Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house

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BIBLIOGRAPHY: The commentaries on Genesis deal with the

subject, as do some of the works on Old Testament the­

ology. Consult: DD, iii. 150‑152; EB, iii. 2824‑25;

JE, viii. 185‑186. The Koran has many passages ',,w°hich

embody traditions, partly of Talmudic Origin, fGp~ IA.

Urim and Thummim (§ la.. Methods of Employment 2). The Lot in Common Life (§ 3).

Apart from prophecy, the lot takes the first place

in ancient Israel as a means of seeking counsel of

the deity. In early times there existed various

methods of casting lots, as by means

r. Urim of wooden staves or arrows (rhab­and domancy, Hos. iv. 12; cf. Ezek. xxi.

Thummim. 21), employed also by Babylonians and by Arabs. But this and other meth­ods of questioning the deity (necromancy, the con­juration of spirits, etc.) gradually fell into disre­pute as heathenish magic, and the only legitimate form in the religion of Yahweh was that practised by the priest, tile casting of lots by means of the Urim and Thummim (q.v.). The way in which these lots were handled shows that they stood in the closest connection with the priestly Ephod (q.v.). When therefore Saul or David wished to ask counsel of Yahweh through the casting of lots, they said to the priest: " Bring hither the ephod " (I Sam. xiv. 18, Septuagint; A. V. " Bring hither the arkof God"; cf. xxiii.9, xxal.7). From I Sam. xiv. 37 aqq., Septuagint, it appears that the two lots bore the names Urim and Thummim. Saul prays before questioning the oracle: " If the sin is upon me or upon Jonathan, let Urim appear: if it is upon the people, then let Thummim appear " (cf. S. R. Driver, Hebrew Text of . . . Samuel, p. 89, Oxford, 1890). The proper explanation of the words Urim and ThW4" M no

most probable one is that the Maim L

two lots symbolized

the two divisions of the earth's rotation, light and

darkness, life and death, yea or no. Urim is light

i or the full moon or the upperworld; Thummim

(from a word meaning perfection) means sunset or under‑world. Worn upon the breast, on the high priest's vestment, Urim and Thummim may be compared with the Babylonian tablets of fate which were given to Marduk, who wore them upon his breast.

Of what the lots consisted is nowhere stated.

The principal facts concerning their use appear in several accounts in the Old Testament. The ques­tions present a simple alternative which the lot

Lots, Hebrew Use of THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 48


is expected to decide. Sometimes they are simple

questions to which Yahweh is expected to an­

swer yea or no (cf. I Sam, agiii. 9

3. Methods eqq., xxx. 8; II Sam. ii. 1, v. 19;

of Em‑ Judges ax. 23). At other times, the lot

ployment. moat decide between two possibilities;

if, however, one possibility moat be

determined from among a number, by the exclu­

sion of one possibility after another the number is

reduced to two. An example of this is when Saul

wishes to discover among the whole people the

guilty one. Lots are first cast between the entire

army on one aide and Saul and Jonathan on the

other (I Sam. aiv. 38 aqq.; similarly in I Sam. ax.

20 eqq.; Josh. vii. 16 eqq.). Hence the lots con­

sisted of two objects, of some sort (staves, atones,

or similar objects), one of which signified yea and

the other no. In special cases, however, any ap­

propriate significance was attributed to one or the

other. It may possibly be concluded from II Sam.

aiv. 18 eqq. that Urim signified the affirmative,

and Thnmm;m the negative. Inquiry was made

as to the sin of Saul and Jonathan; if Urim came

out, the sin was proved, if Thummim came out, it

signified a negative answer and therefore that the

sin rued upon the army. From the prophetic

books it has been conjectured that Urim and Thum­

mim were two small idols, possibly teraphim, since

teraphim are often mentioned in connection with

the ephod (Hoe. iii. 4; of. Judges avii. 5); they also

appear alongside of spirits and ghosts as employed

in the consultation of oracles (H Kings asiii. 24).

If Yahweh were angry, he did not reply; when,

from certain happenings during the casting of the

lots, the priest drew the conclusion that the divin­

ity was not willing to answer, he ceased further

questioning. By II Sam. v. 23‑24 it is indicated

that the priest, on his own initiative, added cer­

tain explanations which he perhaps deduced from

some of the accompanying circumstances.

It follows from the foregoing that the privilege

of casting the lots belonged exclusively to the priest,

whose characteristic duties were precisely the

wearing of the ephod and the casting of the lots.

In Deuteronomy the care of the Urim and Thum­

mim is designated se an essential charge of the

priest (Deut. xsxiii. 8). This possession may have

contributed largely to make the priestly office

hereditary, the knowledge and ability to handle

the oracle being transmitted from father to son.

In ancient times, the casting of lots played s

prominent part in the life of the Israelites. It may

be safely assumed that often the Israelites. sought

counsel of the deity is reference to

3. The possible eventualities just as they

Lot in made use of the service of the seers

Common (cf. I Sam. is. B sqq.). According to

Life. the priestly writer, Joshua was di­

rected to ask an answer from the lots

by means of the priest (Nom. agvii. 21; cf. Josh.

la. 8 eqq.). In jurisprudence also the lots played a

part; in intricate cases they were used to discover

the guilty (Josh. vii. 18 aqq.; I Sam. aiv. 38 aqq.),

and decisions in other cases were reached by their

aid (Esek. ariv. 8; Prov. aviii. 18, zvi. 33; Matt.

savii. 35). After the time of Solomon, the his‑

torical narratives cease to mention the lots of Urim and Thummim; internal evidence favors the re­sumption that they lost their importance. The prophets became more and more numerous, and it is to them that, for example, Alias turns with questions that David would have sought to solve by the sacred lots (I Kings aaii. 5). According to Jewish tradition, the Urim and Thummim no longer existed in the second temple. Alongside of the liturgical lots, secular lots (if this expression be permitted) were always in favor; booty taken in war was always divided by means of lots (Joel iii. 3; Nah. iii. 10; Ob. 11). In controversies re­garding possession s decision was reached by cast­ing lots (Prow. aviii. 18) and in similar ways (cf. also Zeah. ii. 1). The lots, usually small stones, were shaken is the bosom, ~ that is, in the fold of the dress in front, until one fell out (Prow. avi. 33). At the time of the second temple, the cast­ing of lots was still resorted to; for example, in the selection of the two goats on the Day of . Atone­ment (Lev. avi. 7‑10), in the division of the days of office among the priests (Luke i. 9; cf. I Chron. aaiv. 5 sqq.), and in apportioning the contribution of wood for the altar (Neh. a. 34). I. B>trrznva»a.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Consult the literature under IhvnJeaZOx; EPHOn; Uses AND 'lHoannr; the articles under those words in the Bible Dictionaries; also the works men­tioned under l,BCHEOL(M:, Brsnrcer., by Nowaok sad Benainger, sod others.

LOT2, late, WILHELM PHILIPP FRIEDRICH FERDINAND: German Lutheran; b. at Cassel Apr. 12, 1853. He was educated at the univer­sities of Leipaic (Ph.D., 1879; lie. theol., 1883) and Gbttingen, and in 1883 became privet‑docent at the former institution. In the same year he went to Erlangen as privet‑docent and tutor, but in 1884 accepted a call to Vienna as associate pro­fessor of Old‑Testament exegesis in the Evangel­ical theological faculty. He was promoted to a full professorship there in 1884, a position which he held until 1897, when he was appointed to his present post of professor of Old‑Testament exe­gesis at Erlangen. He has written: Die Iraschriftcn Tiglathpilener'a 1. in tranaadiberlem aaayriachem Grundtext mit Ueberaetzung und Ifomme>bEar (Leip­aie, 1880); Quaationea de hiatoria sab6ati (1883); Gesch"te and O,$'erebarung im Alten Testament (1891); Die Bundest«le (1901); Dan Alts Testa­ment trnd die Wiaaerrschaft (190b); Die bibliache Ur­geac7iichle in ihre7n Verhdltnia zu den Urzeitaagen anderer V blker, zu den iaraelitisclMn Volkserzdhlungen uad zum Ganzert der Heiligen Schrtft (1907); and Heiirdiache Sprachlehre (1908).

LOTZE, let'se, RUDOLF HERMANN: Ger­man philosopher; b. at Bautaen (31 m. e.n.e. of Dresden), Saxony, May 21, 1817; d. at Berlin July 1, 1881. He studied philosophy and medicine at the University of Leipaic, taking degrees in both subjects, and became extraordinary professor of philosophy there in 1842. He was called to G8t­tingen in 1844, and to Berlin in 1881, but here he was able to lecture only a part of one semester. Lotze was one of the moat influential philosophers of the second half of the nineteenth century, and he has many followers, particularly among theo‑

J. b1lfEelet, W ippe‑I upuste et S. Louie, ib. n.d.; A. Lecoy de la Marche, S. Louis, son pouverneneeat et as politique, ib. 1887; E. Berger, S. Louis et Innocently., ib. 1893; 8. de Froiesart, S. Louie et lea croiaades, ib.189B; M. Fromman, Land" Ludwig 111. der Fromme, Jena, 1907; and the literature under Cnoeenas.
LOURDES: A city of France in the department of the Hautes‑Pyr6ll6es, situated near the river Gave‑du‑Pau about 22 miles s.e. of Pau. Lourdes was a fortified town as far back as the time of the Caesars and still possesses a ch5teau fort. The in­habitants number about 5,000. During the last half century Lourdes has become famous through­out the Roman Catholic world in consequence of

the aeries of alleged apparitions of the Virgin Mary to Bernadette Soubirous, a child of the town in

1858. The ga l n0 at tilt i11rie was fourteen

Years . of age, is described as being somewhat in­firm in health, and inferior both in physical and mental development to the average child of her

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The lives of Louis are very numerous; the

moat noted is by Le Nain de Tillemont, ed. J. de Gaulle,

8 vole., Paris, 1848‑51. Others are by A. Mignon, ib.

1853; J. A. Faure, 2 vole., ib. 1885; F. P. G. Guiaot,

Great Christians of France. St. Louie and Calvin, London.

1889; Hermitte, ib. 1876; V. Verlaque, ib. 1885; C. V.

Langlois, ib. 1888; H. Wallon, 2 vole., ib. 1887; M. f3epet,

ib. 1898; M. H. F. Delaborde, ib. 1899. Consult further,

P. Viollet,~ ~Lee~ ‑0~tabliaaementa de S. Louis, 4 vole., ib. 1881‑

Louis was canonized by Boniface VIII., Aug. 11, 1297; his day is Aug. 25. From his earliest child­hood he was of a pious disposition and delighted in prayers and penances. Although naturally gentle, Louis was intolerant toward heretics and in­fidels, and was accustomed to say that the only way to deal with a Jew was to strike him with your sword. He was also superstitious; he brought back from the Holy Land the crown of thorns and a portion of the true cress, for which he built the Sainte‑Chapelle in Paris. The authenticity of the famous Pragmatic Sanction of 1269 (q.v.) has been questioned. In this document he asserts the inde­pendence of the Gallican Church against the claims of the pope.

with an army of 40,000. The next spring he set sail for Egypt, and landed at Damietta June 4, 1249. He took the town without a blow, then de­feated a Mohammedan army and advanced up the Nile to Mansurah, whence he had to retreat, after fighting a battle with the Saracens. The king and his whole army were taken captive, but after tedi­ous negotiations were set free for a large ransom. With the remnant of his army, scarcely 6,000 men, Louis sailed to Acre and stayed in the Holy Land four years, only returning to France when recalled by the death of his mother whom he had left as regent (Nov., 1252). He undertook a pilgrimage to Nazareth in thankfulness for his release from captivity. In 1270 he led another crusade to Tunis, landing in July at the site of Carthage, where a pestilence broke out in his army to which the king himself succumbed. His son Philip III. made peace with the emir and returned to France, carrying the ashes of his father.

logians. This is explained by the fact that in his

speculation ethical and religious needs come into

their full rights. His philosophy represents a re­

action against the ideological pantheism of Hegel,

which seemed to sacrifice all individuality and va­

riety in existence to a formal and abstract scheme

of development. Lotze characterized his philo­

sophical standpoint as teleological idealism, and he

regarded ethics as the starting‑point of metaphys­

ics. While enforcing the mechanical view of na­

ture, he sought to show that mechanism, the rela­

tion of cause and effect, is incomprehensible,

except as the realization of a world of moral ideas.

Thus, each causal series becomes at the same time

a teleological series. Lotze worked out this recon­

ciliation of mechanism and teleology by com­

bining with the monads of Leibnitz (q.v., § 2) the

absolute substance of Spinoza (q.v.), in which in­

dividual things (monads) are grounded, and through

whose all‑inclusive unity interrelation is possible.

Some of Lotze's more important works are: Meta­

Phys2:k (Leipsie, 1841); Logik (1843); Mediziniaehe

Psychologie oiler Physiologic der Seete (1852); Mi­

krokosmus. Ideen xur Naturgeachichte and Ge‑ 'I

achichte der Menschheit (3 vole., 1856‑64; Eng.

transl., 2 vole., Edinburgh, 1885), his principal

work; Geschichte der Aesthetik in Deutschland

(Munich, 1868); and the unfinished System der

Philosophic (vol, i., Logik, Leipsic, 1874; vol. ii.,

Metaphysi,(c, 1879; Eng. transl. of both, 2 parts,

Oxford, 1884). After Lotze's death appeared

Diktats, notes from his lectures on the various

philosophical disciplines (8 parts, Leipsic, 1882‑$4;

Eng. transl. by G. T. Ladd, Outlines, 6 vole., Boston,

1884‑1887); also Kleine Schriften (3 vole., Leipsie,

1885‑1894). HUBERT EvANs.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: An excellent bibliography, including ref­

erences to material which appeared in periodical litera­

ture, is in J. M, Baldwin, Dictionary oJ!Philoeophy and

Psychology, III., i. 347‑350. Consult: E. von Hart­

mann, Lotu's Philosophic, Leipeie, 1888; L. $tAhlin,

Karat, Lobe and Ritachl, ib. 1888, Eng. tranal., Edinburgh,

1889; G. Vorbrodt, Prineipien der Elhik and der Re­

lipionaphiloaophie Lotus, Dessau, 1891; H. Jones, A

Critical Account of the Philosophy 0j 1441 WOW, 1686;

g. C. Ring, An Outline of the Microcoamua of Hermann

Lotze, Oberlin, 1895; G. T. Ladd, Lotus Influence on

Theology, in The. New World, iv (1895), 401‑421; A.

Tienee, LoEze'a Gedanken zu den PrinzipienJragen der

Ethik, Heidelberg, 1898; W. Wallace, Lectures and Ea­

eaya on Natural Theology and Ethics, Oxford, 1898; G.

Page, Lotze'a religtoae Weltanschauung, Erlangen, 1599;

V. F. Moors, Ethical Aspects of Lotu's Metaphysics, New

York, 1901.

LOUIS IX.: King of France and Roman Catholic

saint; b. at Poissy (12 m. n.w. of Paris) Apr. 25,

1215; d. before Tunis Aug. 25, 1270. His father,

Louis VIII., died when he was only eleven years

old, and he ascended the throne under the regency

of his mother, Blanche of Castile (Nov. 16,

1226). His mother, a pious and very capable

woman, had him educated by brothers of the Fran­

ciscan and Dominican Orden. During the fir9t

of of his reign his nobles and later the bishops

gave him much trouble, but he at last

restored order in his kingdom.

In fulfilment of a vow made on a bed of sickness

he undertook a crusade (1248). In August he

reed for Cyprus, the rendezvous of the crusaders,



age. She belonged to a poor peasant family, and was simple and ignorant, knowing neither how to read nor write, and unable to speak French‑‑her language being the patois of the locality. The



story of the apparitions, which were seen only by

Bernadette, is se ‑follows: On Thursday, Feb. 11,

1858, in company with her sister Marie and Jeanne

Abadie,, a playmate of about the same age, she

went to gather sticks for fire‑wood along the banks

of the Gave in the suburbs of the town. Arriving

at a mill‑race near a grotto in the mountain side,

the two companions crossed over, and Bernadette,

intending to do the same, remained behind a few

minutes in order to remove her shoes and stock­

ings. While thus occupied she was startled by a

noise as of a great wind, though the atmosphere

was at the time quite calm. In a moment her at­

tention was drawn to a briar‑bush growing beneath

s kind of natural niche at the opening of the grotto.

The bush seemed agitated; a " golden cloud " ap­

peared above it, and above tha cloud in front of

the niche appeared the form of a woman. She was

youthful and beautiful in appearance, robed in

white with a blue sash around her waist. Her feet

were bare but on each was a gold‑colored rosette,

and in her hands was a rosary of white beady

strung on a golden chain. She smiled graciously

and beckoned to Bernadette to approach. The

latter obeyed and at the same time, began instinc­

tively to recite her beads. The lady then assumed

an attitude of silent prayer, reciting, however, with

Bernadette the Gloria PaLri at the end of each

decal. In the mean time the other two com­

panions had returned. They were naturally sur­

prised to find Bernadette on her knees praying in

such a place, and seeing nothing themselves to so­

count for her enraptured gaze, they laughed at her

and brought her home. Here the experience was

treated as an illusion and the girl was forbidden to

return to the grotto. On the following Sunday,

however (Feb. 14), she obtained permission to re­

visit the place in company with s few children of

her own age. She again saw the same vision and

soon went into an ecstasy from which she was

aroused by a woman living near, who was attracted

to the scene by the other girls who, though seeing

nothing, were amazed and alarmed at the changed

appearance of their companion. After this eape­

rienoe she was again restrained from going to the

grotto, but a few ladies of the town moved by

curiosity brought her back on Feb. 18. The mys­

terious lady appeared as before, and speaking to

Bernadette asked her to return to the place daily

for a fortnight. She promised to do so, and on

the three following days (Friday, Saturday, and

Sunday) the same experiences were enacted at the

grotty in the presence of an ever‑increasing crowd

of spectators. Nothing was seen by any of them,

but they were all deeply impressed by the ecstatic

expression on the features of the little girl. In­

deed, so great had become the crowd of onlookers

that the civil authorities saw fit to interfere, and

the day following a couple of policemen were do­

tailed to accompany Bernadette to the grotto,

but on this occasion nothing was seen. The next

day, however, the vision again appeared and also

on the following day (Feb. 24) on which occasion

Bernadette received a command from the lady to

dig a hole in the ground at the entrance of the

grotto. This she did with her hands, and at once

a stream of water appeared (the place had previ­ously been perfectly dry) which gradually increased in volume until it became a settled perennial spring furnishing water in abundance for the piacinas sad taps used by the pilgrims (about 33,000 gallons per day). The apparition was seen again on Feb. 26, and on the 27th, when Bernadette received the com­mand to " go and tell the priests to build a chapel " at the spot. On Sunday, Feb. 28, the experience took place in the presence of more than 2,000 spectators. The phenomenon recurred on the two following days, but on Mar. 3 nothing was seen. Mar. 4 was the last of the fifteen days on which Bernadette had promised to visit the grotto. A multitude of 15,000 expectant persons crowded about the place; the vision came as usual, but nothing extraordinary occurred. Bernadette returned on the following days but nothing appeared until Mar. 25 (feast of the Annunciation), when in answer to Bernadette's request that the mysterious lady tell her name, she received the reply: " I am the Im­maculate Conception." Twelve days passed with­out any further manifestation, but on Apr. 7 the vision was renewed, and still again three months later, July 16. This was the eighteenth and last apparition. From the outset the local ecclesias­tical authorities held aloof and showed themselves scarcely less skeptical than the civil functionaries. Bernadette was put through long and trying inter­rogatory ordeals on the part of both, but~ahe main­tained her story even to its details without con­tradicting herself under severe cross‑examination, and it remained the conviction of her examiners that she was truthful and sincere in relating her experiences. In this connection it is worth noting that she never sought notoriety or any pecuniary advantage as a result of the visions, and besides, it was freely admitted se inconceivable that one so young and so mentally deficient could concoct and successfully carry out a deceptive scheme of such magnitude. Shortly after the events above re­lated she went to live with the Hospital Sisters established in the town, and it was only when she was eighteen years of age that she finished learn­ing how to read and write. She later became a member of the order at the age of twenty‑two and went to live in the convent of Nevers, where she died at the age of thirty‑five. Apart from the ap­paritions at the grotto she never had any extraor­dinary psychic experience.

The great sensation produced by the apparitions, and the repeated assertion that miracles were being wrought at the grotto, made it necessary for the local church authorities to make an investigation, and an episcopal commission to that effect was appointed by Mgr. Laurence, bishop of Tarbes, in July, 1858. The inquiry referred not only to the apparitions, but also to the alleged miraculous occurrences, and the results were embodied in a report submitted to Mgr. Laurence four years later. It was favorable throughout to the miraculous and supernatural character of the episodes, and in Jan., 1862, the bishop issued a decision to the effect that: " these apparitions have all the charaeteris­tics of truth, and that the faithful are justified in believing them to be true. We humbly submit our

decision to the judgment of the Sovereign Pontiff

who governs the Universal Church." No official

decision in the matter has been rendered by papal

authority, but the three popes Pius IX., Leo XIII., I

and Pius X. are known to have expressed their per­

sonal belief in the reality of the apparitions and sub­

sequent miracles. Official approbation has, how­

ever, been secured to the extent of allowing the

liturgical office of Our Lady of Lourdes to be in­

serted in the breviary for certain localities, while

churches bearing that name have been erected in

many parts of the world. Lourdes soon became a

rendezvous for pilgrims from all parts of the world,

and in 1872 the national pilgrimages, viz., from the

different provinces of France, were begun. These

take place every year about Aug. 15, and on such

occasions the town often receives at once as many

as 60,000 pilgrims. The beautiful basilica, which

stands above the grotto was consecrated in 1376,

and the Church of the Holy Rosary which stands

on a lower level directly beneath the basilica, was

finished in 1901. [Before these churches is a park,

the broad )pace in the middle of which is the scene of

the procession of the Blessed Sacrament which takes

place daily. The sick in all stages of disease are lined

up on the edge of this space and so are passed by the

consecrated Host and the attendant clergy and pil­

grims, and then it is that miraculous cures are alleged

to be performed.] JAMES F. DRISCOLL.

is to use improper language. Self‑love is also an

To speak of love for animals or of love for a thing,

True love can exist only between rational bejng8,

parallel between conjugal love and the "great mys­tery " of Christ's love for the Church should treat married life so realistically (I Cor, vii.).

no tewofthp that !be apo$1 who drew such a close

Love manifests itself in the two great directions, toward God and toward our neighbor, or in the contemplative and in the practical form; the former seen in Mary of Bethany, the latter in her sister Martha (Luke x. 38‑42). Our Lord gave his preference to the former. It shows itself in prayer, meditation, worship, and in the communion. The practical form manifests itself in all works of be­nevolence and beneficence, far and near. It is incum­bent upon the Christian to unite the two. The hardest burden our Lord lays upon his disciples is to love their enemies (Matt. v. 44). Among hu­man relationships controlled by love, marriage occupies the first place (Eph. v. 22‑$31) 11 ~

Love is a basal principle in creation, in redemp­tion, and in Christian ethics. God created the world in order that he might have a field for the exercise of his love; not that the world was neces­sary in any way; but it delighted him to make the world and to fill it with creatures whom he could love; and God so loved the world that he sent his Son to die for it (John iii. 16). The Son, out of his free, divine love, laid down his life for our sal­vation (Matt. ax. 28). God was in Christ, recon­ciling the world unto himself (II Cor. v. 19); and this love of God in Christ is the only and exclusive ground of our salvation and of our sanctification (Acts iv. 12). Love is the source and center of the development of the new life in Christ. It is the chief of the Christian virtues. Our Lord set his approval upon the Mosaic summary of the law in the form of love to God and man (Matt. axii. 37­40; cf. Dent. vi. 5; Lev. aia. 18), and gave his fol­lowers the " new commandment," that they should love one another (John aiii. 34). Paul calls love " the fulfilling of the law" (Rom. x111. 10), and "the end of the commandment " (I Tim. i. 5); Peter exhorts to love as the fruit of holy living (I pet. i. 22; II Pet, i, 7); John ig particularly full open love (I John ii. 5, iv. 7, 8), and James calls love of our neighbors "the royal law" (Jas. ii. 5, 8).

posed scheme, the persons of the Godhead are not sufficiently distinguished. Yet it is undoubtedly true that love is a large element of the divine es­sence; and later theologians, as, for instance, Dor­ner, in discussing the problem of the Trinity, give it much space.

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