What is worth fighting for in your life—love, freedom, friendship, respect?
What issues are important to our society?
Your purpose for writing is to present an issue you feel is worth fighting for and encourage readers to agree with you.
Assignment: Look back at the way Abraham Lincoln used parallelism in the “Gettysburg Address” and Martin Luther King Jr. used repetition in his “I have a Dream Speech.”
Use those speeches as models to write your own persuasive essay about something that you feel is worth fighting for.
In your essay, be sure to use repetition, parallelism, or both to help make your point and persuade your listeners. Don’t forget your call to action!
When crafting an argument, you must first consider your purpose and your audience. In other words, you must answer these questions:
What group of people are you specifically addressing?
What effect do you want to have on the audience?
Appeals Effective speakers and writers make use of three types of rhetorical appeals, or persuasive strategies, to support their claims and respond to opposing arguments. These appeals, identified by the Greek philosopher Aristotle, are often referred to by the Greek words associated with them.
Logical Appeals (Logos)
The speaker or writer appeals to the audience’s logic (“head”) by construction a well-reasoned argument. Some methods of creating a logical appeal include
The speaker or writer appeals to the audience’s emotions. An emotional appeal evokes anger, laughter, sadness, fear, joy, pride, etc. I the reader or listener. Some methods of creating an emotional appeals include
Should textbooks be replaced with computers/tablets?
Should students have less homework?
Year-round school: good or bad thing?
Should college athletes get paid?
Should schools raise money by selling candy and sugary soft drinks to students?
Should girls be allowed to play on boys’ sports teams?
Should students be able to listen to music during class?
Should students who commit cyberbullying be suspended from school?
Should school start later in the morning?
Claim: a debatable or controversial statement the speaker or writer intends to prove with evidence
Example: “Within the past week, unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensive missile sites is now in preparation on that imprisoned island. The purpose of these bases can be none other than to provide a nuclear strike capability against the Western Hemisphere.” –President John F. Kennedy, “Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation”
Call to Action: a request of petition by the writer to move the reader to take action on an issue
Example: “Nerd and geeks must stop being ashamed of who they are. It is high time to face the persecutors who haunt the bright kid with thick glasses from kindergarten to the grave.” – Leonid Fridman “America Needs Its Nerds
Concession: a respectful acknowledgment of an opposing viewpoint (by recognizing and fairly summarizing an opposing viewpoint, the writer or speaker is seen as logical and fair-minded.)
Example: “Although most students try to keep up their grades, there is a minority of undergraduates for who pursuing knowledge is the top priority during their years at Harvard.” -- Leonid Fridman “America Needs Its Nerds
Counterargument: follows a concession and strongly counters or refutes the opposition’s evidence
Example: Although most students try to keep up their grades, there is a minority of undergraduates for who pursuing knowledge is the top priority during their years at Harvard.”-- Leonid Fridman “America Needs Its Nerds