ASA STYLE GUIDE The American Sociological Association (ASA) has produced a manual of style for sociologists. Below are several examples from that guide. You should learn and use this style since this is a class in sociology (and many of you are sociology majors). Let me know if you have any questions regarding citing, referencing, etc.
CITING SOURCES WITHIN THE PAPER
Correct citations are important. Failure to correctly cite a source is considered plagiarism and is punishable by immediate failure of the course and expulsion from the university. Simply put, it's not worth it. Not only are there negative ramifications to your academic status, but you won't be challenged to think for and express yourself. Below are guidelines for correctly citing sources within your paper. The next section details how sources should be listed in your bibliography.
1. Quotes less than four lines in length
Quotes less than four lines in length are not separated from the regular text. Quotation marks are used to identify which words are quoted, and the quote is followed by the author's last name, the year, and the page number. Below is an example:
For over 40 years, television has played an important role in American society. Several have commented on it's impact, especially on younger viewers. One researcher even went so far as to say, "I believe that television is probably the most insidious invention because it effects the young in such a negative fashion" (Donaldson 1995:231).
Notice that the period goes after the citation, not directly after the word "fashion" in the quote.
2. Quotes four lines or greater in length
Quotes over four lines in length are set apart from the regular text. Each line should be indented five spaces and the author's last name, the year, and the page number should be included after the
quote. The lines in this quote should be SINGLE SPACED! Below is an example where the first two lines are double spaced (as they would be in your paper), and the quote is single spaced:
Cone & Smith (1972) suggests that blues music must be understood as a creative response to the feelings of pain and suffering which African Americans sing about in he music.
The Blues are not just about music, they are a way of life. They encourage the musician and the audience to come together to express emotions in a way not expressed otherwise. These feelings often give expression to collective feelings of suffering, pain, and widespread discrimination. To deny this aspect of the art form is to deny it's communicative function. To do this is to misunderstand and easily misinterpret the Blues (Long & Smith 1988:146).
Notice that the indented quote: (1) does not use quotation marks; (2) has a period after the cited source.
3. Paraphrasing an author's idea
You must give an author credit if you paraphrase h/her idea. Basically, anytime you take a quote and reword it in your own words or you have an idea about something that you got from someone else, you should give h/her credit. Below are two examples:
forcing a split between religious liberals and conservatives over moral and political issues in
the United States.
At least one scholar has argued that a restructuring has occurred across denominational lines, forcing a split between religious liberals and conservatives over moral and political issues in the United States (Wuthnow 1988).
Unlike quotes, you do not provide the page number when you paraphrase when using ASA style. Instead, you use the author's last name and the year in parentheses.
ASA BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR A JOURNAL ARTICLE:
Gerson, Walter M. & Saunder H. Lund. 1967. "Playboy Magazine: Sophisticated Smut or