Associate professor of church history princeton theological seminary baker book house

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Lord'. suppw THE NEW scHAFF‑IIERZOG ss

on much like Luther: preface, Sanctu8, prayer for a blessing on the reception, leading up to the words of institution, distribution, thanksgiving, the Nunc dimiuis or Song of Simeon, and the blessing. In 1525 he worked out an independent form of serv­ice, which was to be said, not sung. The commu­nicants being assembled in the choir, the minister first prayed, turning toward them, that they might be well prepared. Then followed the reading of I Cor. xi. 20‑29; the Gloria in excelsia, recited al­ternately in German by the men and women; the salutation and response " The Lord be with you," " And with thy spirit "; the reading of John vi. 47‑83; the Apostles' Creed, also recited alternately; a short exhortation on the comfort and the solem­nity of the feast; the Lord's Prayer, and another prayer for worthy reception; and the words of in­stitution. For the communion, unleavened bread on wooden plates and wine in wooden cups was given to the communicants, seated, by appointed assistants; each broke off a morsel of the bread for himself and took the chalice in his hands. Then, after the recitation of Psalm exiii. and a short thanksgiving, the minister dismissed the congrega­tion with " Go in .peace." This form, which ex­presses the Zwinglian conception of the Lord's Sup­per as a profession of faith and devotion on the part of the congregation, was retained with slight variations in the later Zilrich liturgies until 1675. According to the form of d'xolampadiua, there was a preparation consisting of confession and absolu­tion, psalm‑singing, a general prayer, and reading of the Gospel account of the Passion, after which a simple form of celebration followed, consisting of exhortation, the Lord's Prayer, words of institu­tion, communion, thanksgiving, and blessing.

8. The 8eformed Services: After Farel had abolished the Roman mass in Geneva, Calvin in­stituted an independent liturgy in his La manii're de alebrer la ce'ne. The Lord's Supper was to be celebrated once a year, after a sermon on its aignifi­oanoe and s prayer for worthy reception. The service then continued with the reading of I Cor. xi. 25‑29 and an exhortation, which contained a solemn excommunication of grievous sinners and enemies of church unity, urged all to examine their consciences carefully, and gave comfort to those who were weak in the faith or tempted to despair. In the conclusion of this, the ancient Suraum cords was paraphrased according to Calvin's dogmatic conceptions: " Let us lift up our hearts and minds thither where Jesus Christ is in the glory of his Father . . . for our souls will be well disposed to be nourished and vivified by his substance, when they are thus raised above all things earthly, to reach heaven itself and enter into the kingdom of God, where he dwells." Then followed the com­munion, with the provision that the minister him­self should first receive it, then give it to the dea­con and then to the whole congregation, who were to approach the holy table. The formula of ad­ministration was the following (in French): " Take and eat the body of Jesus, which was delivered up to death for you. Thin is the cup of the New Testa­ment in the blood of Jesus, which was shed for you." During the communion Psalm cwiii. wee sung,

followed by a prayer of thanksgiving, the Song of Simeon, and the blessing. Calvin's type of service wee followed by the scattered Reformed commu­nities in Westphalia and on the Rhine. In Swit­zerland the Calvinistic and Zwinglian forma were combined and modified in such various ways that at least six different forma exist to‑day. The order of service drawn up in 1550 by Johannes a Lasco (q.v.) for the Dutch refugees in England, the first complete order for the Calvinistic Reformed body, prescribes that on the day preceding the administra­tion of the Lord's Supper, a sermon is to be deliv­ered. At the time of the celebration, four cups and three pewter plates are to be set out on a table covered with a linen cloth. Another sermon is de­livered, ending with an exhortation forbidding the approach of those who have not yet made their profession of faith and put themselves under Chris­tian discipline or who have not given notice of their intention to receive. Then follow a prayer, the words of institution, and an exhortation to aelf­examination, after which the minister reads I Cor. v. 7, 8. The communion has the character of a family meal. The minister, elders, and members of the congregation sit around the table, as far as there is room. The minister takes a piece of the bread which is in the larger plate and, with the words, " The bread which we break is the commu­nion of the body of Christ," divides it into small pieces on the other two plates, then handing it to those who sit near him with the words, " Take, eat, remember and believe that the body of our Lord Jesus Christ was given up to death upon the wood of the cross for the forgiveness of all our sins." The plates are then passed to those who sit further off and the same proceeding is observed in the ad­ministration of the cup, with corresponding words. First the men and then the women take their places around the table in turn, while John vi. and xiii.­xv. are read from the chancel. After the commu­nion, the service closes with a word from the minis­ter, thanksgiving, a psalm, and the blearing. The Dutch Reformed Church still maintains this order, in which is obvious the attempt to assimilate the celebration as much as possible to the brotherly fellowship at the table of the original institution. The Scotch Church also derives its form from the order of Johannes a Lasco, and, like the Reformed Church of France, gives a similar complexion to the celebration.

4. The Anglican Communion: In accordance with the general tendency of the English Reformer tion, a very large part of the Reformed service is taken more or leas directly from the older liturgies, and even some parts which do not occur in the Roman mass have ancient precedent. Thus the prayer for the Church militant occupies the same position as the great intercession in the Gallican rite, and the recitation of the Ten Commandments, while probably due to the ethical tendency of the age, has been explained by some liturgical scholars as answering to the prophecy, or reading from the Old Testament, which in some other ancient litur­gies preceded the epistle and Gospel. Several por­tions newly added were intended to emphasise the aspect of the service as a communion; thus the


prayer of Humble Access, the Comfortable Words, and the position and wording of the confession and absolution presuppose the reception of the commu­nion by the bulk of the congregation. The canon is much shortened, following the Roman closely in the essential part, and the Lord's Prayer, as scarcely ever elsewhere, follows the communion. The Gloria in excelaia retained its ancient position in the first Prayer‑book of Edward VI., but was after­ward moved to the end of the service, as an act of 'I thanksgiving. See also Commorr PRAYER, Boos: OF.

V. Certain Points of Interest not Already Treated: In the primitive Church, the newly baptized were immediately admitted to commu­nion; and with the growing frequency of infant baptism the same custom was still maintained. Cygrian (De lapsis, ix.) speaks of children who at the outset of their lives have received " the meat and drink of the Lord," and similar

z. Infant evidence may be collected from the

Communion. Apostolic Constitutions, Dionysius the

Areopagite, Paulinus of Nola (d. 431),

and Gennadiue of Marseilles (c. 492). The neces­

sity of communion to salvation being taught on the

basis of John vi. 53, this argument is applied to the

communion of infants by Augustine and by Inno­

cent I. But evidences of the practise are not con­

fined to the first six centuries, as some have con­

tended; on the contrary, they come down as late

as the twelfth, in which Paschal II. (1118) prescribes

that the two elements are to be separately admin­

istered " except to infants and those who are so

weak that they can not swallow the bread," and

Robertus Paululus speaks of the custom as extant,

although beginning to disappear. A synodal or­

dinance of Odo, bishop of Paris, in 1175, and a

canon of the Synod of Bordeaux in 1255 attest its

cessation in France, the latter prescribing the ad­

ministration of blessed bread (see EULDaIA) instead

of the Host. It is a question whether the existence

of the custom can be shown in Germany later than

the twelfth century. The Council of Trent ruled

finally (Seaaio XXI. chap. 4) that children below

the age of reason were bound by no necessity to sac­

ramental communion of the Eucharist, " although

antiquity is not to be condemned for observing this

custom in certain places and times." The Greek

Church has retained the practise to the present day.

The Evangelical churches, making admission to

communion dependent on spiritual maturity as evi­

denced by a special examination, have .naturally not

retained it. (GEORG RIEIBCHEL.)

In the early Church it was customary to carry the consecrated elements immediately after serv­ice to the sick and to prisoners; and two passages in Tertullian (Ad uxorem, IL, v.; De oraCiorae, six.) seem to imply the custom of communicating at home under the species of bread even apart from illness. Later we find the consecrated

3. Commit‑ bread carried on journeys and used as Ilion of an amulet, a practise against which

the Sick. more than one council legislated. With

the introduction of communion in one

kind it became usual to carry the consecrated bread

to the sick immediately after mesa or from the

tabernacle in which it was reserved; and the strict

enforcement of the rule of fasting communion made

it desirable as obviating the necessity of the priest's

having to celebrate in the afternoon or evening for

a person in sudden danger of death. In the Church

of England a special service is provided for the

celebration of the communion in the sick room,

somewhat shorten than the usual form; but in re­

cent years, with the growth of the practise of reser­

vation, the elements are not infrequently carried

from the church and administered with a brief form

of prayer. The Lutheran Church freely allows pri­

vate communion, while the Reformed discourages it.

In the pre‑Reformation Church the principal re­

quirements for a worthy reception of the sacra­

ment were freedom from sin and fasting from the

previous midnight. Both of these are strictly re­

quired in the Roman Catholic Church at the pres­

ent day. The former is imposed as a matter of ab­

solute necessity in the case of mortal

3. Require‑ sin, when confession must invariably

meats for precede communion; in practise con­

Communi‑ feesion is usually recommended to in­

cants. frequent communicants, even though

they may not be conscious of having

committed a mortal sin since their last communion.

The question of the frequency of communion is one

which has been much discussed at different times.

It is generally admitted that in the Apostolic Age

it was received, if not daily, at Ieast on Sunday,

Wednesday, and Friday. As the zeal of the days

of persecution diminished, it became ha frequent,

and Chrysostom had to rebuke those who com­

municated only once a year. In Africa as late as

Augustine's day once a week was the usual mini­

mum. The second Synod of Tours (850) required

at least three times a year; but by the Lateran

Council of 1215 the Church had come to limit the

actual requirement to once a year, at Easter. In

'the sixteenth century the frequency once more in­

creased, under the influence of Ignatius and Philip

Neri, and was spoken of as highly desirable by the

Council of Trent. The Janseniat and Quietist

movements in France (especially through Arnauld's

treatise De la ,frNuente communion) tended to di­

minish it once more, and the laxity of modern

times makes it usual for eYeIl MY deY0U6 p8(1p~

to communicate at most once a month. In the

Anglican communion, after the Reformation, the

frequency of administration fell in most places to

four times a year, or at most once a month, until

the High‑church revival of the nineteenth century

restored it to normally once a week and in many

places daily, with a consequent increase in the fre­

quency of communion. In the other Protestant

churches the quarterly administration is the most

usual. The requirement of fasting, for which there

is early evidence, was prescribed as a matter of

reverence. In modern Roman Catholic practise

the exceptions which excuse from it are serious

illness and the necessity of protecting the sacred

i species from profanation or of completing the mass

in the case of a sudden indisposition of the cele­

brant. Thin rule also is increasingly emphasized

in the Anglican Communion under present condi­

tions, but does not occur in the other Reformation

churches, which content themselves with requiring


a genertil condition of faith and repentance. As to the first admission to communion, they usually require a formal ceremony of recognition of mem­bership or the like; according to the rubric of the Anglican Prayer‑book " none shall be admitted to the Holy Communion except he be confirmed, or be ready and desirous to be confirmed."

The original Lutheran and Calvinist types of ad­ministration have been noted above. The mode of administration in non‑Episcopal churches in

America and England is almost uni­4. Practises form. The elements are consecrated

Connected by prayer by the minister, who breaks

with as much bread and pours out as much Adminis‑ wine as he deems sufficient. He re­tration. pests the words of institution; he then

hands the elements for distribution to the elders or deacons, who serve him first and then pass to the other communicants sitting in their pews. In the Anglican Communion and also in many Lutheran churches the communicants kneel at the chancel rail. In the German Reformed Church they stand. On modern sanitary princi­ples an agitation has recently been made in America for the introduction of individual communion cups, and the movement has slowly spread very widely. For communion in both kinds see Mnss, IL, 5.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: On the general subject the works cited under Eucawalsm should be consulted, as also those under TRANSUBSTANTIATION. On 3...conault: The works cited in Biblical Introduction, IL, especially those of Weise and Beyschlag; J. G. Scheibel, Daa Abendmahl des Horn, Breslau, 1823; D. Schulz, Die chriatliche Lehre vom Ahend­mahl noch dem Grundlext des N. T., ib. 1824; J. J. I. von IuSllinger, Die Lehre von der Euehar%atie in den drei staler Jahrhunderten, Mainz, 1825; F. W. Linjner, Die Lehrs vom Abendmahl reach der Schrift, Hamburg, 1831; K. F. A. Kahnie, Die Lehre vom Abendmahl, Leipsie, 1E51; L. J. Rtlekert, Doe Aberdmahl, aein Wesen and seine Ge­echichte in der alters Kirche, ib. 1856; C. T. Keim, Go­schichte Jean von Naeara, iii. 268, Zurich, 1872, Eng. trawl., 8 vole., London, 187582; H. Schultz, in TSK, 1888; P. Lobstein, La Doctrine de la saints cdne, Lausanne, 1889; Harnack, in TU, vii. 2, 1891; T. Zahn, Brot and Weir in Abandmahl der alter Kirche, Leipeic, 1892, cf. Barnack in TLZ, no. 15, 1892; A. Jiilicher, in Theolo­piachs Abhandlungen . . K. von Weizattcker gewidmet, Freiburg, 1882; C. Weizeileker, Doe apoetoliache Zeitalter, pp. 574 eqq., Freiburg, 1892, Eng. travel., The Apostolic Ape, 2 vole., London, 1894‑95; F. $pitta, ZwGeachichte and Literatw des Urchrfietentuma, vol. i., GSttingen, 1893; E. Grafe, in Zeitaehrift far Theologie and Kirche, 1895, part 2, pp. 101‑138; F. $chulten, Doe Abendmahl im N. T., G5t­tingen, 1895; A. C. MaGiffert, Hiet. of Christianity in as Apostolic Ape, pp. 88 eqq. et passim, New York, 1897; A. Eiohhorn, Daa Abendmahl im N. T., Leipsie, 1898; Schaff, Christian Church, i. 471‑474; and the commen­taries on the basal passages.

On TT (history of the doctrine is the Church) consult: Harpack, Dogma, vole, i., ii., iv., v., vii. and, in general, the treatises on the history of doctrine; the works of DSllinger, Kabnie and Rilekert, ut sup.; F. C. Baur, in Tgbinper Zeitechrift flit Theolopie, 1839, pp. b8‑144; J. H. A. Ebrard, Daa Dogma vom heilipen Abendmahl and seine Geachiclue, 2 vole., Frankfort, 184b‑48; J. W. Nevin, The Mdatical Presence; Vindication of the Reformed or Calvinistic Docking of the Holy Eucharist, Philadelphia, 1848; W. J. E. Bennett, The Eucharist; its Hiat., Doc­trine, and Practice, London, 1851; J. W. F. HSfling, Die Lehre der 8lteaten Kirehe room OyJer, Erlangen, 1851; R. Wilberforce, The Doctrine of as Holy Eucharist, London, 1853 (Anglican tractarian); A. W. DieckhoH, Die evan­gelisths Lehre im Reformotiomzeitalter, G&ttingen, 1854; R. Halley, The Saeramenta, part TL, The Lord's Supper, London, 1855; P. Freeman, The Principles of Divine Service, 2 parts, London, 1855‑82; E. Bickereteth, A 1'reatias on as Lord's Supper, ed. L. W. P. Batch, New

York, 1857; E. B. Pussy, The Real Presence of the Body and Blood of ow Lord do the Holy Eucharist, Oxford, 1857; G. F. Msmlear, The Witness of the Eucharist, Lon­don 1884; G. E. Steitz, in Jahrbilcher fiir deutsche The­ologie, ix (1864), 409‑481, x (1865), 64‑152, 399‑483, xi (18&5), 193‑253, xii (1866), 211‑286, xiii (1868), 3‑66, 849‑700; J. B. Dalgavine, The Holy Communion, its Philosophy, Theology and Practice, New York, 1868 (Ro­man Catholic); H. Schmid, Der ICampf der lutheriachen Kirche um Lathers Lehre vom Abendmahd im Reformationa­zeitalter Leipaie, 1888; J. Harrison, Answer to Dr. Pussy's Challenge respecting the Doctrine of as Real Presence, 2 vole., London, 1871 (Anglican Low‑church); J. Mack­naught, Cana Domini, ib. 1878 (on the doctrine of the Anglican Church); H. Schultz, Zw Lehre vom heiligen Abendmahl, Goths, 1888; L. Lanzoni, The Names of the Eudtaraat Dublin, 1887; J. P. Lilley, The Lord's Supper, . its Origin, Nature and Use, Edinburgh, 1891; F. L. Renz, Opfercharakter der Euehar%atie each der Lehre der Vader der drei eraten Jahrhunderte Padetborn 1892; J. It. Milne, Doctrine and Practice of the Eucharist, London, 1895; J. Wilpert, Fractio pants. Die dlteate Daratellung des eucharistiathen Opjera in der " Capella Grmca," Frei­burg, 1895; J. Emend, Die eroanpeliachen deutachen Mea­een bia zu Luthera Deutacher Mesas, Gottingen, 1898; J. Behringer, Die heilipe Kommunion in ihren Wirkungen, Regensburg, 1895; A. Naegle, Die Euchariatielehre des

J. Chryaoatomus, Freiburg, 1900; V. Schmitt, Die Verheieaunp der Euchariatiebei den V4tern, Wiirzburg,1900; C. Gore, The Body of Christ; an Inquiry into the Institu­tion and Doctrine of Holy Communion, London, 1901; W. G6tamann, Dos euchariatiache Opfer reach der Lehre der ttltern Scholaetik, Freiburg, 1901; A. G. Mortimer, Euchar­iatic Sacrifice; historical and theological Investigation of the sacrificial Conception . . . in the Catholic Church, London 1901; R. M. Adamson, Christian Doctrine of the Lord's Supper, Edinburgh, 1905; J. C. Hedley, The Holy Eucharist, London, 1907.

On IV. consult: SammZung liturgiacher Farmulare der evangeliach‑lutheriachen Kirche, part 3, NSrdlingen, 1842; A. L. Richter, Die evarageliachen Kirchenordnungen des Tti. Jahrhunderts, Weimar, 1846; H. A. Daniel, Codex litwpicua, vole., ii.‑iii., Ixipeic, 1847‑53; J. W. F. Hof­ling, Luwpiachet Urkunderabvch, viii. 75 aqq., Schwerin, 1861; L. $ch5berlein, Schatz des liturgiachen Chor‑ and Gemeindegeaanga, vol. i., Gbttingen, 1865.

On V. consult: W. Vaux, The Benefits Attached to Par­ticipation in, . . . as Lord's Supper, Oxford, 1826; A. N. Arnold, Prerequisites to Communion, Boston, 1860; T. W. Perry, Historical Considerations Relating to the Declaration on Kneeling in . . , the . . . Book of Com­mon Prayer, London, 1863; F. Hall, Fasting Reception of as Blessed Sacrament, ib. 1882; J. W. Kempe, Reserva­tion of the Blessed Sacrament, ib. 1887; R. $hiells, The Story of the Token as Belonging to , the Lord's Supper, New York, 1892; J. Hughes‑Games, Evening Communion, London, 1894; R. V. Bury, Vinum eacramenti; critical Examination of as Nature of the Wine of the Holy Com­munion, Dublin, 1904; C. R. Davey Biggs, The Lord's Supper; Text of the (Anglican) Service Explained, Ox­ford, 190b; $. Phillips, The Communion of the, Sick, Lon­don, 1905.
LORETO, lo‑r5'to: The most famous place of pilgrimage in Italy, and the principal seat for that country of the devotion to the Virgin Mary. It is situated 14 m. s.e. of Ancona on the road to Fermo, and is celebrated for its possession of what is alleged to be the house of the Virgin, transported thither from Nazareth by angels. The legend, although its first mention in literature is found in Flavius Blondus about the middle of the fifteenth century, seems to have grown up at the end of the crusading period. In its developed form, as found in Bap­tists Mantuanus (1576) and on a tablet on the wall of the church cited by Matthias Bernegger in 1619, it asserts that this is the actual portion of the dwelling of Mary at Nazareth in which she was



born and brought up and received the angelic mes­sage, in which she lived after the ascension of her Son. Tile apostles, then, the legend goes on, made a church of it; St. Luke decorated it with a wooden figure of the Virgin holding the Child in her arms; and it was continuously used for wor­ship until the fall of the kingdom of Jerusalem. Then, to save it from destruction by the unbe­lievers, angels appeared, caught it up into the air, and deposited it first at Raunitza in northern Dal­ma,tia, between Fiume and Tersato (1291). Its genuineness was accredited by the healing of some sick people who prayed within it and by an appa­rition of the Virgin to Bishop Alexander of Ter­sa,to, who was himself miraculously healed of a long illness. Three years later the angels again picked it up and carried it to the opposite coast of Italy (Dec. 10, 1294) setting it down in a wood be­longing to a pious woman named Laureta, from whom the shrine took its name. It was once more removed a mile nearer to Recanati, and reached its final resting‑place Sept. 7, 1295. The second half of the fifteenth century saw a marked increase in devotion to the shrine. The earliest papal sanction of the devotion dates from Sixtus IV. (1471), who, as well as Julius II. (1507), uses the expression "as it is piously believed and the report is " in refer­ence to the translation of the house. Sixtus V. (1587) founded a knightly order (Ordo et religio equitum Lauretanorum pontificiorum) for the pro­tection of pilgrims, which as late as the eighteenth century had between two and three hundred mem­bers. Innocent XII. (d. 1700) sanctioned a special mass and office in honor of Our Lady of Loreto; and other popes granted special privileges, which, together with the munificent gifts of many Roman Catholic sovereigns, contributed to the spread of the devotion. At the beginning of the seventeenth century, not less than 200,000 pilgrims are said to have come to Loreto each year; but by the end of the eighteenth this number had much dimin­ished, and in 1797 the French troops carried off nearly the whole of the enormous treasures of the shrine. Napoleon, however, made restitution of a part of them in 1800; and since the Roman Catho­lic revival of the nineteenth century the annual number of pilgrims has again exceeded 100,000. The artistic decoration of the shrine was carried on with great richness under Julius IL, Leo. X., Clem­ent VIL, and Sixtus V. Numerous other shrines intended as reproductions of this have grown up in different parts of the world and attract many pilgrims. The Litany of Loreto, consisting of a long series of invocations of the Virgin under various titles, dates from the second half of the sixteenth cen­tury; the invocation Auxilium Christianortcm, ors pro nobt's was added in commemoration of the victory of Lepanto in 1571. The litany is now one of the most popular Roman Catholic devotions. (O. ZScgLER.)

BIBLIOIIRAPRY: The account by Baptists Mantuanus is contained in his Opera, iv. 216 sqq., Antwerp, 1578. Con­sult further: B. Bartoli, Le Clorie maeatose del aantuario dx Loreto, Maeerata,1712; Kirwan's Rornanis»I of Home, pp ~ 99‑107, New York, 1852: P. Arrigh7, Hiat. de la demeure de la S. Vi‑9c h Nazareth dam la baailique de Lorete, Paris, 1889; W. Garratt, Loreto, the New Nazareth, London. 1890; The Loretto Manual, Dublin, 1891; W. F. H Garratt, Loreto, the New .Nazareth and its Jubilee, London, 1895;

Lichtenberger, ESR, viii. 371‑372; KL, viii. 145‑1b2. A long list of the polemical writings of Protestants and of the apologetics of Roman Catholics is given in Hauck­Herzog, RE, xi. 647.


LORIMER, GEORGE CLAUDE: American Bap­tist; b. in Edinburgh, Scotland, June 4, 1838; d. at Aix‑les‑Bains (40 m. s.s.w. of Geneva), France, Sept. 8, 1904. He came to the United States in 1856 and studied at Georgetown College, Ky. He was pastor at Harrodsburg, Ky. (1859); Paducah (1860‑68); Albany, N. Y. (1868‑70); Boston (1870‑79); Chicago (1879‑90); Boston (1891­1902); and New York (1902‑04). He was the author of: Under the Evergreens (Boston, n. d.); Great Conflict: Discourse concerning Baptists and Religious Belief (1877); Isms old and new (Chicago, 1881); Jesus, the World's Saviour (1883); Studies in Social Life (1886); Baptists in History (BOStOIiI 1893); Argument for Christianity (Philadelphia, 1894); Messages of Today to the Men of Tomorrow (1896); Christianity and the Social State (1898); Christianity in the 19th Century (1900); Master of Millions (New York, 1903); and The Modern Crisis in Religion (1904); and edited the People's Bible History (2 vole., Chicago, 1896).
LORIMER, PETER: English Presbyterian; b. in Edinburgh June 27, 1812; d. at Whitehaven (36 m. s.w, of Carlisle), Cumberland, July 29, 1879. He was the son of a master builder who occupied a good position in his native city. He received the elements of his education at George Heriot's Hos­pital, Edinburgh, and proceeded from the hospital to Edinburgh University. Here he passed through the classes of the arts curriculum with much credit, and also took his theological course, the professor of divinity at the time being Dr. Thomas Chalmers, to whom, as a teacher, Dr. Lorimer always acknowl­edged the highest obligations. In 1836 he was or­dained as minister of the Presbyterian Church, River Terrace, London, connected with the Church of Scotland. In 1843, with his congregation, he cast in his lot with the Free Church. In 1845 he was appointed professor of Hebrew and Biblical criticism in the theological college of the English Presbyterian Church, then newly established in London, and in 1878 he was made principal. His most important writings are: a life of Patrick Hamilton (Edinburgh, 1857), the first of a pro­jetted series of works on the precursors of Knox; The Scottish Reformation (London, 1860); John Knox and the Church of England (1875), founded on

the Kim papers preserUed Ameng ile M orr~

manuscripts; two lectures on The Evidential Value of the Early Epistles of St. Paul (1874); The

Evidence to Christianity Arising from its Adaptation to All the Deeper Wants of the Human Heart (1875); and a translation with notes of vol, i (containing Wyclif's personal history) of G. V. Lechler's Jo­harm von Wiclif and die Vargeschichte der Reforms,. Lion (John Wiclif and his English Predecessors, 2 vole., London, 1878 new eds. 1881, 1884).

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