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THE NEW


SCHAFF‑HERZOG


ENCYCLOPEDIA


OF


RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE


Editor‑in‑Chirf


SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.


Editor‑in‑Chief

of

Supplementary Volumes




LEFFERTS A. LOETSCHER, Ph.D., D.D.

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CHURCH HISTORY

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY


BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN







THE NEW


SCHAFF‑HERZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA

Or

RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE



EDITED BY

SAMUEL MACAULEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.



(Editor‑in‑Chi)

WITH THE SOLE ASSISTANCE, AFTER VOLUME VI., OR

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.



(Amociate Editor)

AND THE FOLLOWING DEPARTMENT EDITORS


CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, D.D.

(Department of Systematic Theology)
HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.

(Department of Minor Denominations)
JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.

(Department of Liturgim and Religious Order8)


JAMES FREDERIC MCCURDY, PH.D., LL.D.

(Department of the Old Testament)
HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.

(Department of the New Testament)
ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D.

(Department of Church History)


FRANK HORACE PIZETELLY, F.S.A.

(Department of Pronunciation and Typography)


VOLUME IX

PETRI ‑ REUCHLIN




BAKER BOOK HOUSE

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN

1953

EXCLUSIVE AMERICAN PUBLICATION RIGHTS

SECURED BY BAKER BOOK HOUSE FROM FUNK AND WAGNALLS

PHOTOLITHOPRINTED BY CUSHING ‑ MALLOY, INC.

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

1953


EDITORS


BAIL MACAQLEY JACKSON, D.D., LL.D.

(EDITOR‑IN‑CHIEF.)

Professor of Church History, New York University.

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.

(A$BOCIATE EDITOR.)

New York,

Formerly Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer on Comparative Religion.

Bangor Theological Seminary.

DEPARTMENT EDITORS, VOLUME IX

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, JAMES FREDERICK McCURDY, Ph.D.,

D.D., LL.D.

(Department of Systematic Theology.) (Department of as 01d Testament.)



Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological

Seminary.

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.,

(Department of Minor Denominations.)

Secretary of Executive Committee of] the Western Section

for the Fourth Ecumenical Methodist Conference.

JAMES FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.,



(Department of Liturgics and Religious Orders.)

Rector of St. Gabriel's, New Rochelle, N. Y.

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College,

Toronto.


HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.,

(Department of the New Testament.)

Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New

Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.

ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D.,



(Department of Church History.)

Professor of Church History Southwestern Baptist

Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, Tex.

FRANK HORACE QIZETELLY, F.S.A.,



(Department of Pronunciation and Typography.)

Managing Editor of the STANDARD Drcrroxsar, etc.,

New York City.

CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME IX

JUSTIN EDWARDS ABBOTT, D.D., CARL BERTHEAU, Th.D.,

Missionary in Bombay, India. Pastor at St. Michael's, Hamburg.

HANG ACHELIS, Ph.D., Th.D., EDWIN DiUNSELL BLISS, D.D.,

Professor of Theology, University of Halls. Author of Books on Missions, Washington, D. C.

SAMUEL JUNE BARROWS (t), D.D., THEODORA CROSBY BLISS,

Late Corresponding Secretary of the Prison Association, Writer on Missions.

New York. MABEL THORP BOARDMAN,

GEORGE JAMES BAYLES, Ph.D., Member of Executive Committee of the American

r r National Red Cross.

Writer on Civil Church Law. HEINRICH BOEHMER Ph .D., Th.D.,

DONALD BEATON, Professor of Church History, T?niversity of Bonn.

Minister at Wick, Scotland. GOTTLIEB NATHANAEL BONWETSCH,

CLARENCE AUGUSTINE BECKWITH, Th.D.,

D.D., Professor of Church History, University of Gottingen.

Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological

Seminary. GUSTAV BOSSERT, Ph.D., Th.D.,

GEORG BEER, Ph.D., Th.Lic., Retired Pastor, Stuttgart.


Extraordinary Professor of the Old Testament in the Evan­

gelical Theological Faculty, University of Strasburg.

HENRY BEETS,

Stated Clerk of the Synod of the Christian Reformed Church,

Editor‑in‑Chief of The Banner, Grand Rapids, Mich.

EARL BENRATH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Konigsberg.

IMMANUEL GUSTAV ADOLF BENZIN­

GER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

German Orientalist and Vice‑Consul for Holland in



Jerusalem.

FRIEDRICH HEINRICH BRANDE$,

Th.D.,


Reformed Minister and Chat at Biickeburg, Schaum­



burg‑ippe.

EDUARD BRATSE (t), Ph.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, University of Breslau.

CHARLES AUGUSTUS BRIGGS, D.D.,

Litt.D..


Professor of Theological Encyclopedia end Symbolics, Union

Theological Seminary, New York.

JOHN BROWNE ( fi),

Late Pastor at R.eatham, Suffolk Co., England.





CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME IX.


OSKAR GOTTLIEB RUDOLF

BQDDENSIEG (t), Ph.D.,

Late Director of the Teachers' Seminary in Dresden.

FRANTS PEDER WILLTAX BUHL, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,

Professor of Semitlo Languages, University of Copenhagen.



KARL BURGER (t), Th.D.,

Late Supreme Consietorial Councilor in Munich.

JOHN KENNEDY CAMERON, M.A.,

Professor of SystematEdinburic Theol

gogy, Free Church College,

h.

HUBERT CARL ETON, X.A.,



Editor of St. Andrew's Cross and General Secretary of the

Brotherhood of St. Andrew, Boston.

HEREWARD CARRINGTON,

Writer on Psychical Research.

HENRY KING CARROLL, LL.D.,

Secretary of Executive Committee of the Western Section

for the Fourth Ecumenical Methodist Conference.

WALTER AUGUST ANTON NATHAN

CASPARI, Ph.D., Th.D.,

University Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology,

University of Erlangen.

JACQUES EUGf$NE CHOISY, Th.D.,

Pastor in Geneva.

FE$DINAND COHRS, Th.Lic.,

Consietorial Councilor, Ilfeld, Germany.

LEIGHTON COLEMAN (t), D.D.,

Late Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Delaware.

WILLIAX RUSSELL COLLINS, AD.,

Professor of Litu~r es and Ecclesiastical Polity Reformed

Episcopal geological Seminary. Philadzphia.

EDWARD TANJORE CORWIN, D.D.,

Church Historian, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

SAMUEL CRAHER, Th.D.,

Professor of the History of Christianity,. University of Am­

sterdam, and Professor of Practrosl Theology,

Mennonite Theological Seminary, Amsterdam.

WILHELM CREIZENACH, ‑h.D.,

Professor of German Philology in the University of Cracow.

HERMANN DALTON, Th.D.,

Retired Consietorial Councilor, Berlin.

WILLIAM JOHNSON DARBY, D.D.,

Assistant Secretary of the Board of Education of the Pres­

byterian Church in the United States.

EDWIN CHARLES DARGAN, D.D., LL.D.,

Pastor of the First Baptist Church, Mama, Georgia.

JOHN D. DAVIS, D.D., LL.D., Ph.D.,

Professor of Oriental and Old Testament Literature, Prince­

ton Theological Seminary.

JULIUS DECKE,

Church Inspector. Breslau.

MORTON DEXTER (t), BZ.A.,

Late Congregational Clergyman and Author. Boston.

FRIEDRICH CARL OTTO DIBELIUS,

Ph.D., Th.Lio~,

Archdeacon at Crossen, Germany.

ERNST VON DOBSCHUETZ, Th.D.,

Professor of New‑Testament Exegesis, University of Breslau.

LEONHARD ERNST DORN,

Head Preacher, Nordlingen, Bavaria.

WILLIE KIR"ATRICK DOUGLAS,

Dean of Due West Female College, Due West, S. C.


PAUL GOTTFRIED DEEWS, Thm.,

Professor of Practical Theology, University of Halls.

JARMS FRANCIS DRISCOLL, D.D.,

Pastor of St. Gabriel's, New Rochelle, N. Y.

EHIL EGLI (t), Th.D.,

late Professor of Church History, University of Zurich.

CHRISTIAN FBIEDBICH DAVID

ERDMANN (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, University of Breslau.

JOHN YOUNG EVANS, X.A., B.D.,

Professor in Trevecca College, Aberwyatwyth, Wales.

JOHN OLUF EVJEN, Ph.D.,

JPmfessor of Theoloep Augpburg Theological Seminary,
PAUL JOHANNES FICKER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, Strasburg.

FRITZ FLEINER, Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Law, University of Heidelberg.

ROBERT VERB LL FOSTER, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Syetemritic Theology, Cumberland Presbyterian

Theological Seminary, Lebanon, Tenn.

GUSTAV WILHELM FRANK (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Dogm atica, Symbolise. and Christian

Ethics, University of Vienna.

FRANZ HERMANN FRANK (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Theology, University of Erlangen.

EMIL ALBERT FRIEDBERG,

Th.D., Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Ecclesiastical, Public, and German Law,

University of Leipsic.

WILHELM GERMANN (t), Ph.D.,

Late Superintendent in Schleusingen, Prussian Saxony.

GEORGE WILLIAM GILMORE, M.A.,

Formerly Lecturer on Comparative Religion Bangor Theo­

logical Seminary, Associate Editor of 7rHE NEw

SCBAP'P'‑HHRZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA..

FRANZ (IOERRES, Ph.D.,

Assistant Librarian, University of Bonn.

WILHELM GOETZ, Ph.D.,

Honorary Professor of Geo~graphy Technical High School,

and Professor at Military Xcademy, Munich.

HERXANN FREIHERR VON DER,

G10LTZ (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of Dogmatics, University of Berlin.

JAMES ISAAC GOOD, D.D.,

Professor of Reformed Church History and Liturgics, Can.

tral Theological Seminary, Dayton, Ohio.

WILLIAM ELLIOT GRIFFIS, D.D.,

L.H.D.,

Author and Lecturer on Historical Subjects, Ithaca, N. Y.



PAUL QRUENBERGf, Th.D.,

Pastor in Strasburg.

CARL VON GRUENEISEN (t), D.D.,

Late Court Preacher in Stuttgart.

GEORGE GRUETZMACHER, Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Extraordinary Professor H~d~ Church History, University of


RICHARD HEINRICH GRUETZMACHER,

Th.D.,


Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Rostock.

HERMANN GUTHE, Th.D.,

Professor of Old‑Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsic.

ARTHUR CRAWSHAY ALLISTON



HALL, D.D., LL.D.,

Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Vermont.






CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME IX.


ADOLF HARNAaH, Ph.D., Th.D., Dr.

Jun, M.D.,

General Director of the Royal Library, Berlin.

ALBERT HAUCK, Ph.D., Th.D., Dr. Jnr.,

Professor of Church Hietory , University of Leipew Editor­

in‑0hief of the Hauok‑Hereon Realancykdoptldis.

JOHANNES HAQSSI,EITEB, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Coneietorial Councilor Pmfe~or of New‑Testament Theol­

ogy and F.zeeis, University of ~reifswald.

CARL FRIEDRICH G303LG HXINRIOI,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of New‑Testament Exegesis, University of Laipaio.

MA% HEINZ39 (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Philosophy, University of Leipsic.

LUDWIG THEODOR EDGAR HENNECKE,

Ph.D., Th.Lic.,

Pastor at Betheln, Hanover.

WILHELM HERRMANN, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Marburg.

JOHANN JAKOB HERZOG (t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Professor of Reformed Theology, University of

Erlangen.

RICHARD MORSE HODGE, D.D.,

Lecturer in Biblical Literature. Teachers' College,

New York City.

GUSTAV HOENNICBE, Ph.D., Th.Lie.,

Privatdocent in New‑Testament Exegesis, University of

Berlin.


OSWALD HOLDER‑E(i(iEB, Ph.D.,

Professor at Berlin and Director for the Publication of the



Monuments Germania Histories.

WILHELM HOELSCHER, Th.D.,

Pastor of St. Nicoleikirche, Leipeio.

ERNST IDELEB,

Pastor at Ahrenedorf, near Potsdam.

JOHANN FRIEDRICH IBEN (t),

Late Pastor in Bremen.

H31INRICH FRANZ JACOBSON (t), Ph.D.,

Late Professor of Law, University of Konigsberg.

FERDINAND FRIEDRICH WILHELM

SATTENBU$CH, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics, University of Halls.

PETER ( QSTAV HAWEBAU, Th.D.,

Consietorial Councilor, Professor of Priotical Theology, and

University Preacher, University f Breslau.

OTTO SIGN, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Dogmatics, University of Leipsic.

RUDOLF BITTEL, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsic.

KA36LL RUDOLF HLasE (t), Th.D.,

Late Secretary of the Library, Hamburg.

EDWARD HOOKE KNIGHT, D.D.P

Dean of the Hartford School of Religious Pedagogy,

Hartford. Corm.

JUSTUS ADOLF HOEBEBLE (t), Th.D.,

Late Professor of the Old Testament, University of RAStoolc.

HEINRICH ADOLF gOESTLIN (t),

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Privy Councilor in Cannetadt, formerly Professor of

Theology. University of Giessen.

CHhbISTOPH FRIEDRICH ADOLF 80L8,

Th.D.,


Prelsb and CmuG Preacher, Ludwigsburg.


THZOD03EL FRIEDRICH HKB.XANN

HOLDE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History. University of Erlangen.

HERMANN GUSTAV EDUARD KRUEGER,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History. University of Giessen.

JOHANNES WILHELM 8'iJNZE,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of SystemstitiaGn Theology, University
EQ(iEN LACHENllCANN,

City Pastor, Leonberg, Warttembety.

LUDWIG LEMBIE, Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology. University of Heidelberg

ORLANDO FAULBT•AND LEWIS,

Corresponding Secretary of the Prison Association and

Secretary of the Finance Committee of the Charity

Organisation Society. New York.

FRIEDRICH LEZIUS, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Sbnigaberg.

FRIEDRICH LIST (t), Ph.D.,

Late 8tudiandirektor, Munich.

PAUL LOBSTEIN, Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology. University of Strasburg

GEORG LoESasE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, Eva ngeliaal Theolagioal

Faculty. University of Vienna.

FRIEDRICH ARMIN LOOTS, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of Halls.

WILLIAM JAMES LOWS, D.D.,

Clerk of the General Aerienmbdthe Presbyterian Church
JOHN LYND, D.D.,

Professor of Hebrew and Biblical Criticism, Theologloal,

Hall of the Reformed Presbyterian Synod. Belfast.

SAMUEL McCOMB, D.D.,

Pastor of Emmanuel Church, Boston, Mass.

JOHN McDONALD, X.A., D.D.,

Clerk of the Reformed Presbyterian Synod is Scotland.

GEORGE DUNCAN MATHEWS,

General Secretary of the Presbyte:ian Alliance, London.

PAUL HEHLHOBN, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Pastor of the Reformed Church, Leipsic.

OTTO HEJEB (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late President of the Caneietory. Hanover.

PHILIPP aIEYEB, Th.D.,

Supreme Coneistorisl Councilor, Hanover.

CARL THEODOR NIB T, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History. University of Marburg.

ROBERT MORTON,

Professor of Systematic Theology and Church History in

Original Secession Theorogicalall. Glasgow. Scotland.

ERNST h'8IED8ICH KARL MUELLER,

Th.D.,


Professor of Reformed Theology, University of Erlangen.

GEORG SELLER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Inspector of Schools, Leipsic.

PEARSON hIrADAX MUIR, D.D.,

Min‑o" of Glasgow Cathedral. Glasgow, Scotland.

HENRY SYLVESTER NASH, D.D.,

Professor

if Episcopal Theological School, Cambrofidge, Maw.



aHBISTOF EBERBAhLD NESTLE,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor in the WbergBemiasry, Maulbrnaa,



CONTRIBUTORS AND COLLABORATORS, VOLUME IX.




ALBERT HENRY NEWMAN, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Church History, 3outhw~tern Baptist Theo­

logical Seminary. Fort Worth, Texas.

FREDERICK KRISTIAN NIELSEN (t),

D.D.,

Late Bishop of Aarhus, Denmark.



CONRAD VON ORELLI, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Old‑Testament Exegesis and History of Rrlie­

ion, University of Basel.

CARL PFENDER,

Pastor of St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Paris.

FERDINAND PHILIPPI (t), Th.D.,

Late Pastor in Hohenkirchen, Mecklenburg.

FINIS HOMER PRENDERGAST,

Attorney, Marshall, Texas.

ERWI~T PREUSCHEN, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Pastor `at Hilschhorn‑on‑the‑Neckar, Germany.

RICHARD CLARK REED, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Church History in P'byterian Theological

Seminary, ()olumbia, S. C.

JOSEPH REINKENB (t), Ph.D.,

Late Professor in Cologne.


ROBERT THOE:AB ROBERTS, D.D.,

Pastor First Welsh Presbyterian Church, Wilkes‑Barre, Pa.

WILLLA M HENRY ROBERTS, D.D.,

LL.D.,


Stated Clerk of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian

Church, U. S. A.

HENDRIX 003ELNELIS ROGGE (t),

Ph.D.,

Late Professor of History, University of Haarlem.



ARNOLD RUEGG,

Pastor at Birmenadorf and Lecturer at the University of

Zurich, Switzerland.

CARL SCHAARSCHMIDT,

Honorary Professor of Philosophy, University of Bonn.

ERICH SCHAEDER, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Mel.

THROD03EL SCHAEFER, Th.D.,

Head of the Deaconess Institute, Altona.

DAVID SCHLEY SCHAFF, D.D.,

Professor of Church History, Western Theological Seminary,

Pittsburg, Pa.

PHILIP SCHAFF (t), D.D., LL.D.,

Late Professor of Church History, Union Theological Semi‑

nary, New York, and Editor of the Original Scsexs­HEnZOG ENCYCLOPEDIA.

MARTIN SCHIAN, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Theology, University of Giessen.

REINHOLD SCHMID, Th.Lic.,

Pastor in Oberholaheim, W>'irttemberg.

vir~xnurrLL1JN VICTOR SCHULTZE,

Th.D.,


Professor of Church History and Christian Archeology,

Univers'ty of Greifawald.

LUDWIG THEODOR SCHULZE, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,


Professor of Systematic Theology. University of Rostock.

JOHN CRAWFORD SCOULLER, D.D.,

Correspondia Secretary of Board of Ministerial Relief,

United I~resbytenan Church of North America.

EMIL SECKEL, Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Law, University of Berlin.




EMIL SEHLING, Dr.Jur.,

Professor of Ecc:esiastical and Commercial Law, University

of Erlangen.

HENRY CLAY SHELDON, D.D.,

Professor of Systematic Theology, Boston University.

FRIEDRICH ANTON EMIL SIEFFERT,

Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of [New‑Testament Exegesis, University of Bonn.

JULIUS WILHELIK EMEND, Th.D.,

Professor of Systematic and Practical Theology in the

Evangelical Theological Faculty, University of

Strasburg.

JOHN SOMERQILLE, D.D.,

Clerk of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church

in Canada.

ROBERT MACGOWAN SOE:MERVILLE,

Editor of Olive Trees, New York City.

GEORG STEINDORFF, Ph.D.,

Professor of Egyptology, University of Leipeic.

ROBERT WILLIAM STEWART, B.Sc.,

B.D.,

Glasgow, Scotland.



HERMANN LEBERECHT STRACK, Ph.D.,

Th.D.,


Extraordinary. Professor of Old‑Testament Exegesis and

Semrtrc Languages, University of Berlin.

ULRICH STUTZ, Dr.Jur.,

Professor of German and Ecclesiastical Law, University of

Bonn.

ROBERT BREWBTER TAGGART,



Vineland, N. J.

OHARLEB FRANKLIN THWING, LL.D.,

President of Western Reserve University and Adalbert

College, Cleveland.

PAUL TSCHACKERT, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, University of GBttingen.

BIET$E DOUWES PAN VEEN, Th.D.,

Professor of Church History and Christian Archeology,

University of Utrecht.

JULIUS AUGUST WAGENMANN (t),

Late Consistorial Councilor, Gottiogen.

BENJAMIN BRECKINRIDGE WA3L­

FIELD, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Didactic and Polemic‑1 Theology, Princeton

Theological Sen.:nary.

EDWARD ELIHU WHITFIELD, M.A.,

Retired Public Schoolmaster, London.

FBIEDRICH LUDWIG LEONHARD

WIEGAND, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Professor of Church History, Unive:aty of Greifswadd.

PAUL WOL37 (t),

late Pastor at Friedersdorf Brandenburg, and Editor of the

Evangei%scU %irehenzeitunp.

AUGUST WUENSCHE, Ph.D., Th.D.,

Retired Titular Professor in Dresden.

CLARENCE ANDREW YOUNG, Ph.D.,

Pastor. Third Reformed Presb

Pa

yterian Church. Philadelphia,



.

FRANZ THEODOR RITTER VON ZAHN,

Th.D., Litt.D.,

Professor of New‑Testament Exegesis and Introduction,

University of Erlangen.

OTTO ZOECKLER (t), Ph.D., Th.D.,

Late Profcaaor of Church History and Apologetics, UnivM

sity of Greifewald.



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX‑YOLS. I‑IX

The following list of books is supplementary to the bibliographies given at the end of the articles contained in volumes I.‑IX., and brings the literature down to November, 1910. In this list each title

entry is printed in capital letters. It is to be noted that, throughout the work, in the articles as a

rule only first editions are given. In the bibliographies the aim is to give either the best or the

latest edition, and in case the book is published both in America and in some other country, the

American place of issue is usually given the preference.

ABBOTT, L.: Seeking after God, New York, 1910.

ALTAR: A. Hartel, Altars and Pulpits; a Series of Examples of Ecclesiastical Work in the Gothic Style, taken mostly from the famous German Cathedrals and Churches of the Middle Ages, 3d ed., New York, 1910.

AmmeNus MARcELLINus: Rerum gestarum libri qui su Bunt, ed. C. U. Clark, L. Traube, and G.Heracus, Vol. 1, libri XIV. XXV., Berlin, 1910.

AroLoGETIcs. . A. Kirchner, Die babylonische Kos­mogonie and der biblische Schtt Pfungsbericht. Ein Beitrag zur Apologie des biblischen Gottesbegrifes, Minster, 1910.

A. R. Wells, Why we believe the Bible; Outlines of Christian. Evidences in Question and An­swer Form, Boston, 1910.

ARMENIA: M. Ormanian, Llglise armenienne, son histoire, sa. doctrine, son regime, sa discipline, sa liturgie, sa litt6rabure, son present, Paris, 1910.

ATHANABIAN CREED: T. N. Papaconstantinos, The Creed ~ Athanasius the Great, translated by H. C. Lingham, London, 1910.

ATONEMENT: J. B. Champion, The Living Atone­ment, Philadelphia, 1910.

AviTus: H. Goelzer and A. Mey, Le Latin de Saint Avit &6que de Vienne (1,6o‑‑6,26), Paris, 1909.

BABYLONIA: F. Delitzacb, Handel and Wandel in Altbabylonien, Stuttgart, 1910.

D. W. Myhrman, Sumerian Administrative Documents, dated in the Reigns of the Kings of the second Dynasty of Ur, from the Temple Archives of Nippur, preserved in Ph~ phia, Philadelphia, 1910.

BACHER, W.: L. Blau, Bibliographie der Schriften Wilhelm Bachers nebst einem hebrdischen Sach­und Ortsnamen Register zu seinem sechsbdn­digen Agadwerke, Frankfort, 1910.

BALLARD, A.: From Text to Talk, Boston, 1910.

BAMPTON LEcruREs: W. Hobhouse, The Church and the World in Idea and in History, New York, 1910.

BAPTisTs: Seventh Day Baptists in Europe and America; a Series of Vistorical Papers writ­ten in Commemoration of the 100th Anni­versa of the Organization of the Seventh Day aptist General Conference, celebrated at Ashaway, Rhode Island, Aug. 20‑26, 1902, 2 vols., Plainfield, N. J., 1910.



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