Assessment Schedule – 2011



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NCEA Level 3 History (90658) 2011 — page of

Assessment Schedule – 2011


History: Examine a significant historical situation in the context of change, in an essay (90658)

Evidence Statement


Achievement

Achievement with Merit

Achievement with Excellence

Through her / his response to the first part of the essay question, the candidate has accurately described factors that contributed to the decision.
(See content guidelines for examples of relevant historical information that could be included in the candidate’s answer ).

Through her / his response to the first part of the essay question, the candidate has accurately explained factors that contributed to the decision.
(See content guidelines for examples of relevant historical information that could be included in the candidate’s answer ).

Through her / his response to the first part of the essay question, the candidate has accurately and perceptively explained factors that contributed to the decision.
(See content guidelines for examples of relevant historical information that could be included in the candidate’s answer ).

Through her / his response to the second part of the essay question, the candidate has accurately described the consequences of the decision.

(See content guidelines for examples of relevant historical information that could be included in the candidate’s answer ).




Through her / his response to the second part of the essay question, the candidate has evaluated the consequences of the decision.

(See content guidelines for examples of relevant historical information that could be included in the candidate’s answer ).



Through the breadth, depth and/or range of ideas in her / his response to the second part of the question the candidate has comprehensively evaluated the consequences of the decision.
(See content guidelines for examples of relevant historical information that could be included in the candidate’s answer ).

The candidate has structured and organised her / his information using an appropriate essay format.


  • Introductory paragraph

  • Relevant, structured and logically sequenced paragraphs

  • Conclusion




The candidate has structured and organised her / his information using an appropriate essay format.


  • Introductory paragraph

  • Relevant, structured and logically sequenced paragraphs

  • Conclusion

The candidate has provided an argument, i.e. the candidate has stated a view and supported it with relevant and accurate evidence (probably most obvious in the evaluative part of her / his essay).




The candidate has structured and organised her / his information using an appropriate and effective essay format.


  • Introductory paragraph

  • Relevant, structured and logically sequenced paragraphs

  • Conclusion

The candidate has provided a convincing argument, i.e. the candidate has a clearly articulated view and has supported it with sound reasoning and relevant, accurate, and significant evidence (probably most obvious in the evaluative part of her / his essay).




Content Guidelines

Topic One: Early Modern England 1558–1667
Topic One: Essay (a)

Describe the traditional roles of women in early modern English society between 1558 and 1667.



Evaluate the extent to which periods of crisis influenced the lives of women and brought changes to their roles.
The candidate’s response to the first part of the essay question could include:

  • England was a patriarchal, hierarchical society, with the secondary role of women reinforced by church, state and family. Women were expected to be obedient, submissive and conforming. They were generally denied a formal education and were limited in roles they could take up outside the home. In times of major upheaval these roles could change, but women were expected to conform again once the upheaval was over.

  • Women’s inferior role was reinforced by religious beliefs. Eve was created after Adam, and from part of his body. Eve had sinned first and tempted Adam to join her in eating the forbidden fruit of the Garden of Eden. The scriptures also were seen to prohibit women from speaking in Church.

  • Some medical writers considered women to be deformed males — at conception, all foetuses were male, but in approximately half something 'went wrong' and they were born female. Women were seen to be physically weaker and with smaller brains. The emotional changes associated with women's menstrual cycles and their menopause, made them unfit for any role needing reasoned thought and unclouded judgement, such as managing an estate or business.

  • Medieval society placed great value on fighting skills and the physical strength to perform heavy agricultural work. Society placed on women the main burden of caring for home and children – roles that did not require very much education, nor give them experience of the male-dominated world.

  • The legal position of women was similar to that of children. They were meant to be either in the care and protection of their father or husband. Local authorities could compel any women between the ages of 14 and 40 who were alone to go into service under the authority of a male householder. However, an unmarried woman, or feme sole, had far more legal rights than her married sister, a feme covert. A girl was able to give legal consent to marriage at 12, compared with 14 for a boy.

  • The doctrine of coverture stated that 'Man and wife were one person, and that person was the husband'. The wife had few rights over her body in relation to her husband. Wife beating was legal, although society generally disapproved of it. Prosecution for marital rape was legally impossible. Married women could not make contracts except for the supply of personal food and clothing. Her earnings belonged to her husband and she could neither sue nor be sued in a civil action. Any dowry or personal property she inherited became her husband's unless there were special provisions in the will. There were some exceptions to coverture, especially in the trading rights women enjoyed in some cities. In London, especially, local custom allowed all women to trade as femes sole. Despite the common-law principal of coverture, the law courts did, in practice, allow married women some property rights. A married woman had the right to be maintained by her husband during his lifetime. If she outlived him she was entitled to a jointure – one-third of his estate if she had children, one-half if she did not.

  • Women did not have full rights of citizenship. Women could not vote in parliamentary elections, could not sit in the House of Parliament, and could not be jurors, sheriffs or coroners. Women were occasionally appointed to minor offices such as parish constable, but they probably exercised the functions by deputy.

  • Women usually became involved in public duties only when the traditionally female and male spheres came in contact. In witchcraft cases a 'jury of matrons' examined women's bodies for 'witch marks', and they judged whether women sentenced to death were pregnant.

  • Women were employed in public institutions performing work, which was an extension of their domestic skills, eg Queen's Wardrobe Mistresses, warders for female prisoners, charitable institutions – which cared for children and the elderly, and as nurses in hospitals.

  • Women were ineligible to hold office in the Church. However, some Interregnum sects such as the Quakers did allow women to preach. Women were still often very important in the religious life of their parish community. They were particularly important in ensuring the survival of Catholicism.

  • While male-dominated, the economy was less exclusively male. Men owned most property, managed most farms and businesses, performed most of the skilled labour. The role of most women was subordinate. There were, however, exceptions: Widows often continued their late husbands' businesses. Some livery companies allowed widows to take over their husbands' memberships and even to train apprentices. Women sometimes ran their own businesses, especially those which adapted women's traditional household skills such as in the food and hospitality industries, laundries, schools. They also acted as nurses and midwives. In the sixteenth century some women were licensed as surgeons.



The candidate’s response to the second part of the essay question could include:

  • Crisis Situations such as poor harvests caused economic disruption as well as starvation in the 1590s, 1620s and 1648 – 52. Attempts to find jobs and food caused considerable internal migration. Epidemic disease such as the plague, influenza and smallpox often followed bad harvests. Diseases caused instability for families, disrupted the economy and caused unintended mobility if the family attempted to run away from the disease. During these times women frequently lost their husbands or fathers, and were forced to assume more masculine roles for a short period of time in order to survive. In 1630 – 31, women staged public protests at the high prices demanded for grain.

  • Patricia Crawford claims that the Civil War intensified the existing problems and risks faced by women and families. The Civil War led to the deaths of approximately 10% of the adult male population of England, probably more in Scotland and Ireland. It separated husbands and wives, postponed marriages and reduced the birth rate. Families suffered economically from the absence of men needed to run the farm or business, high taxation, compulsory billeting of soldiers and disruptions to trade. With the absence of so many men, women assumed many tasks usually performed by men; however, this role in farms and businesses was usually an extension of the situation, which arose when the man was away, or the woman was left a widow.

  • Women were involved in looking after sick and wounded soldiers, preparing food, and as prostitutes during the war. Some women became involved in the fighting, usually in defence of their homes. Ladies on both sides organised the defence of castles (eg the Duchess of Portland and Lady Brilliana Harley). When Lady Bankes' house was attacked, her chambermaids joined her in throwing stones and hot embers on the heads of the attackers. Women also acted as fire wardens in several sieges and assisted in building earthworks or demolishing those of the enemy. A few women disguised themselves as men and fought. Some women acted as spies (eg Jane Whorwood, who carried money and information through enemy lines to the king).

  • Women were affected emotionally by worry and grief and by divided families eg for Susan, Countess of Denbigh, her husband, William, fought for the King at Edgehill, while her eldest son, Basil, Lord Fielding, was on the other side.

  • Women whose husbands were away were exposed to sexual temptation or to rape. Women were casualties in sieges; like men, they contracted diseases transmitted by mobile soldiers; they were forced to travel even when pregnant and suffered deprivation when war disrupted the economy. Wives of lower-class soldiers and sailors suffered financially as their husband's pay was low and erratic.

  • The Civil War increased the political activity of women. In 1640 women attempted to vote in the Worcestershire and Suffolk election. Women petitioned Parliament in support of the Levellers and of the Independent Churches. Women appeared before Parliamentary committees pleading for the return of their royalist husband's estates. Women frequently favoured peace initiatives and often joined radical sects.

During the Interregnum the Levellers included many women. Women preached in some of the radical sects and were particularly influential among the Quakers. After the Restoration though there was a return to 'normality' in gender roles and relationships. Women’s activities during the Interregnum generally resulted in more male disapproval than admiration.

Topic One: Essay (b)

Describe the main features of popular beliefs that were held by people in England between 1558 and 1667. Evaluate the extent of the influence of popular beliefs on the lives of people during this period.


The candidate’s response to the first part of the essay question could include:

  • Popular beliefs arose from a traditional oral culture based primarily on early pagan superstitions generated from a fear of natural and spiritual forces.

  • Popular beliefs in early modern England, however, contained an amalgam of aspects of Christianity with traditional pagan beliefs in magic, fortune telling, astrology, prophesy, witchcraft, and spirit beings.

  • Popular beliefs were concerned more with the daily affairs of life, and the dangers and misfortunes of life than with salvation after death. A supernatural world was believed to exist alongside the natural everyday world and in almost everything there was a supernatural / spiritual explanation.

  • There were blurred margins between traditional pagan (goblins, fairies, witches, sorcerers, vampires, and werewolves) and Christian (demons and angels) spiritual worlds.

  • Magic and folklore took various forms (tokens, charms or flowers, divining rods, magic words, the power of healers and cunning men). King Charles II revived the Royal touch to ward off the “King’s Evil” – scrofula. Forms of magic were widely used and never really diminished in this period.

  • Astrology and horoscope readings were seen as compatible with Christianity, because God ruled the heavens, so stars and planets were his agents. Astrologers were consulted about important decisions because they were believed to be able to give some guidance about the future. Leading practitioners, like John Dee, advised the monarch. Astrological almanacs giving information about the luck associated with particular activities and days were very popular.

  • Black witchcraft involved the surrender of one’s soul to the devil in return for certain powers and was most often associated with poorer women. Charges of maleficium (the causing of harm using invisible powers) were most common. Witches were popularly believed to have familiars (animals who did their bidding) that they suckled. White witches or cunning folk were usually men, who used magic or good spiritual powers to combat black witchcraft. Acts against witchcraft, making it a capital offence, were passed in 1563 and 1604.

  • Belief in superstition, magic and witchcraft is considered to have declined during the period through the trickle-down effect of education, literacy, science and social controls. There was a continual war on religious rituals and festivity until at the end of the period separation was drawn between church and communal festivities. Magistrates began to express disbelief in black witchcraft, so it was increasingly difficult to get convictions.


The candidate’s response to the second part of the essay question could include:

  • Popular beliefs encompassed all sectors of the population. It was not an entity, but a range of changing beliefs in different regions, where each community had its own customs. Few experienced a formal education or travelled beyond their home village to be exposed to other beliefs.

  • They occupied an important place in the lives of people because there was an implicit belief by all in an unseen supernatural world of spirits competing for each human soul. Belief in the devil and the potential salvation or damnation of each soul was a part of popular consciousness.

  • Popular beliefs were important in influencing each individual’s attitudes, values and perspectives on the vicissitudes of life. They seemed to have a stronger hold on the hearts and minds of people. To protect themselves from personal misfortune, a variety of charms, spells, prayers and herbal remedies were used. Their perceived potential to affect the seasons and weather had a significant influence on an individual’s well-being and survival. People worried about such things as the length and intensity of winter, harvest failure, the success of hunting and fishing ventures. A series of traditional rites and ceremonies were important in allaying these concerns, eg New Year’s Day was to encourage the return of spring, and fasting before Easter helped conserve food for the latter part of winter. Accusations of witchcraft increased in times of economic hardship when people were less willing to give charity.

  • Taking part in festivals and ceremonies gave members of a community a sense of identity and were important times of fun and release from the rigours of daily life (eg giving gifts on New Year’s Day reinforced status and obligation ties).

  • At all levels of society, people believed in some supernatural forces at work. They had difficulty distinguishing between the influence of religion or magic, and proved reluctant to part with anything that gave them reassurance, protection, support or comfort in dealing with the dangers and misfortunes of life.

  • Popular culture did become more secularised. Concerns about how revelry could disrupt public order and get out of hand caused many to stop sponsoring festivities in favour of organised entertainment such as races and displays. Popular amusements conducive to lust and sexual misdemeanour were frowned on, eg May Day celebrations.

Some historians argue that traditional popular beliefs were, by the end of the period, becoming limited to the rural working class. Oral traditions passed into a kind of folklore and popular literature as society was exposed to greater secularisation.

Topic One: Essay (c)

Describe the foreign policy initiatives that Elizabeth took between 1559 and 1603.



Evaluate the extent of her success and any improvement England’s international standing.
The candidate’s response to the first part of the essay question could include:

  • Elizabeth’s reign coincided with the Catholic Counter-Reformation in Europe driven by the two major powers France and Spain. England was only a minor power and because of her Protestant religious settlement faced a possible Catholic Crusade against her. Foreign policy for England prior to Elizabeth’s reign had rested on the understanding that France was her traditional enemy and Spain (France’s rival) her traditional ally. But could a Protestant England maintain that policy? Scotland – although a Protestant country – was always considered a threat, because of her historic friendship with France (the Auld Alliance). The Netherlands was the most important trading partner.

  • Elizabeth’s first initiative was to extricate England from the disastrous long-term war with France. Under the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis (1559) Elizabeth surrendered Calais, England’s last bastion of French soil. This allowed Elizabeth to focus her energies and finances to more productive policy. The French King, Henry II, died shortly after, leaving a period of instability with his wife Catherine de Medici regent. From 1562 to 1598, France was to be distracted by the Wars of Religion in Europe.

  • French rule in Scotland through the regent, Mary of Guise, with its rigid Catholicism, had not been popular among Scottish Presbyterians. Under the fiery preaching of John Knox, disorder soon erupted. In February 1560, at Cecil’s instigation, Elizabeth made the Treaty of Berwick with Scottish nobles, and in March sent troops. For the first time, Englishmen and Scotsmen fought side by side rather than against one another.

  • Soon after Mary of Guise died, in the Treaty of Edinburgh (July 1560) it was agreed between France and England that all their land and naval forces would withdraw from Scotland. From France, Mary, Queen of Scots agreed to accept the Presbyterian takeover in exchange for being recognised as ruler and allowed the private exercise of her faith. Scotland, in effect, had now become an ally of England, but only extreme pressure from her Council induced Elizabeth to give limited support when intervention from France seemed imminent.

  • Helping Protestant rebels in the Netherlands and France – ‘Lighting fires in other men’s houses” as William Cecil put it now became the cornerstone of English foreign policy for the fist half of Elizabeth’s reign. Despite her reluctance to aid rebellion against a ruling monarch and limited financial resources, Elizabeth sent English troops to assist French Huguenots in 1562 and when a Protestant rebellion against Catholic Spanish rule in the Netherlands broke out in 1567 she allowed English volunteers to support them and confiscated a Geonese loan of silver bullion meant to be used to pay Spanish troops.

  • Mary Stuart fled from Scotland to England after military defeat in a civil war in 1568. Although she remained under ‘house arrest’ in England until 1587 she became the centre of intrigue involving Catholics who wished to see her supplant Elizabeth.

  • Marriage negotiations with the Duke of Anjou and Duke of Alencon between 1569 and 1572 kept French enmity in check despite the Papal Bull of 1570 excommunicating Elizabeth. But the St Bartholomew Day’s massacre of Huguenots in Paris deeply alarmed English Protestants. Nonetheless Elizabeth was even more concerned at the presence of a large Spanish army in the Netherlands.

  • The Dutch revolt proved to be the issue that would eventually led to war between England and Spain. England’s economy depended heavily on the export of cloth to Antwerp in the Spanish Netherlands. Also The Netherlands occupied a strategic position only 50kms from Dover from which a Catholic invasion of England could be easily launched. It was crucial to England’s interests that the Dutch remain self-governing, and not fall under the direct control of either Spain or France.

  • Council and Parliament called for intervention in the Netherlands and France to show solidarity with the Protestant cause in Europe. Although she had a personal dislike of war and distrust of rebels, Elizabeth aided the Dutch rebels unofficially sending money and volunteers and permitted French Huguenots to use England as a base and English Protestants to assist them with munitions and loans.

  • Part of the reasoning behind a renewal of marriage negotiations with the Duke of Alencon was to try to induce France to act against the Spanish army in the Netherlands by offering to fund an Anjou led army. The Dutch rebels even offered Anjou sovereignty over the Netherlands. However defeat at Antwerp and Anjou’s death ended that venture by 1584. In 1585 the Dutch offered Elizabeth sovereignty of the Netherlands; she declined but agreed to take the Dutch under her protection and in the Treaty of Nonsuch openly provided aid with a subsidy amounting to a third of her annual income and an English army of 6000 commanded by the Earl of Leicester. This was effectively a declaration of war against Spain.

  • Elizabeth had delayed declaring war against Spain until England’s security was directly threatened by a Catholic Alliance of France and Spain, the assassination of the Dutch Protestant leader William of Orange (1584) and the imminent victory of Spanish forces in the Netherlands. She knew England lacked military resources and war brought crippling expenditure. Although she had a powerful navy, England did not have a standing army and local militia’s were not necessarily well trained or properly equipped.

  • The defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1587 boosted England’s status as the leader of Protestant resistance to the Catholic Counter-reformation. She maintained command of the sea, thwarting further armadas, striking at Philip’s naval bases in Spain and raiding the New World silver fleets through to 1603 without much success.

  • She also continued her support for the Dutch rebels and French Huguenots. A strong independent Netherlands emerged by 1603 and England gained an ally on the French throne in Henry IV. Even though he converted to Catholicism in 1593, under the Edict of Nantes in 1598 Huguenots were guaranteed freedom of worship. The potential of a Franco-Spanish Catholic Crusade against England was over.

  • Catholic Ireland always had the potential to be used by the Spanish as a base for an invasion of England. Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone rebelled against the English with the support of a Spanish army, which landed at Kinsale in 1601. Elizabeth was forced into an expensive campaign in Ireland, sending the Earl of Essex and later Lord Mountjoy to repress the rebellion and secure the country.

  • The costs of Elizabethan foreign policy had been high, but the realm had been kept secure and the Protestant cause in Europe had been advanced.


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