on much like Luther: preface, Sanctu8, prayer for a blessing on the reception, leading up to the words of institution, distribution, thanksgiving, the Nunc dimiuis or Song of Simeon, and the blessing. In 1525 he worked out an independent form of service, which was to be said, not sung. The communicants being assembled in the choir, the minister first prayed, turning toward them, that they might be well prepared. Then followed the reading of I Cor. xi. 20‑29; the Gloria in excelsia, recited alternately in German by the men and women; the salutation and response " The Lord be with you," " And with thy spirit "; the reading of John vi. 47‑83; the Apostles' Creed, also recited alternately; a short exhortation on the comfort and the solemnity of the feast; the Lord's Prayer, and another prayer for worthy reception; and the words of institution. For the communion, unleavened bread on wooden plates and wine in wooden cups was given to the communicants, seated, by appointed assistants; each broke off a morsel of the bread for himself and took the chalice in his hands. Then, after the recitation of Psalm exiii. and a short thanksgiving, the minister dismissed the congregation with " Go in .peace." This form, which expresses the Zwinglian conception of the Lord's Supper as a profession of faith and devotion on the part of the congregation, was retained with slight variations in the later Zilrich liturgies until 1675. According to the form of d'xolampadiua, there was a preparation consisting of confession and absolution, psalm‑singing, a general prayer, and reading of the Gospel account of the Passion, after which a simple form of celebration followed, consisting of exhortation, the Lord's Prayer, words of institution, communion, thanksgiving, and blessing.
8. The 8eformed Services: After Farel had abolished the Roman mass in Geneva, Calvin instituted an independent liturgy in his La manii're de alebrer la ce'ne. The Lord's Supper was to be celebrated once a year, after a sermon on its aignifioanoe and s prayer for worthy reception. The service then continued with the reading of I Cor. xi. 25‑29 and an exhortation, which contained a solemn excommunication of grievous sinners and enemies of church unity, urged all to examine their consciences carefully, and gave comfort to those who were weak in the faith or tempted to despair. In the conclusion of this, the ancient Suraum cords was paraphrased according to Calvin's dogmatic conceptions: " Let us lift up our hearts and minds thither where Jesus Christ is in the glory of his Father . . . for our souls will be well disposed to be nourished and vivified by his substance, when they are thus raised above all things earthly, to reach heaven itself and enter into the kingdom of God, where he dwells." Then followed the communion, with the provision that the minister himself should first receive it, then give it to the deacon and then to the whole congregation, who were to approach the holy table. The formula of administration was the following (in French): " Take and eat the body of Jesus, which was delivered up to death for you. Thin is the cup of the New Testament in the blood of Jesus, which was shed for you." During the communion Psalm cwiii. wee sung,
followed by a prayer of thanksgiving, the Song of Simeon, and the blessing. Calvin's type of service wee followed by the scattered Reformed communities in Westphalia and on the Rhine. In Switzerland the Calvinistic and Zwinglian forma were combined and modified in such various ways that at least six different forma exist to‑day. The order of service drawn up in 1550 by Johannes a Lasco (q.v.) for the Dutch refugees in England, the first complete order for the Calvinistic Reformed body, prescribes that on the day preceding the administration of the Lord's Supper, a sermon is to be delivered. At the time of the celebration, four cups and three pewter plates are to be set out on a table covered with a linen cloth. Another sermon is delivered, ending with an exhortation forbidding the approach of those who have not yet made their profession of faith and put themselves under Christian discipline or who have not given notice of their intention to receive. Then follow a prayer, the words of institution, and an exhortation to aelfexamination, after which the minister reads I Cor. v. 7, 8. The communion has the character of a family meal. The minister, elders, and members of the congregation sit around the table, as far as there is room. The minister takes a piece of the bread which is in the larger plate and, with the words, " The bread which we break is the communion of the body of Christ," divides it into small pieces on the other two plates, then handing it to those who sit near him with the words, " Take, eat, remember and believe that the body of our Lord Jesus Christ was given up to death upon the wood of the cross for the forgiveness of all our sins." The plates are then passed to those who sit further off and the same proceeding is observed in the administration of the cup, with corresponding words. First the men and then the women take their places around the table in turn, while John vi. and xiii.xv. are read from the chancel. After the communion, the service closes with a word from the minister, thanksgiving, a psalm, and the blearing. The Dutch Reformed Church still maintains this order, in which is obvious the attempt to assimilate the celebration as much as possible to the brotherly fellowship at the table of the original institution. The Scotch Church also derives its form from the order of Johannes a Lasco, and, like the Reformed Church of France, gives a similar complexion to the celebration.
4. The Anglican Communion: In accordance with the general tendency of the English Reformer tion, a very large part of the Reformed service is taken more or leas directly from the older liturgies, and even some parts which do not occur in the Roman mass have ancient precedent. Thus the prayer for the Church militant occupies the same position as the great intercession in the Gallican rite, and the recitation of the Ten Commandments, while probably due to the ethical tendency of the age, has been explained by some liturgical scholars as answering to the prophecy, or reading from the Old Testament, which in some other ancient liturgies preceded the epistle and Gospel. Several portions newly added were intended to emphasise the aspect of the service as a communion; thus the
so RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Lord's Suppm
prayer of Humble Access, the Comfortable Words, and the position and wording of the confession and absolution presuppose the reception of the communion by the bulk of the congregation. The canon is much shortened, following the Roman closely in the essential part, and the Lord's Prayer, as scarcely ever elsewhere, follows the communion. The Gloria in excelaia retained its ancient position in the first Prayer‑book of Edward VI., but was afterward moved to the end of the service, as an act of 'I thanksgiving. See also Commorr PRAYER, Boos: OF.
V. Certain Points of Interest not Already Treated: In the primitive Church, the newly baptized were immediately admitted to communion; and with the growing frequency of infant baptism the same custom was still maintained. Cygrian (De lapsis, ix.) speaks of children who at the outset of their lives have received " the meat and drink of the Lord," and similar
z. Infant evidence may be collected from the
Communion. Apostolic Constitutions, Dionysius the
Areopagite, Paulinus of Nola (d. 431),
and Gennadiue of Marseilles (c. 492). The neces
sity of communion to salvation being taught on the
basis of John vi. 53, this argument is applied to the
communion of infants by Augustine and by Inno
cent I. But evidences of the practise are not con
fined to the first six centuries, as some have con
tended; on the contrary, they come down as late
as the twelfth, in which Paschal II. (1118) prescribes
that the two elements are to be separately admin
istered " except to infants and those who are so
weak that they can not swallow the bread," and
Robertus Paululus speaks of the custom as extant,
although beginning to disappear. A synodal or
dinance of Odo, bishop of Paris, in 1175, and a
canon of the Synod of Bordeaux in 1255 attest its
cessation in France, the latter prescribing the ad
ministration of blessed bread (see EULDaIA) instead
of the Host. It is a question whether the existence
of the custom can be shown in Germany later than
the twelfth century. The Council of Trent ruled
finally (Seaaio XXI. chap. 4) that children below
the age of reason were bound by no necessity to sac
ramental communion of the Eucharist, " although
antiquity is not to be condemned for observing this
custom in certain places and times." The Greek
Church has retained the practise to the present day.
The Evangelical churches, making admission to
communion dependent on spiritual maturity as evi
denced by a special examination, have .naturally not
retained it. (GEORG RIEIBCHEL.)
In the early Church it was customary to carry the consecrated elements immediately after service to the sick and to prisoners; and two passages in Tertullian (Ad uxorem, IL, v.; De oraCiorae, six.) seem to imply the custom of communicating at home under the species of bread even apart from illness. Later we find the consecrated
frequency of administration fell in most places to
four times a year, or at most once a month, until
the High‑church revival of the nineteenth century
restored it to normally once a week and in many
places daily, with a consequent increase in the fre
quency of communion. In the other Protestant
churches the quarterly administration is the most
usual. The requirement of fasting, for which there
is early evidence, was prescribed as a matter of
reverence. In modern Roman Catholic practise
the exceptions which excuse from it are serious
illness and the necessity of protecting the sacred
i species from profanation or of completing the mass
in the case of a sudden indisposition of the cele
brant. Thin rule also is increasingly emphasized
in the Anglican Communion under present condi
tions, but does not occur in the other Reformation
churches, which content themselves with requiring
Lord'seSupper THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 40
a genertil condition of faith and repentance. As to the first admission to communion, they usually require a formal ceremony of recognition of membership or the like; according to the rubric of the Anglican Prayer‑book " none shall be admitted to the Holy Communion except he be confirmed, or be ready and desirous to be confirmed."
The original Lutheran and Calvinist types of administration have been noted above. The mode of administration in non‑Episcopal churches in
America and England is almost uni4. Practises form. The elements are consecrated
Connected by prayer by the minister, who breaks
with as much bread and pours out as much Adminis‑ wine as he deems sufficient. He retration. pests the words of institution; he then
hands the elements for distribution to the elders or deacons, who serve him first and then pass to the other communicants sitting in their pews. In the Anglican Communion and also in many Lutheran churches the communicants kneel at the chancel rail. In the German Reformed Church they stand. On modern sanitary principles an agitation has recently been made in America for the introduction of individual communion cups, and the movement has slowly spread very widely. For communion in both kinds see Mnss, IL, 5.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: On the general subject the works cited under Eucawalsm should be consulted, as also those under TRANSUBSTANTIATION. On 3...conault: The works cited in Biblical Introduction, IL, especially those of Weise and Beyschlag; J. G. Scheibel, Daa Abendmahl des Horn, Breslau, 1823; D. Schulz, Die chriatliche Lehre vom Ahendmahl noch dem Grundlext des N. T., ib. 1824; J. J. I. von IuSllinger, Die Lehre von der Euehar%atie in den drei staler Jahrhunderten, Mainz, 1825; F. W. Linjner, Die Lehrs vom Abendmahl reach der Schrift, Hamburg, 1831; K. F. A. Kahnie, Die Lehre vom Abendmahl, Leipsie, 1E51; L. J. Rtlekert, Doe Aberdmahl, aein Wesen and seine Geechichte in der alters Kirche, ib. 1856; C. T. Keim, Goschichte Jean von Naeara, iii. 268, Zurich, 1872, Eng. trawl., 8 vole., London, 187582; H. Schultz, in TSK, 1888; P. Lobstein, La Doctrine de la saints cdne, Lausanne, 1889; Harnack, in TU, vii. 2, 1891; T. Zahn, Brot and Weir in Abandmahl der alter Kirche, Leipeic, 1892, cf. Barnack in TLZ, no. 15, 1892; A. Jiilicher, in Theolopiachs Abhandlungen . . K. von Weizattcker gewidmet, Freiburg, 1882; C. Weizeileker, Doe apoetoliache Zeitalter, pp. 574 eqq., Freiburg, 1892, Eng. travel., The Apostolic Ape, 2 vole., London, 1894‑95; F. $pitta, ZwGeachichte and Literatw des Urchrfietentuma, vol. i., GSttingen, 1893; E. Grafe, in Zeitaehrift far Theologie and Kirche, 1895, part 2, pp. 101‑138; F. $chulten, Doe Abendmahl im N. T., G5ttingen, 1895; A. C. MaGiffert, Hiet. of Christianity in as Apostolic Ape, pp. 88 eqq. et passim, New York, 1897; A. Eiohhorn, Daa Abendmahl im N. T., Leipsie, 1898; Schaff, Christian Church, i. 471‑474; and the commentaries on the basal passages.
On TT (history of the doctrine is the Church) consult: Harpack, Dogma, vole, i., ii., iv., v., vii. and, in general, the treatises on the history of doctrine; the works of DSllinger, Kabnie and Rilekert, ut sup.; F. C. Baur, in Tgbinper Zeitechrift flit Theolopie, 1839, pp. b8‑144; J. H. A. Ebrard, Daa Dogma vom heilipen Abendmahl and seine Geachiclue, 2 vole., Frankfort, 184b‑48; J. W. Nevin, The Mdatical Presence; Vindication of the Reformed or Calvinistic Docking of the Holy Eucharist, Philadelphia, 1848; W. J. E. Bennett, The Eucharist; its Hiat., Doctrine, and Practice, London, 1851; J. W. F. HSfling, Die Lehre der 8lteaten Kirehe room OyJer, Erlangen, 1851; R. Wilberforce, The Doctrine of as Holy Eucharist, London, 1853 (Anglican tractarian); A. W. DieckhoH, Die evangelisths Lehre im Reformotiomzeitalter, G&ttingen, 1854; R. Halley, The Saeramenta, part TL, The Lord's Supper, London, 1855; P. Freeman, The Principles of Divine Service, 2 parts, London, 1855‑82; E. Bickereteth, A 1'reatias on as Lord's Supper, ed. L. W. P. Batch, New
York, 1857; E. B. Pussy, The Real Presence of the Body and Blood of ow Lord do the Holy Eucharist, Oxford, 1857; G. F. Msmlear, The Witness of the Eucharist, London 1884; G. E. Steitz, in Jahrbilcher fiir deutsche Theologie, ix (1864), 409‑481, x (1865), 64‑152, 399‑483, xi (18&5), 193‑253, xii (1866), 211‑286, xiii (1868), 3‑66, 849‑700; J. B. Dalgavine, The Holy Communion, its Philosophy, Theology and Practice, New York, 1868 (Roman Catholic); H. Schmid, Der ICampf der lutheriachen Kirche um Lathers Lehre vom Abendmahd im Reformationazeitalter Leipaie, 1888; J. Harrison, Answer to Dr. Pussy's Challenge respecting the Doctrine of as Real Presence, 2 vole., London, 1871 (Anglican Low‑church); J. Macknaught, Cana Domini, ib. 1878 (on the doctrine of the Anglican Church); H. Schultz, Zw Lehre vom heiligen Abendmahl, Goths, 1888; L. Lanzoni, The Names of the Eudtaraat Dublin, 1887; J. P. Lilley, The Lord's Supper, . its Origin, Nature and Use, Edinburgh, 1891; F. L. Renz, Opfercharakter der Euehar%atie each der Lehre der Vader der drei eraten Jahrhunderte Padetborn 1892; J. It. Milne, Doctrine and Practice of the Eucharist, London, 1895; J. Wilpert, Fractio pants. Die dlteate Daratellung des eucharistiathen Opjera in der " Capella Grmca," Freiburg, 1895; J. Emend, Die eroanpeliachen deutachen Meaeen bia zu Luthera Deutacher Mesas, Gottingen, 1898; J. Behringer, Die heilipe Kommunion in ihren Wirkungen, Regensburg, 1895; A. Naegle, Die Euchariatielehre des
J. Chryaoatomus, Freiburg, 1900; V. Schmitt, Die Verheieaunp der Euchariatiebei den V4tern, Wiirzburg,1900; C. Gore, The Body of Christ; an Inquiry into the Institution and Doctrine of Holy Communion, London, 1901; W. G6tamann, Dos euchariatiache Opfer reach der Lehre der ttltern Scholaetik, Freiburg, 1901; A. G. Mortimer, Euchariatic Sacrifice; historical and theological Investigation of the sacrificial Conception . . . in the Catholic Church, London 1901; R. M. Adamson, Christian Doctrine of the Lord's Supper, Edinburgh, 1905; J. C. Hedley, The Holy Eucharist, London, 1907.
On IV. consult: SammZung liturgiacher Farmulare der evangeliach‑lutheriachen Kirche, part 3, NSrdlingen, 1842; A. L. Richter, Die evarageliachen Kirchenordnungen des Tti. Jahrhunderts, Weimar, 1846; H. A. Daniel, Codex litwpicua, vole., ii.‑iii., Ixipeic, 1847‑53; J. W. F. Hofling, Luwpiachet Urkunderabvch, viii. 75 aqq., Schwerin, 1861; L. $ch5berlein, Schatz des liturgiachen Chor‑ and Gemeindegeaanga, vol. i., Gbttingen, 1865.
On V. consult: W. Vaux, The Benefits Attached to Participation in, . . . as Lord's Supper, Oxford, 1826; A. N. Arnold, Prerequisites to Communion, Boston, 1860; T. W. Perry, Historical Considerations Relating to the Declaration on Kneeling in . . , the . . . Book of Common Prayer, London, 1863; F. Hall, Fasting Reception of as Blessed Sacrament, ib. 1882; J. W. Kempe, Reservation of the Blessed Sacrament, ib. 1887; R. $hiells, The Story of the Token as Belonging to , the Lord's Supper, New York, 1892; J. Hughes‑Games, Evening Communion, London, 1894; R. V. Bury, Vinum eacramenti; critical Examination of as Nature of the Wine of the Holy Communion, Dublin, 1904; C. R. Davey Biggs, The Lord's Supper; Text of the (Anglican) Service Explained, Oxford, 190b; $. Phillips, The Communion of the, Sick, London, 1905. LORD'S TABLE. See ALTAR, IIL, 2, § 2.
LORETO, lo‑r5'to: The most famous place of pilgrimage in Italy, and the principal seat for that country of the devotion to the Virgin Mary. It is situated 14 m. s.e. of Ancona on the road to Fermo, and is celebrated for its possession of what is alleged to be the house of the Virgin, transported thither from Nazareth by angels. The legend, although its first mention in literature is found in Flavius Blondus about the middle of the fifteenth century, seems to have grown up at the end of the crusading period. In its developed form, as found in Baptists Mantuanus (1576) and on a tablet on the wall of the church cited by Matthias Bernegger in 1619, it asserts that this is the actual portion of the dwelling of Mary at Nazareth in which she was
41 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Lord's Supper
born and brought up and received the angelic message, in which she lived after the ascension of her Son. Tile apostles, then, the legend goes on, made a church of it; St. Luke decorated it with a wooden figure of the Virgin holding the Child in her arms; and it was continuously used for worship until the fall of the kingdom of Jerusalem. Then, to save it from destruction by the unbelievers, angels appeared, caught it up into the air, and deposited it first at Raunitza in northern Dalma,tia, between Fiume and Tersato (1291). Its genuineness was accredited by the healing of some sick people who prayed within it and by an apparition of the Virgin to Bishop Alexander of Tersa,to, who was himself miraculously healed of a long illness. Three years later the angels again picked it up and carried it to the opposite coast of Italy (Dec. 10, 1294) setting it down in a wood belonging to a pious woman named Laureta, from whom the shrine took its name. It was once more removed a mile nearer to Recanati, and reached its final resting‑place Sept. 7, 1295. The second half of the fifteenth century saw a marked increase in devotion to the shrine. The earliest papal sanction of the devotion dates from Sixtus IV. (1471), who, as well as Julius II. (1507), uses the expression "as it is piously believed and the report is " in reference to the translation of the house. Sixtus V. (1587) founded a knightly order (Ordo et religio equitum Lauretanorum pontificiorum) for the protection of pilgrims, which as late as the eighteenth century had between two and three hundred members. Innocent XII. (d. 1700) sanctioned a special mass and office in honor of Our Lady of Loreto; and other popes granted special privileges, which, together with the munificent gifts of many Roman Catholic sovereigns, contributed to the spread of the devotion. At the beginning of the seventeenth century, not less than 200,000 pilgrims are said to have come to Loreto each year; but by the end of the eighteenth this number had much diminished, and in 1797 the French troops carried off nearly the whole of the enormous treasures of the shrine. Napoleon, however, made restitution of a part of them in 1800; and since the Roman Catholic revival of the nineteenth century the annual number of pilgrims has again exceeded 100,000. The artistic decoration of the shrine was carried on with great richness under Julius IL, Leo. X., Clement VIL, and Sixtus V. Numerous other shrines intended as reproductions of this have grown up in different parts of the world and attract many pilgrims. The Litany of Loreto, consisting of a long series of invocations of the Virgin under various titles, dates from the second half of the sixteenth century; the invocation Auxilium Christianortcm, ors pro nobt's was added in commemoration of the victory of Lepanto in 1571. The litany is now one of the most popular Roman Catholic devotions. (O. ZScgLER.)
BIBLIOIIRAPRY: The account by Baptists Mantuanus is contained in his Opera, iv. 216 sqq., Antwerp, 1578. Consult further: B. Bartoli, Le Clorie maeatose del aantuario dx Loreto, Maeerata,1712; Kirwan's Rornanis»I of Home, pp ~ 99‑107, New York, 1852: P. Arrigh7, Hiat. de la demeure de la S. Vi‑9c h Nazareth dam la baailique de Lorete, Paris, 1889; W. Garratt, Loreto, the New Nazareth, London. 1890; The Loretto Manual, Dublin, 1891; W. F. H Garratt, Loreto, the New .Nazareth and its Jubilee, London, 1895;
Lichtenberger, ESR, viii. 371‑372; KL, viii. 145‑1b2. A long list of the polemical writings of Protestants and of the apologetics of Roman Catholics is given in HauckHerzog, RE, xi. 647.
LORETO SISTERS. See ENGLISH LADIES; and WOMEN, CONGREGATIONS OF.
LORIMER, GEORGE CLAUDE: American Baptist; b. in Edinburgh, Scotland, June 4, 1838; d. at Aix‑les‑Bains (40 m. s.s.w. of Geneva), France, Sept. 8, 1904. He came to the United States in 1856 and studied at Georgetown College, Ky. He was pastor at Harrodsburg, Ky. (1859); Paducah (1860‑68); Albany, N. Y. (1868‑70); Boston (1870‑79); Chicago (1879‑90); Boston (18911902); and New York (1902‑04). He was the author of: Under the Evergreens (Boston, n. d.); Great Conflict: Discourse concerning Baptists and Religious Belief (1877); Isms old and new (Chicago, 1881); Jesus, the World's Saviour (1883); Studies in Social Life (1886); Baptists in History (BOStOIiI 1893); Argument for Christianity (Philadelphia, 1894); Messages of Today to the Men of Tomorrow (1896); Christianity and the Social State (1898); Christianity in the 19th Century (1900); Master of Millions (New York, 1903); and The Modern Crisis in Religion (1904); and edited the People's Bible History (2 vole., Chicago, 1896). LORIMER, PETER: English Presbyterian; b. in Edinburgh June 27, 1812; d. at Whitehaven (36 m. s.w, of Carlisle), Cumberland, July 29, 1879. He was the son of a master builder who occupied a good position in his native city. He received the elements of his education at George Heriot's Hospital, Edinburgh, and proceeded from the hospital to Edinburgh University. Here he passed through the classes of the arts curriculum with much credit, and also took his theological course, the professor of divinity at the time being Dr. Thomas Chalmers, to whom, as a teacher, Dr. Lorimer always acknowledged the highest obligations. In 1836 he was ordained as minister of the Presbyterian Church, River Terrace, London, connected with the Church of Scotland. In 1843, with his congregation, he cast in his lot with the Free Church. In 1845 he was appointed professor of Hebrew and Biblical criticism in the theological college of the English Presbyterian Church, then newly established in London, and in 1878 he was made principal. His most important writings are: a life of Patrick Hamilton (Edinburgh, 1857), the first of a projetted series of works on the precursors of Knox; The Scottish Reformation (London, 1860); John Knox and the Church of England (1875), founded on
the Kim papers preserUed Ameng ile M orr~
manuscripts; two lectures on The Evidential Value of the Early Epistles of St. Paul (1874); The
Evidence to Christianity Arising from its Adaptation to All the Deeper Wants of the Human Heart (1875); and a translation with notes of vol, i (containing Wyclif's personal history) of G. V. Lechler's Joharm von Wiclif and die Vargeschichte der Reforms,. Lion (John Wiclif and his English Predecessors, 2 vole., London, 1878 new eds. 1881, 1884). W. LEEt, revised by HENRY COwAN. BIHLIOCRAYHY: DNB, XXX1V, 13$.