Assessment Schedule – 2012 History: Examine a significant decision made by people in history, in an essay (90657)

Topic Two: New Zealand in the Nineteenth Century

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Topic Two: New Zealand in the Nineteenth Century

Essay question (a)

Explain the factors that contributed to the decision of many Māori chiefs and a representative of the British Crown to sign Te Tiri o Waitangi in 1840.

Evaluate the consequences of this decision for the lives of Māori between 1840 and 1863.

The candidate’s response to the first part of the essay question could include:

  • The factors that contributed to the decision of many Māori to sign:

    1. Many Māori chiefs made the decision to sign the Treaty of Waitangi after making an intelligent analysis of the information available to them at the time

    2. Many chiefs may have signed for personal reasons. Chiefs such as Tamati Waka Nene were influential. He saw change as inevitable and believed that the clock could not be turned back. The Treaty was the way forward. William Colenso suggested that many chiefs were not aware of the implications of the Treaty

    3. More access to Pākehā, which in turn bring markets to sell to, goods, employment, improved trade etc.

    4. No realisation of the large numbers of settlers that would come (Keith Sinclair)

    5. For their own trade advantages – access to knowledge, superior skills and tools

    6. Control of undesirable Pākehā practices by Crown

    7. Chiefs may have signed because of the promise of food and gifts. One Tauranga chief said “pay us first and we will write afterwards”. Some may have seen the Treaty signing as a commercial transaction

    8. Many chiefs believed that the sharing of authority would enhance chiefly mana. Personal agreement between Chiefs and the Queen

    9. Expectation that the promises made in the articles of the Treaty in Māori would be honoured: Article 1 – bought an expectation of equal role of authority – “we are one people” as the Treaty implied that Māori would give up only nominal rather than substantive sovereignty, as the word used to translate the ceding of sovereignty to the British was “kāwanatanga” not “mana” or “rangatiratanga”. These words would have indicated a much stronger form of British sovereignty over New Zealand. Article 2 – guarantee of rangatiratanga over land, taonga and resources – “shadow of the land”(Nopera). Article 3 – full rights of British citizenship

    10. Pākehā officials to control troublesome Pākehā – the Governor would control Pākehā and especially those who were purchasing land. Mana of land would be held by Māori

    11. Protection from foreign powers – wary of French

    12. Little to fear as in 1840 Māori outnumbered Pākehā by 50 to 1

    13. Rival tribes signing so signed to keep up with them especially in east coast of North Island (Manuka Henare)

    14. Peace with age-old enemies

    15. Avoid Australian disaster – some chiefs were aware of what had happened to the Australian Aborigines

    16. Support against aggressive land buyers – all disputed land sales investigated

    17. Desire to sell land to few more settlers

    18. Utu – sell disputed land then don’t have to fight Māori rivals for it

    19. Peace amongst tribes regarding land

    20. The Governor’s notion of pre-emption was not explained – not the same as hokonga

    21. Some chiefs trusted the Missionaries who were persuasive as they portrayed the Treaty as an overwhelming positive deal for Māori and encouraged chiefs to sign. The missionaries may also have played up the importance of protection of British law that was promised through Article Three. In light of events such as the Elizabeth Affair, the opportunity to pursue justice against Pākehā who had committed criminal activity was seen as desirable

    22. Queen Victoria was the head of the church as well as the state – Treaty bond seen as sacred bond or covenant as in 1840 almost half of Māori were Christian.

  • The factors that contributed to the decision of a representative of the British Crown to sign:

    1. After difficulties elsewhere with indigenous peoples, Britain was reluctant to annex New Zealand because of the likely cost and difficulties it would face

    2. There were calls from Māori for intervention – 1831 Petition to King William IV by northern chiefs to be a friend and guardian

    3. Incidents of violence – Boyd and Alligator Incidents, Elizabeth Affair

    4. Lord Normanby’s concern over foreign influence – French and American intentions in New Zealand. Fear of French in the North – du Fresne, de Thierry, Catholic influence through Bishop Pompallier and his missions. US Consulate set up

    5. By 1830s, traders and missionaries had substantial investments in New Zealand and wanted law and order to protect their rights and property

    6. Britain had recognised New Zealand as independent many times – Imperial Statutes 1817, 1823, 1828 and Declaration of Independence (1835). This meant that if they wanted to formally intervene, the independent status of Māori had to be qualified or removed with some sort of formal agreement. But the British government found there was no Māori government through which it could work – failure of Declaration of Independence and James Busby

    7. Cession through a Treaty would avoid an expensive war. Voluntary cession was required because Māori cultivated and therefore ‘owned’ their land in the North Island. Hobson saw Ngāi Tahu as hunter-gatherers – no cultivation, no ownership. International law demanded that some kind of treaty would look good to the rest of the world (Alan Ward – A Show of Justice)

    8. Humanitarian lobby in England – pressure from the Aborigines Protection Society with increasing concern about the welfare of Māori and the desire to avoid the disaster of Australia over again

    9. By the late 1830s intervention was seen as necessary to protect both Māori and the missionaries from the rougher sort of Pākehā – Kororareka – ‘Hell-hole of the Pacific’ – drunkenness, prostitution, violence, etc – the Colonial Office wanted lawlessness tidied up at minimal cost (Peter Adams)

    10. Late 1830s speculative land purchases of dubious legality taking place around the country. Missionaries and Australians ‘buying’ or claiming blocks of land from Māori, often transactions where Pākehā and Māori intentions and expectations were quite different

    11. The New Zealand Association / Company was organising English settlement in New Zealand 1833–39 and this concerned humanitarians, missionaries and the British government because the settlers would be outside British sovereignty and doubts that Wakefield’s dealings with Māori would be fair and / or ethical. Departure of the Tory in 1839

    12. From the late 1830s, the British idea of a Māori New Zealand that accommodated some Pākehā changed to a British settler colony that would accommodate Māori – “a fatal necessity” – Peter Adams

    13. Belich – the colonial office’s response was a consequence of the myths of empire. Three agents of empire were the Church Missionary Society (CMS), organisers of systematic colonisation (Wakefield), and merchants and capitalists – all put pressure on the government to intervene formally in New Zealand. They inundated the colonial office with reports of disaster and chaos – 1837 and 1838, they received Hobson’s report, which painted a bleak picture, and a CMS report, which indicated a deteriorating situation

    14. In July–August 1839, the British government decided that at least limited intervention was needed. Settlers had to be controlled and Māori had to be protected

    15. The British Government expected:

        1. sovereignty would be given by Māori to the British for all parts of the country

        2. the authority to impose law and order over everyone in New Zealand

        3. total control over land in areas ceded to them, which they would sell to settlers.

The candidate’s response to the second part of the question could include:

  • The mistranslation of the Treaty led to Māori and the Crown having totally different understandings of what they had promised each other. The actions of Crown officials after the signing of the Treaty suggest that they believed that New Zealand had been instantly painted “imperial pink”, with Māori now subject to British law. Actions by Māori chiefs after 1840 suggest that they believed that they would still have authority over their people and land

  • On 21 May 1840, Hobson proclaimed British sovereignty over all of New Zealand. Most likely, this was in response to plans by the New Zealand Company to establish its own government in the Cook Strait region

  • The arrest, trial, and execution of Maketu in 1842 provided an early post-Treaty test for British law in situations that involved cross-cultural crime

  • In 1842, land commissioners began investigating pre-Treaty land purchases. If the commissioners believed that the transaction had been fair, they validated it and awarded a Crown Grant. Crown Grants were limited to 2560 acres (four square miles). Excess land was ceded to the Crown, as was land that was deemed to be invalidly obtained. Commissioner William Spain deemed most of the purchases around Wellington to be invalid

  • Conflict between some tribes in 1842 led to the suggestion that those chiefs who had not signed the Treaty didn’t come under its authority. A ruling was made that all Māori were deemed to be under Crown authority

  • The Wairau incident highlighted many of the issues that surrounded the Treaty. Ngāti Toa disputed the New Zealand Company’s claim to have purchased the land and disrupted the surveyors. The New Zealand Company officials set off to arrest Te Rauparaha. A musket was fired, killing Te Rangihaeata’s wife, and in the fighting that ensued, five more Māori and 22 Pākehā were killed. Of these Pākehā deaths, 13 had surrendered but were killed as utu for the Māori deaths. Governor FitzRoy refused to apprehend Te Rangihaeata for these killings, saying there was wrong on each side

  • The Treaty of Waitangi gave the Crown the exclusive right to purchase Māori land, but in 1844 private land purchases were allowed when Governor FitzRoy gave in to demands from settlers and Māori and waived his right of pre-emption

  • Hone Heke cutting down the flagpole at Kororareka in 1844 and 1845 was a protest against what he perceived to be a loss of Māori authority and a breach of the Treaty of Waitangi. The Northern War that followed was very much a war of sovereignty

  • In 1846, the British Government instructed that the ownership of Māori land had to be registered. Any unregistered land was deemed to be “surplus”. Governor Grey reinstated the exclusive Crown right to purchase Māori land, citing the Treaty of Waitangi

  • Grey attempted to force Māori to sell wasteland in the Wellington region, which threatened the mana of Te Rauparaha and Te Rangihaeata. Incidents of fighting occurred in the Hutt Valley in 1846. Grey arrested Te Rauparaha. Grey acquired 30 million acres of the South Island and 3 million acres of the North Island before he left New Zealand in 1853. His negotiation and methods of purchase were questionable, payments were minimal, and promises were not kept especially in the South Island

  • Rise of the King Movement was an attempt by Māori to retain land and sovereignty. In 1859, Potatau Te Wherowhero was confirmed as holding the mana of kingship, supported by Waikato and central North Island tribes. Pākehā and the Governor saw the King Movement as a threat to British sovereignty

  • The Kohimarama Conference of 1860 was an attempt by Governor Gore-Browne to re-examine the Treaty and deal with the problem of Māori refusal to sell land, especially the King Movement

  • Outbreak of war in Taranaki – Pākehā desire to purchase land in Waitara led to Te Teira offering to sell it to the Crown. Wiremu Kingi denied Te Teira’s right to sell and refused to sell the land maintaining his mana and rangatiratanga over Waitara. Governor Gore-Browne felt British sovereignty had to be asserted by denying Wiremu Kingi’s authority over Waitara

  • Fighting began in March 1860. Waikato Kingites joined the fighting in support of Kingi and Māori autonomy.

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