giving himself to Christ as a dwelling‑place for His Spirit; that this indwelling will show itself in likeness to Christ personally, and socially in kindness to all in whom the same Spirit is already dwelling or desiring to dwell; and that in the statesmanship of the Gospel, while all past and present forms of church membership and government have rendered in their day most important service, they are quite unable to produce that conception of a great citizenship that is necessary for a kingdom that is destined to conquer the world for Christ." He has written Bible Manners and Customs (Edinburgh, 1898).
McKIM, JOHN: Protestant Episcopal bishop of Tokyo, Japan; b. at Pittsfield, Mass., July 17, 1852. He was educated at Griswold College, Davenport, Ia. (A.B., 1876), and Nashotah House, Nashotah, Wis., from which he was graduated in 1879. He was ordered deacon in 1878 and advanced to the priesthood in the following year. After working for a brief time in the diocese of Chicago, he went to Japan se a missionary (1880), where in thirteen years he was able to report seventeen stations and substations, with headquarters
at Osaka. In 1893 he was consecrated missionary bishop of Tokyo.
McSIM, RANDOLPH HARRISON:Protestant Episcopalian; b. at Baltimore, Md., Apr. 15, 1842. He was educated at the University of Virginia (A.B., 1861), and served in the Confederate Army throughout the Civil War. He was ordered deacon in 1864 and ordained priest in 1866, after having been curate of Emanuel Church, Baltimore, in 1865‑66. He then held successive rectorates at St. John's, Portsmouth, Va. (1866‑67), Christ Church, Alexandria, Va. (1867‑75), Holy Trinity, New York City (1875‑$6), and Trinity, New Orleans, La. (188688). Since 1889 he has been rector of the Church of the Epiphany, Washington, D. C. He was likewise president of the House of Clerical and Lay Deputies from 1904 to 1907, and has written: A Vindication of Protestant Principles (New York, 1879); The Nature of the Christian Ministry (1880); Future Punishment (1883); Bread in the Desert, and other Sermons (1887); Christ and Modern History (1893); Leo XIII. at the Bar of History (Washington, D. C., 1897); Present Day Problems of Christian Thought (New York, 1900); The Gospel in the Christian Year (1902); The Confederate Soldier, his Motives and Aims (Washington, 1904); and The Problem of the Pentateuch (New York, 1906).
McBINNEY, ALEXANDER HARRIS: Presbyterian; b. in New York City July 28, 1858. He was educated at the College of the City of New York (A.B., 1881), Union Theological Seminary (from which he was graduated in 1886), and New York University (Ph.D., 1891). He taught school in 1881‑,83, and has held successive pastorates at Romeyn Chapel, New York City (1886), and Olivet Memorial Church in the same city (1887‑99). From 1899 to 1903 he was superintendent of Interdenominational Sunday school Work in New York State, and in 1904 was associate editor of the Westminster Lesson Helps, while since 1905 he has been assistant pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, Newark, N. J. In theology he describes his position as that of one " always working toward the beat." He has written: The Bible School Manual (New York, 1898); Bile School Pedagogy (1900); The Child for Christ (Chicago, 1902); After the Primary, What? (1904); and The Pastor and Teacher Training (Nashville, 1905).
MACKINTOS$ CHARLES HENRY:Plymouth Brother; b. in County Wicklow, Ireland, in 1820; d. at Cheltenham (7 m. n.e. of Gloucester) Nov. 2, 1896. He was schoolmaster at Westport, County Mayo, Ireland, for a few years. But for the greater part of his life he devoted himself to evangelism and pastoral ministry as well as to religious journalism, as editor of the monthly periodical Things New and Old; and to religious literature. He was the author of the Notes by C. H. M, on all the books of the Pentateuch, which enjoyed great popularity, being sold in enormous quantity, especially in the United States‑ so that the initials "C. H. M." under which they were issued were very familiar while probably the name they stood for was
117 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA 1~o83bbin
not. Mr. Gladstone commended his English style;
Spurgeon, while dissenting from their "Darbyism,"
commended the Notes, especially the volume on
Exodus. Enwexn E. WH1TP'IELD.
MACg1YIGHT, JAMES: Scotch divine and
Biblical scholar; b. at Irvine (10 m. n. of Ayr),
Ayrshire, Sept. 17, 1721; d. at Edinburgh Jan. 13,
1800. He was educated at the universities of Glas
A. Weir, The Church and the Age, Essays on the Prin
ciples and Present Position of the Anglican Church
(London, 1870), he has written Pastoral Letters and
Synodal Charges (1892).
McLAREN, ALEXANDER: English Baptist; b.
in Glasgow Feb. 11, 1826. He was educated at
Stepney (now Regent's Park) College, London,
and from 1846 to 1858 was minister of Portland
Chapel, Southampton. He then served as pastor, later as pastor emeritus, of Union Chapel, Manchester, and in 1909 retired and moved to Scotland. He has written: Sermons Preached ire Manchester (3 series; London, 1864‑73); Week‑Day Evening Addreasea (1877); The Life of David as Reftected in his Psalms (1880); The Secret of Power, and other Sermons (1882); A Year's Ministry (1884); Epistles of St. Paul to the Colossians and Philemon (1887); Modern Miracles: Manifestation of God's Love and Power (1888); The Unchanging Christ, and her Sermons (1889); Holy of Holier (sermons on the Gospel of John; 1890); God of the Amen, and other Sermons (1891); Gospel of St. Luke (1892); Gospel of Matthew (2 vole., 1892); Gospel of John (1893; in 3 vole., 1907); Gospel of Mark (1893); The Wearied Christ, and other Sermons (1893); Acts of the Apostles (1894; in 2 vole., 1907); Christ's Musts, and other Sermons (1894); The Beatitudes, and other Senrwna (1896); Triumphant Certainties and other Sermons (1896); The Victor's Crown (sermons; 1897); Leaves from the Tree of Life (1899); A Rosary of Christian Graces (1899); After the Resurrection (1902); Last Sheaves (sermons; 1903); The Book of Genesis (1904); Books of Isaiah and Jeremiah (2 vole., 1905‑06); The Books of Deuteronomy, Joshua, rhcdgea, Ruth and 1 Samuel (1906); The Books of Exodus, Letiticus, and Numbers (1906); The Second Book of Samuel and the Books of Kings to 11 Kings vii. (1907); Pulpit Prayers (1907); and Expositions of Holy Scripture (6 vole., 1908); and other volumes, including Psalms in The Expositor's Bible (3 vole., London, 1893‑94) and Pulpit Prayers (1909).
MACLAY, ROBERT SAMUEL: Methodist Episcopalian; b. at Concord, Pa., Feb. 7, 1824. He was educated at Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa. (A.B., 1845). In 1847 he went to China as a missionary, and was stationed first at Foochow, whence be was transferred to Japan in 1872. In both these countries he took an active part in translating the New Testament, besides being secretary and treasurer in both missions. He was one of the founders of the Anglo‑Chinese College at Foochow in 1881 and of the Anglo‑Japanese College at Tokyo in 1883, and also established the Philander Smith Biblical Institute in the latter city in 1882. In 1884 he began mission work in Korea by permission of the king. He was likewise president of the AngloJapanese College from 1883 to 1887 and dean of the Philander Smith Biblical Institute from 1884 to 1887, as well as delegate from Japan to both the Ecumenical Methodist Conference at London in 1881 and the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church at New York in 1888. From 1888 to his retirement from active life in 1893 he was dean of the Maclay College of Theology, San Fernando, Cal. Besides contributing the sections on the Japanese mission of his denomination to J. M. Reid's Missions and Missionary Societies of the Methodist Episcopal Church (2 vole., New York, 1879) and on Shintoism to the same theologian's Doomed Religions (1882), be has written: Life among the Chinese (New York, 1861) and Dictionary of the Chinese Language i» the Dialed of Foochow (in collaboration with C. C. Baldwin; Foochow, 1871).
MacLean THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 118
MACLEAN, ARTHUR JOHN: Church of England; bishop of Moray, Rose, and Caithness; b. at Bath, England, July 6, 1858. He was educated at King's College, Cambridge (B.A., 1880; M.A., 1883), and was ordered deacon in 1882 and ordained priest in the following year. After being missionary chaplain of Cumbrae Cathedral in 18821883, he was priest in charge of St. Columba, Portree, with Stornoway and Caroy, in 1882‑88. He then went to the Orient as head of the archbishop's Assyrian (East Syrian) mission, where he remained until 1891, being at the same time honorary canon of Cumbrw from 1883 to 1892. Returning to England, he was successively rector of Portree from 1891 to 1897, and of St. John the Evangelist, Selkirk, from 1897 to 1903, and Pantonian professor and principal of the Theological College of the Episcopal Church in Scotland from 1903 to 1905. He was likewise dean of Argyll and the Isles in 18921897 and canon of Cumbrae during the same period, besides being canon of St. Mary's Cathedral, Edinburgh, in 1903‑05, being honorary canon of the same cathedral since the latter year. In 1904 he was consecrated bishop of Moray, Ross, and Caithness. Besides editing East Syrian Lectionary (London, 1889); Old and New Syriac Grammars (in vernacular Syriac; 1890); East Syrian Liturgies (2 parts, 1890‑92); and Modern Syriac and English Verb Vocabulary (1891), and in addition to translating East Syrian Daily Offices (London, 1894); The Testament of Our Lord (in collaboration with J. Cooper; 1902); and East Syrian Epiphany Rites (in F. C. Conybeare's Rituale Armenorum, 1905), he has written: The Catholicos of the East and his People (in collaboration with W. H. Browne; London, 1892); Grammar of the Dialects of Vernacular Syriac as spoken by the Eastern Syrians of Kurdistan, North‑West Persia, and the Plain of Mosul (Cambridge, 1895); Dictionary of the Dialects of Vernacular Syriac as spoken by the Eastern Syrians of Kurdistan, North‑West Persia, and the Plain of Mosul (Oxford, 1901); and Recent Discoveries illustrating Early Christian Life and Worship (London, 1904).
MACLEAR, GEORGE FREDERICK: Church of England; b. at Bedford Feb. 3, 1833; d. at Canterbury Oct. 19, 1902. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1855; M.A., 1860; B.D., 1867; D.D., 1872). He was ordained deacon in 1856 and priest in 1857. He was assistant minister of Curzon Chapel, Mayfair, and of St. Mark, Notting Hill; and from 1865 to 1870 assistant preacher at the Temple Church (all three churches in London). He was head master of King's College School from 1866 to 1880; and Boyle lecturer in 1879‑80. In 1880 he became warden of St. Augustine's College, Canterbury, and in 1885 honorary canon of Canterbury cathedral. His works include: A Class‑Book of Old Testament History (Cambridge, 1862); A Class‑Book of New Testament History (1862); A Class‑Book of the Catechism of the Church of England (1868); Apostles of Mediwval Europe (London, 1868); Conversion of the Celts, of the English, of the Northmen (London, 1878) and of the Slavs (1879); Evidential Value of the Holy Eucharist (1883); An Introduction to the
Creeds (1889); The Village Church and what it Teaches (1893); and (together with W. W. Williams) An Introduction to the Articles of the Church of England (1895). He also edited in the Cambridge Bible for Schools, Joshua (1880) and Mark (1879); and in the Cambridge Greek Testament far Schools, Mark (1883).
MACLEOD, DONALD: Church of Scotland; b. at Campsie (15 m. s.w. of Stirling), Stirlingahire, Mar. 18, 1831. He was educated at the University of Glasgow (B.A., 1850), after which he spent two years in travel. In 1858 he was ordained minister of Louder, and four years later was called to the parish of Linlithgow. Since 1869 he has been minister of Park Parish, Glasgow. He was appointed one of the chaplains in ordinary to the queen in 1872 and to the king in 1901; and was convener of the Home Mission Committee of the Church of Scotland from 1888 to 1900 and moderator of the Church of Scotland in 1895‑96. In theology he terms himself a " conservative Broad churchman." Besides his activity as editor of Good Words from 1872 to 1905, he has written Memoir of Norman Macleod (London, 1874); The Reformation, 1669 to 167.E A.D. (1881); Sunday Home Service (1885); The Parochial System (1886); Christ and Society (1892); and The Doctrine and Validity of the Ministry and Sacraments of the National Church of Scotland (Baird lecture; Edinburgh, 1903).
MACLEOD, NORMAN: Church of Scotland;
b. at Campbeltown (38 m. w. by s. of Ayr), Argyll
shire, June 3, 1812; d. in Glasgow June 16, 1872.
In his Reminiscences of a Highland Parish (London,
as graphic descriptions of the wild scenery, and free,
out‑of‑door life, in the midst of which some of the
happiest days of a happy boyhood were spent. It
was, however, chiefly with the town of Campbel
town and its seafaring associations that the boy
was familiar. On his impressible and sympathetic
nature all the circumstances of those early years
appear to have exercised a lasting influence. He
entered the University of Glasgow, after an irregu
lar classical training, in 1827, where he shone more
in the students' social and political meetings than
in the classrooms. Of general literature, however,
he appears to have read much in those days, his
favorite author in poetry being Wordsworth. In
1831 he removed to the University of Edinburgh,
that he might take his theological course under Dr.
Thomas Chalmers, then professor of divinity in that
university. Before receiving license in 1837, he
spent three years in the family of a Yorkshire gen
tleman, Mr. Preston of Moreby, as tutor to his son,
during most of the time residing at Weimar, or
elsewhere on the continent of Europe. This first
of many visits abroad had an important influence
on the development of the young man's character.
" His views were widened, his opinions matured,
his human sympathies vastly enriched; and, while
all that was of the essence of his early faith had become doubly precious, he had gained increased catholicity of sentiment, along with knowledge of the world " (Memoir, vol. i., p. 49).
Macleod's first charge, to which he was ordained in 1838, was Loudoun, in Ayrshire, a parish partly agricultural, but with a considerable weaving population. There he gave himself with all the ardor of his nature and the enthusiasm of youth to his parochial duties, especially among the working classes. His Cracks about the Kirk far Kintra Folk,
published in 1843 shortly before the Ministry. disruption, had a large circulation and
exerted considerable influence. In Dec., 1843, he was translated to Dalkeith. During his ministry there he became one of the founders of the Evangelical Alliance in 1847, and also editor of the Edinburgh Christian Magazine. In 1851 he was appointed to the large and important parish of the Barony, Glasgow, embracing at that time 87,000 souls, and here he showed preeminently his gifts as a parish minister, above all his powers of organization, his large‑hearted sympathy with all classes of his parishioners, and his eloquence as a preacher. One of his special aims in the Barony was to reclaim the non‑churchgoing population; for which purpose, among other schemes, he introduced with success Sunday services open exclusively to working people in their working clothes. He also founded the first congregational penny savings‑bank in Glasgow, and established places of resort for working men, to counteract the temptations of the publiohouse. In 1857 he was appointed one of her majesty's chaplains, and he enjoyed in an eminent degree the royal favor and confidence (cf. Journal of our Life in the Highlands by Queen Victoria, London, 1868, pp. 147, sqq.).
Dr. Macleod took an active part in the general work of the Church. In 1845 he was one of a deputation to visit the Scottish churches in Canada. In 1864 he became chairman of the Foreign Mission Committee of his church, and in this capacity paid a visit to India as a deputy from the church in 1867. His last great public effort was a memorable speech in the General Assembly of 1872, when he resigned this position. In 1865 he became involved in a controversy regarding the Sabbath; while strenuously upholding the religious observance of the Lord's day, he refused to base that observance on the perpetual obligation of the Fourth Commandment. In 1869 he was elected moderator of the General Assembly. Two memorial windows were placed by Queen Victoria in Crathie Church, Aberdeenshire, where he had often conducted service; in one of these he is described as " a man eminent in the Church, honored in the State, and in many lands greatly beloved." He married Catherine Ann Mackintosh Aug. 11, 1851.
In 1860 Dr. Macleod undertook the editorship of Good Words, one of the ablest and most successful of the religious magazines of the day. Some of the
more popular of his contributions to Writings. general literature were written about
the same time, many of them originally appearing in Good Words. They include: The Earned Student (Edinburgh,1854), a memoir of
119 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA XseLsan
his wife's brother, John Mackintosh of Geddes; The Gold Thread (1861); The Old Lieutenant and his Son (1862); Wee Davie (London, 1864); Eastward (London, 1866); Simple Truth Spoken to Working People (1867); The Starling (2 vols., 1867); Peeps at the Far East (1871); Character Sketches (1872); The Temptation of our Lord (1873).