Art history 358 european architecture: the modern movements, 1900-1933



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ART HISTORY 358
EUROPEAN ARCHITECTURE: THE MODERN MOVEMENTS, 1900-1933
Narciso G. Menocal

203 Elvehjem Building

nmenocal@wisc.edu

(608) 263-2373
Office Hours: Mon. & Wed., 5'30-6'30 PM

In this course we shall not investigate the praxis of the modern movements of architecture (such a thing would be impossible) but of the individual architects who have been singled out as the most prominent by an ongoing scholarship now some three quarters of a century old.


In the ancient Greek language, the word praxis referred to activity engaged in by free men. To us, it is something that goes beyond practices, actions, or behavior. Today it is seen as a combination of reflection and action. Praxis, then, defines the historicity of the human person–that is, the place of each person in history. History, seen this way, becomes the combined result of individual historicities, each depending on individual praxis. Historical literature, in turn, is the result of the praxis of historians.
In the method we shall follow, the “reflection and action that realizes pragmatically the historicity of human persons” become, respectively, the iconology and iconography individually created by each architect. But created is here a relative term. Praxis usually results from transmuted co-optations of thoughts and works of others which the poeisis of the architect synthesizes and transforms into a metaphorical self-portrait.
While our aim will be to discover through analysis these metaphorical self-portraits to the extent that we can in each case, the methodological constraints of a course such as this force us into a contradiction; we have to consider the subject matter collectively, arranged within “movements and trends,” if you will.
So, following the traditional manner, I have divided the subject matter into three phases: beginning, middle, and end, each comprising several subjects. As historical contrasts, the art and architecture of the Stalinist Soviet Union and of Nazi Germany have been included. However, at all times we shall endeavor to consider the individual minds of the architects covered as our main subject of study.
The semester grade will be the average of two examinations, one at mid-term and the other at the end of the semester. The second examination will not be cumulative and each will be worth 50 percent of the final grade.


Students who would prefer to write a semester-long paper of about 20 pages may do so provided I accept them into this option after having read an example of their critical writing they have submitted to me. The subject of the paper is chosen by the student but requires my approval. Once a subject has been approved, the student will present a short paragraph indicating the title of the paper and explaining the thesis the student will develop. A minimal bibliography of ten titles or so will be included as well. The second step will comprise of an elaborate précis and an extended annotated bibliography. A thematic outline of the paper will come next (about eight pages or so), and the final copy of the paper will be presented at the end of the semester.
Graduate art students may submit a work of art based on what they have learned in the course. As in the case of students submitting a paper, the entry of a graduate art student will done in stages.
Fourth-credit students will write reviews on three books on topics covered in the course. The books will be chosen in consultation with the instructor. Each review will address the subject matter critically and objectively and will be from four to five pages in length. Submission due dates to be discussed at the first fourth-credit meeting.
Text book: William J. R. Curtis, Modern Architecture since 1900; any edition.

ART HISTORY 358: SECTION ONE

1-A. TRENDS IN GERMAN ARCHITECTURE, 1900-1914

A. Peter Behrens (1868-1940): The early years

The Kiss, color woodcut, 1896-1897

Lamp, 1902



Ein Dokument Deutscher Kunst, Die Austellung der Künstler Kolonie, poster, Darmstadt, 1901

Poster for Kunstlerkolonie exhibition: Ein Dokument Deutscher Kunst, lithograph, 1901

Behrens House, Kunstlerkolonie, Darmstadt, 1900-1901

Oldenburg: Northwest German Art Exhibition Building, 1905

Crematorium, Delstern, 1906-1907.

AEG Pavilion, Shipbuilding Exposition, Berlin, 1908.


B. English Residential Trends in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century.

English Influences in German Suburbs.

The Red House, Phillip Webb and William Morris, Bexleyheath, Kent, 1859

Leyswood, Sussex, Richard Norman Shaw, 1870

Bedford Park, Richard Norman Shaw, 1881

The Orchard, C. F. A. Voysey, Chorley Woods, Herts., 1900
Ferdinand Springer House, Alfred Messel, Zehlendorf (West Berlin), 1901-1902

Comparison: Loch House, C. F. A. Voysey, Oxshott, ca. 1898, with Peter Behrens, Obenauer House, Saarbrucken, 1905


C. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969). The Early Years: 1910-1914

Riehl house, Neubabelsberg, 1907

Kröller-Müller house, project, The Hague, 1912

Bismarck Monument, project, Bingen on the Rhine, 1914



Comparisons

Jacob Prandtauer, Melk Abbey, Begun 1702.

Bruno Schmitz and Franz Mezner, Monument to the Battle of the Nations, Leipzig, 1913

Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Schloss Charlottenhof, Potsdam, 1826-28

Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Military Prison, Berlin, 1817-1818

Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Neue Wache, Berlin, 1816-1817

Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Schloss Charlottenhof, Potsdam, 1826-1828
D. Hermann Muthesius (1861-1927); the Deutscher Werkbund (1906-1914)

Villa at Winklerstraße No.11, Grunewald (Western Berlin), 1906

Cramer house, Pacelliallee 18, Zehlendorf (Berlin suburb), 1912-13

Interior design projects, date unknown

Radio Transmitter Station, Nauen, 1906

Tuteur Haus office building, Berlin, 1912-1913. (Compared with Alfred Messel’s Wertheim Department Store, Berlin, ca. 1906)
E. Peter Behrens, 1907-1913

AEG advertisements and goods, 1906; 1907; 1908-1913.AEG is the Allgemeine Elektrizitäts Gesellschaft (General–or Universal–Electric Company)

Street lamps for AEG

Berlin: AEG Turbine Factory, 1908-1909

Berlin-Dahlem, Theodor Wiegand house, 1911-1912

Berlin: AEG Small Motors Factory, 1910-1913

St. Petersburg: German Embassy, 1911-1912
F. Walter Gropius (1883-1969): The early years


Alfeld: Fagus Shoelast Factory, 1911-1912

Diesel locomotive for German Railways, 1913

Sleeping car for German Railways, 1914

Mitropa dining railway car, ca. 1914
G. The Deutscher Werkbund Cologne exhibition, 1914

Posters, Peter Behrens and Richard Riemerschmidt

Austrian Pavilion, Josef Hoffmann (compared with Palais Stoclet, Brussels, 1905-1911)

Peter Behrens, Festival Hall

Office Building and Factory, Walter Gropius. (Compared one with Frank Lloyd Wright, Winslow house, River Forest, Illinois, 1893, and the other with City National Bank Building and Hotel, Mason City, Iowa, Frank Lloyd Wright, 1909)

Diesel Motors Hall, Walter Gropius (at rear of Office Bldg.)

Theater, Henry van de Velde

1-B. GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM BEFORE WORLD WAR I


A. Hans Poelzig (1869-1936)

Posen (now Poznan, Poland): Water Tower, 1910-1911


B. Max Berg (1870-1947)

Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland): Jahrhunderthalle, 1910-1913


C. The theories of Paul Scheerbart (1863-1915): Glasarchitektur, 1914; Graues tuch und zehn Prozent weiss (The gray cloth and ten percent white), 1914.
D. Bruno Taut (1880-1938)

Leipzig: Steel Pavilion, 1913



Alpine Architecture, 1919

Werkbund Cologne Exhibition: Glass Pavilion, 1914

1-C. EXPRESSIONISM IN GERMANY AFTER WORLD WAR ONE: THE NOVEMBERGRUPPE (1918-1925) AND THE ARBEITSRAT FÜR KUNST (1918-1921)
A. Introductory material
B. Wenzel Hablik (1881-1934)

Exhibition Building, project, 1920


C. Hans Poelzig,

Grosses Schauspielhaus, Berlin, 1919 (demolished 1988)

D. Peter Behrens

Höchst: I. G. Farben Office Building, 1920-1924


E. Hans Poelzig

Berlin, Großes Schauspielhaus, 1919 (demolished ca. 1980)


F. Eric Mendelsohn (1887-1953): 1915-1924

Fantasy Projects (1915-1919)

Einstein Tower, Potsdam, 1919-1924. [Compare with Le Désert de Monsieur de Monville, Retz (outside of Paris), François Barbier and Hubert Robert, 1771]

Berliner Tageblatt Building, Berlin, 1921-1923
G. Otto Bartning (1883-1959)

Die Stern Kirche (The Star Church), project, 1922
H. Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925)

Goetheanum, Dornach, Switzerland, 1924-28


I. Walter Gropius

Monument to the Victims of the Kapp Putsch, Weimar, 1922


J. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe: 1921-1928

Monument to Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg, Berlin, 1926

Friedrichstrasse office building project, Berlin, 1921

Glass skyscraper project, Berlin, 1922

Leipzigstrasse office building project, Berlin, 1928
K. Chicago Tribune Building Competition, 1922

Entries by Walter Gropius, Bernard Bijvoet & Johannes Duiker, Adolf Loos, Eliel Saarinen, H. W. Kruger & Hermann Zess, and Max Taut

Winning design by John Mead Howells & Raymond Hood, compared with Rouen Cathedral, Butter Tower, 15th - 17th centuries

1-D. THE BAUHAUS AT WEIMAR


A. Antecedents:


Henry van de Velde (1863-1957)

Höhe Pappeln (Lofty Poplars), [his house in Weimar], 1908

Kunstschule and Kunstgewerbeschule bldgs., Weimar, 1906. (Henry van de Velde Director of the Kunstgewerbeschule 1906-1915)


B. The Weimar Bauhaus, 1919-1925
Lyonel Feininger (1871-1956)

Cathedral of Socialism, 1919. (Illustration to Gropius’ Bauhaus Manifesto)
Bauhaus curriculum
Oskar Schlemmer (1888-1943)

Bauhaus emblem, 1922

Murals in entrance hall and staircase of the Weimar Bauhaus (former Kunstgewerebeschule), 1922-1923
Views of workshops
. Johannes Itten (1888-1967)

The Red Tower, 1918

Announcement of Utopia, 1920


Teaching aids:

Color wheel

Scale of light intensity

Balanced primaries

Balanced complementaries

Personality of color depends on background (2 examples)


Itten’s Vorkurs

Scales of proportion

Large/small - High/low - Thin/thick - Broad/narrow

Light/dark - Soft/hard - Light/heavy

Point - line - plane - volume

Transparent/opaque - Smooth/rough - Rest/motion - Much/little


Vorkurs student work:

Study of materials and composition

Materials study

Textures in wood achieved with different knives

Texture on damp paper (india ink and pen)


Study in cubic character

Relief composition of textured materials

Structure with forces in balance: wood, glass,wire

Sstudy for mechanical display; window sculpture



Formenbaum (plaster, straw, and metal)
Lyonel Feininger (1871-1956)

Town Hall, Zottelstedt, 2, 1918

Villa on the Shore, 4, 1920

Oberweimar, 1921
Paul Klee (1879-1940)

Vessels of Aphrodite, 1921

Twittering Machine, 1922

North Sea, 1923

Heavenly and Earthly Time, 1927
Joost Schmidt (1893-1948)

Location of Planes in Relation to Each Other and to Their Directions of Movement, lithograph.

Advertisement for Bauhaus-produced chessboard, 1923

Bauhaus Exhibition lithographic posters, Weimar, 1923
Gerhard Marcks (1889-1981)

Poster for Bauhaus exhibition, 1923


Georg Muche (1895-1986)

Composition for textile, 1921



Haus am Horn, 1923 (with Marcel Breuer)
Marcel Breuer (1902-1981)

Dressing table with movable mirrors, 1923

Kitchen, 1923
Carl Jacob Jucker and Wilhelm Wagenfeld

Lamp, 1924


Walter Gropius

Berlin/Dahlem, Adolf Sommerfeld house, 1921 (compare with Winslow house, River Forest, Illinois, Frank Lloyd Wright, 1893); glass windows by Josef Albers;

woodwork and bas reliefs in vestibule by Joost Schmidt.


1-E. DUTCH EXPRESSIONISM (THE AMSTERDAM SCHOOL)
Jan Vermeer, View of Delft and Street in Delft, both of ca. 1658.
A. Antecedents
Petrus Josephus Hubertus (P. J. H.) Cuypers (1827-1921)

Rijskmuseum, Amsterdam, 1877-1885

Central Station, Amsterdam, 1885-1889
Hendrikus Petrus Berlage (1856-1934)

Amsterdam Beurs (Stock Exchange), 1897-1903


B. The Amsterdam School
Amsterdam: Scheepvaarthuis (Ship Speed House), J. M. van der Mey in collaboration with Michel de Klerk and Piet Kramer, 1912-1916.

Amsterdam: De Dageraad (The Dawn) Housing Complex, Michel de Klerk, 1918-1923.

Amsterdam: Eigen Haard (Our Hearth) Housing Complex, Michel de Klerk, 1913

Amsterdam, Ronnerplein (Henriëtte Ronner Square) Housing Complex, Michel de Klerk, 1920.



ART HISTORY 358: SECTION TWO
2-A. FUTURISM
A. Manifestos:
Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (1876-1944), Futurist Manifesto, Le Figaro (Paris), 20 February 1909

Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Luigi Russolo, Giacomo Balla, and Gino Severini, Manifesto of the Futurist Painters, Poesia (Milan), 11 February 1910

Umberto Boccioni, Technical Manifesto of Futurist Sculpture, Poesia (Milan), 11 February 1912

Antonio Sant’Elia (and F. T. Marinetti?), Manifesto of Futurist Architecture, Catalogue of the Nuove Tendenze exhibition, Milan, 11 July 1914; amplified and published in.Lacerba (Florence), 1 August 1914




B. Poetry
Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (1876-1944)

Zang Tumb Tumb, 1914

Paroles en libertà, 1915
C. Sculpture
Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916)

Dynamic Development of a Bottle in Space, 1910

Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913

Dynamism of a Speeding Horse, 1914-1915
D. Painting
Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916)

Dynamism of a Cyclist, 1910

Dinamismo de un footballer, 1913

States of Mind

Caricature of a Futurist Evening in Milan, 1911
Giacomo Balla (1871-1958)

The Streetlight, 1909

Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, 1912

Flight of the Swifts, 1913 version

Flight of the Swifts, 1918 version



Abstract Speed: The Car Has Passed, 1913

City of Dynamism, ca. 1914

Mercury Passing in Front of the Sun, 1914

Pessimism and Optimism, ca. 1923
Carlo Carrà (1881-1966)

Funeral of the Anarchist Galli, sketch, 1910

Funeral of the Anarchist Galli, 1911

Patriotic Celebration, 1914
Luigi Russolo (1885-1947)

The Art of Noise

Revolt, 1911

Dynamism of a Train, 1912

Automobile at Speed, 1913

Memory of a Night, 1912

Music, 1911
Gino Severini (1883-1966)

Danseuse à Pigalle

Spherical Expansion of Light, 1914

Train in the Country, 1913

Armored Train, 1915
E. Architecture
Antonio Sant’Elia (1888-1916)

La città nuova drawings, 1914

2-B THE SOVIET UNION, 1918-1930


A. Organizations
1918: The Free Workshops, founded from the merger of two pre-Revolutionary art schools, the Stroganof School and the Moscow School of Painting)

1920: The Free Workshops become the VKhUTEMAS (acronym for Higher Artistic and Technical Workshops)

INKhUK (Institute of Artistic Culture), provided theoretical direction for VKhUTEMAS. In the early 1920s, at INKhUK, the Working Group began to exhibit architectural sketches, both in Russia and Germany (1922)

1923: The nucleus of the Working Group, including Nikolai Ladovskii, Vladimir Krinskii, Nikolai Dokuchaev, and for a time, El Lissitzky established ASNOVA (Association of New Architects) “to establish general principles in architecture ad its liberation from atrophied forms”

1925: VKhUTEMAS is reorganized as VKhUTEIN (Higher Artistic and Technical Institute); was closed down in 1930
B. Painting
Kasimir Malevitch (1878_1935)

Airplane Flying, 1914

Eight Red Rectangles, 1915

Black Suprematist Square, 1914-1915

Composition: White on White, ca. 1918

Black Square and Red Square, 1915

Arkhitecton, 1924


El Lissitzky (1890-1941)

Lenin Tribune, 1920-1924

Proun, ca, 1925

Proun, 1923

Proun99, 1923

Prounenraum, n.d.

Architecture at Vkhutemas (book cover), 1927
C. Sculpture
Naum Gabo (1890-1977)

Column (plastic, wood, and metal), 1923

Construction in Relief (plastic; work is lost), 1920

Torsion (plastic), 1929

Construction in Space: Arch, 1929-1937

Translucent Variation on Spheric Theme (plastic; form is series of hyperbolic paraboloids), 1951
Antoine Pevsner (1886-1962)

Construction en rond, 1925
D. Other media
Alexander Rodchenko (1891-1956)

Constructivist clothes, 1925



Composition 86: Destiny and Gravity, 1919; sculpture

Red and Yellow; painting

Young Guard, 1924; poster

Books! 1924; poster

Portrait of Lily Brik, 1924; photograph

Stepanova with a Cigarette, 1924; photograph

Woman and Child Ascending Stairs, (?) photograph

Planes Dropping Explosive Men (?) photograph

Street Scene from Above (?) photograph

Portrait of the poet Vladimir Mayakowsky, 1924; photograph

D. Architecture
Vladimir Tatlin (1885-1953)

Monument to the Third International, 1919


Nikolai Ladowsky (1881-1941)

Collective Housing, sketch, 1920
Vladimir Shukhof (1853-1939)

Shabolovka Radio Tower, Moscow, 1922


Grigorii Barkhin (1880-1969)

Izvestiia Bldg., Moscow, 1927
Ilia Golosov (1883-1945)

Zuev Club, Moscow, 1927-1929


Boris Velikovskii

GOSTORG (State Trade Agency), Moscow, 1925-1927


Ivan Leonidov

Lenin Institute of Librarianship, Moscow, 1927, project


Moisei Ginzburg and Ivan Milinis

Apartment house for the People’s Commissariat of Finanace (NARKOMFIN), 1928-30


Aleksei Shchusev (1873-1949)

Commisariat of Agriculture Headquarters, Moscow, 1929-1933


The Vesnin brothers (Alexander, Leonid, and Viktor)

Project for the Palace of Labor, Moscow, 1923

Competition for the Pravda Building, 1924

Commisariat of Heavy Industry, Moscow, competition entry, 1934

Mostorg Department Store, Moscow, 1927-1929
Konstantin Melnikov (1890-1974)

Soviet Pavilion for the Exposition des Arts Décoratifs, Paris, 1925

Rusakov Club (Russian Workers’ Club), Moscow, 1927-1928

Project for a parking garage, Paris, 1925

First study “of the house,” 1922

Melnikov House, Moscow, 1929

Intourist Garage, Moscow, 1933

GOSPLAN (State Planning Commission) Garage, Moscow, 1934-36

Commissariat of Heavy Industry, Moscow, 1934, project
E. The Stalinist (and Nazi) Reaction


Painting

Boris Eremeevich Vladimirski, Female Worker

Ivan Alekseevich Vladimirov, In a Girls’ School
Architecture
Boris Mikhailovic Iofan, Palace of the Soviets, Moscow, 1931, competition entry
Exposition Internationale des Ars et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne, Paris, 1937

B. M. Iofan, Soviet Pavilion

Albert Speer, German Pavilion

2-C. DE STIJL

A. Frank Lloyd Wright Influences in the Netherlands
Robert van’t Hoff (1887-1979)

Villa Verloop, Huis ter Heide (near Utrecht), 1915-1916

Villa Henny, Huis ter Heide (near Utrecht), 1915-1916
Jan Wils (1891-1972)

Café-restaurant De Dubbele Sleutel (The Duplicate Key), Woerden, 1918-1919


B. De Stijl: Painting
Piet Mondrian (1872-1944)

Self-Portrait, ca. 1900

Composition II in Red, Blue, and Yellow, 1930

Composition with Yellow, Blue, and Red, 1921
Theo van Doesburg (1883-1931)

Cover of first issue of De Stijl, 1917



Composition XI, 1916

Composition/The Cow, 1917

Composition, 1917

Female Nude with Hand on Her Head, 1917

Russian Dance, 1917-1918

Composition in Discords, 1918

Counter-Composition V, 1924

Counter-Composition XIII, 1925-1926
C. De Stijl: Architecture
Theo Van Doesburg

Café Aubette, Strasbourg, 1929-1931. (With Hans Arp and Sophie Tauber-Arp)

Van Doesburg house, Meudon, 1931

Model of the Maison d’Artiste, 1923

Axonometrical study, 1923

(With Cornelis van Eesteren), Contra-Construction, project, 1923

Axonometric drawing of a Hôtel Particulier, 1923

(With Gerrit Rietveld), Interior, 1919


Gerrit Rietveld (1888-1964)

Red-Blue Chair, 1918

Buffet, 1919

Furnishings for doctor’s office, Maarssen, 1922

Schröder house, Utrecht, 1924
E. J. J. P. (Jacobus Johannes Pieter) Oud (1890-1963)

Siedlung Tusschendijken, Rotterdam, 1920

Housing estate Oud-Mathenesse, Rotterdam, 1923-1924 (demolished)

Café De Unie, Rotterdam, 1925

2-D. THE BAUHAUS AT DESSAU -1: ARCHITECTURE, FURNITURE, HOUSEHOLD GOODS, AND AUTOMOBILE DESIGN


Locations: Weimar, April 1919-1924; Dessau, 1925-1932; Berlin, 1 Oct. 1932-2 July 1933

Directors: Walter Gropius, April 1919-4 Feb. 1928; Hannes Meyer, 1 April 1928-1 April 1930; Mies van der Rohe, 1 April 1930-2 July 1933

Vorkurs Teachers: Johannes Itten, 1919-1923; Lazlo Moholy-Nagy, 1924-1928; Josef Albers, 1928-1933
A. Architecture
Walter Gropius

Bauhaus, Dessau, 1925

Houses for Director and Masters, Dessau, 1925-1926

Total Theater (project), 1927



B. Furniture and House Goods
Moholy-Nagy house, Dessau, 1925-1926. Studio
Marcel Breuer (1902-1981)

Wassily Chair, 1925

Chair B 32, 1929

Furniture for Feder Stores, Berlin, 1927

Werkbund Exhibition, Paris, 1930

Gymnasium, Building Exhibition, Berlin, 1931

Marianne Brandt (1893-1983)

Metal tea sets



Kamem desk lamp, 1928

“Touch” desk lamp


C. Automobile design
Walter Gropius

Adler cabriolet, 1930

Adler Standard 6, 1931

Adler Standard 8, 1931

2-E. THE BAUHAUS AT DESSAU - 2: PAINTING, PHOTOGRAPHY, AND STAGE DESIGN
A. Painting
Vassily Kandinsky (1866-1944)

Untitled, watercolor, 1922

Inside Boiling, watercolor, 1925

Brown Spot, watercolor, 1923

Swinging, 1925
B. Photography
László Moholy-Nagy (1895-1946)

Moholy-Nagy photography

Student work
C. Stage design
Oskar Schlemmer (1888-1943)


Bauhaus Staircase, 1932 (painting)

Oskar Schlemmer and Paul Hindemith (1895-1963)



Das Triadische Ballett (The Triadic Ballet), 1924-1926

ART HISTORY 358: SECTION THREE

3-A. LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE, 1926-1931


Wolf house, Guben (Gubin, Poland), 1926. (Destroyed in World War II)

Esters house, Krefeld, 1928

Hermann Lange house, Krefeld, 1928

Silk Exhibit of the Exposition de la Mode, Berlin, 1927

Glass Industry Exhibit of the Werkbund Exposition, Stuttgart, 1927

German Pavilion, Barcelona International Exhibition, 1929. (Statue by Georg Kolbe). Pavilion reconstructed in 1983-1986

Tugendhat house, Brno, Slovakia, 1930

Berlin Building Exposition House, 1931


3-B. CHARLES-ÉDOUARD .JEANNERET-GRIS: THE YEARS OF LA CHAUX-DE-FONDS, 1905-1916


Villa Fallet, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland, 1905-1907

Villa Stotzer, La Chaux-de-Fonds, 1907-1908

Maison Jeanneret-Perret (La Maison Blanche), La Chaux-de-Fonds, 1912

Villa Favre-Jacot, Le Locle, 1912

Villa Schwob, La Chaux-de-Fonds, 1916. (Compare with Frank Lloyd Wright, Thomas P. Hardy House, Racine, Wis., 1906, and Warren Hickox House, Kankakee, Ill., 1900)

3-C. LE CORBUSIER: PARIS, 1914-1925


A. Purism: Paintings by Amedée Ozenfant and Le Corbusier
Amedée Ozenfant

Guitar and Bottles, 1920

Nacres, ca. 1926

Still Life (L’Esprit Nouveau II), 1920

Le Corbusier



Still Life, 1920

Still Life, 1920-1921

Still Life with Numerous Objects, 1923

Vertical Still Life, 1922
B. Residential Prototypes
Dom-ino House, 1914

“Monol” House, 1919

“Citrohan” House, 1920

C. Theory


L’Esprit Nouveau, 1920-1925

Vers une architecture, trans.as Towards a New Architecture, 1923

The Modulor


D. Architecture
Ozenfant house and studio, Paris, 1922

Design for a Contemporary City, 1922

Plan Voisin for Paris, 1925

Villa La Roche-Jeanneret, Auteuil (Paris), 1923-24

Villa Besnus, Vaucresson, 1922-1923

Pavillon de l’Esprit Nouveau, Exposition Universelle des Arts Décoratives, Paris, 1925.

(Reconstructed in Bologna, Italy)

3-D. LE CORBUSIER: PARIS, 1926-1933


Villa Cook, Boulogne-sur-Mer, 1926

Villa De Monzie-Stein, Garches, 1926-1927

Villa Savoye, Poissy-sur-Seine, 1929-1930

Swiss Pavilion, Cité Universitaire, Paris, 1929-1933




3-E. THE SIEDLUNGEN
Törten Housing Development, Dessau, Gropius, 1926-1928

Dammerstock Siedlung, Karlsruhe, Gropius, 1927-1928

Megastructure project, Gropius, 1928

Slab apartment block project, Gropius, 1929

Siemensstadt Housing Development, Gropius (and others), 1929-1930

Weissenhofsiedlung, Stuttgart, Deutscher Werkbund, 1927 (33 bldgs., 63 units)

Master plan: Mies van der Rohe

Buildings 1-4: Mies van der Rohe (24 units)

Buildings 5-9: J. J. P. Oud (5 units)

Building 10: Victor Bourgeois (1 unit)

Buildings 11-12: Adolf G. Schneck (2 units)

Buildings 13-15: Le Corbusier (3 units)

Buildings 16-17: Gropius (2 units)

Building 18: Ludwig Hilberseimer (1 unit)

Building 19: Bruno Taut (1 unit)

Building 20: Hans Poelzig (1 unit)

Buildings 21-22: Richard Döcker (2 units)

Buildings 23-24: Max Taut (2 units)

Building 25: Adolf Rading (1 unit)

Buildings 26-27: Josef Frank (2 units)

Buildings 28-30: Mart Stam (3 units)

Buildings 31-32: Peter Behrens (12 units)



Building 33: Hans Scharoun (1 unit)


ART HISTORY 358: BIBLIOGRAPHY

NOTE: Titles preceded by an asterisk (*) are on reserve in the Kohler Art Library. All other titles are in open stacks.


I. DICTIONARIES AND ENCYCLOPEDIAS
Fleming, John, Hugh Honour, and Nikolaus Pevsner, eds. A Dictionary of Architecture. 1966; Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1991.


Pehnt, Wolfgang, ed. Encyclopedia of Modern Architecture. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1964.
Placzek, Adolf K., ed. Macmillan Encyclopedia of Architects, 4 ols. New York: The Free Press, 1982.
Sartoris, Alberto. Encyclopédie de l'architecture nouvelle: ordre et climat méditerranéens. Milan: Ulrico Hoepli, éditeur, 1957.


II. SURVEYS
* Banham, Reyner. Theory and Design in the First Machine Age. London: Architectural Press, 1960.
Benevolo, Leonardo. History of Modern Architecture, 2 vols. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1971.
* Benton, Tim, and Charlotte Benton, eds. Form and Function: A Source Book for the History of Architecture and Design, 1890-1939. London: Crosby Lockwood Staples, 1975.
* Borsi, Franco. The Monumental Era: European Architecture and Design, 1929-1939. New York: Rizzoli, 1987.
* Collins, Peter. Changing Ideals in Modern Architecture, 1750-1950. Montreal: McGill University Press, 1965.
* Conrads, Ulrich, ed. Programmes and Manifestoes on Twentieth-Century Architecture. London: Lund Humphries, 1970.
* Curtis, William J. R. Modern Architecture since 1900. 1982; Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1987.
Dean, Andrea Oppenheimer. Bruno Zevi on Modern Architecture. New York: Rizzoli, 1983.
* Frampton, Kenneth. Modern Architecture: A Critical History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
* Giedion, Sigfried. Space, Time, and Architecture: The Growth of a New Tradition. 1941; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1954.


* Hitchcock, Henry-Russell. Architecture: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1958.
---------- Modern Architecture: Romanticism and Reintegration. New York: Payson and Clarke, Ltd., 1929.
---------- and Philip Johnson. The International Style: Architecture since 1922. New York: W. W. Norton, 1932.
Jencks, Charles. Modern Movements in Architecture. Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press, 1973.
* Pevsner, Nikolaus. Pioneers of Modern Design. 1936; London: Penguin Books, 1960.
* ---------- The Sources of Modern Architecture and Design. New York: Praeger, 1968.
* Rowe, Colin. The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1976.
Richards, J. M. Modern Architecture. 1940; Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1962.
* Scully, Vincent. Modern Architecture: The Architecture of Democracy. New York: George Braziller, 1974.
Sharp, Dennis. A Visual History of Twentieth-Century Architecture. New York: New York Graphic Society, 1972.
* Smithson, Alison Margaret. The Heroic Period of Modern Architecture. London: Thames and Hudson, 1981.
Tafuri, Manfredo, and Francesco Dal Co. Modern Architecture, trans. Robert Erich Wolf. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1979.
Taut, Bruno. Modern Architecture. London: The Studio, Ltd. [1929].
Zevi, Bruno. Architecture as Space: How to Look at Architecture. New York: Horizon, 1957.
------------- Towards an Organic Architecture. London: Faber & Faber, 1950.

III. MONOGRAPHS ON TRENDS, MOVEMENTS, AND PERIODS



Amsterdam School
* de Wit, Wim, ed. The Amsterdam School: Dutch Expressionist Architecture, 1915-1930. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1983.
Vriend, J. J. The Amsterdam School. Amsterdam: Meulenhoff, 1970.


The Bauhaus
Bayer, Herbert, Walter and Ise Gropius, eds. Bauhaus: 1919-1928. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1938.
Central School of Art and Design of London, ed. Fifty Years Bauhaus: Exhibition. London: Central School of Art and Design, 1968.
Franciscono, Marcel. Walter Gropius and the Creation of the Bauhaus in Weimar: The Ideals and Artistic Theories of Its Founding Years. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1971.
Gropius, Walter. The New Architecture and the Bauhaus, trans. P. Morton Shand. London: Faber and Faber, 1935.
Korn, Arthur, ed. Glass in Modern Architecture of the Bauhaus Period. 1926; New York: George Braziller, 1968.
* Naylor, Gillian. The Bauhaus. London: Studio Vista, 1968.
----------- The Bauhaus Reassessed: Sources and Design Theory. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1985.
Neumann, Eckhard. Bauhaus and Bauhaus People: Personal Opinions and Recollections of Former Bauhaus Members and Their Contemporaries. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992.
* Wingler, Hans Maria. The Bauhaus: Weimar, Dessau, Berlin, Chicago. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1969.

De Stijl

* Friedman, Mildred, ed. De Stijl, 1917-1931: Visions of Utopia. New York: Abbeville Press, 1982.
Overy, Paul. De Stijl. London: Studio Vista, 1969.
Troy, Nancy J. The De Stijl Environment. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1983.


Deutscher Werkbund
* Buddensieg, Tilmann. Industriekultur: Peter Behrens and the AEG, 1907-1914. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1984.
Burckhardt, Lucius, ed. The Werkbund: History and Ideology, 1907-1933. Woodbury, N.Y.: Barron's, 1977.
Kirsch, Karin. The Weissenhofsiedlung: Experimental Housing Built for the Deutscher Werkbund, Stuttgart, 1927. New York: Rizzoli, 1989.
* Pommer, Richard, and Christian Otto. Weissenhof 1927 and the Modern Movement in Architecture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.

Expressionism
Collins, George R. Visionary Drawings of Architecture and Planning: 20th Century through the 1960s. New York: The Drawing Center, 1979.
* Pehnt, Wolfgang. Expressionist Architecture. New York: Praeger, 1973.
Sharp, Dennis. Modern Architecture and Expressionism. New York: George Braziller, 1967.
Scheerbart, Paul. Glass Architecture/Bruno Taut. Alpine Architecture, ed. Dennis Sharp. New York: Praeger, 1972.


Futurism and Italian Fascism
Apollonio, Umbro, ed. Futurist Manifestos. New York: Viking Press, 1970.


Etlin, Richard A. Modernism in Italian Architecture. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991.
Gargus, Jacqueline, ed. From Futurism to Rationalism: The Origins of Modern Italian Architecture. Architectural Design Profile 51, 1981.
* Rye, Jane. Futurism. London: Studio Vista, 1972.


Soviet Architecture
Brumfield, William Craft. A History of Russian Architecture. Cambridge, Great Britain: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Cook Catherine, and Alexander Kudriavtsev, eds. Uses of Tradition in Russian & Soviet Architecture. Architectural Design Profile 68, 1987.
* Kahn-Magomedov, Selim O. Pioneers of Soviet Architecture: The Search for New Solutions in the 1920s and 1930s. New York: Rizzoli, 1987.
Kopp, Anatole. Constructivist Architecture in the USSR. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1985.
--------- Town and Revolution: Soviet Architecture and City Planning, 1917-1935. New York: George Braziller, 1970.


Weimar Republic
Lane, Barbara Miller. Architecture and Politics in Germany, 1918-1945. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1968.
* Willett, John. Art and Politics in the Weimar Period: The New Sobriety, 1917-1933. New York: Pantheon Books, 1978.


IV. MONOGRAPHS ON ARCHITECTS

Peter Behrens (1868-1940)


Buddensieg, Tilmann. Industriekultur: Peter Behrens and the AEG, 1907-1914. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1984.
* Windsor, Alan. Peter Behrens: Architect and Designer. New York: Whitney Library of Design, 1981.


Hendrik Petrus Berlage (1856-1934)
Polano, Sergio, ed. Hendrik Petrus Berlage: Complete Works. New York: Rizzoli, 1988.
Singelenberg, Pieter. H. P. Berlage, Idea and Style: The Quest for Modern Architecture. Utrecht: Haentiens Dekker & Gumbert, 1972.

Walter Gropius (1883-1969)
Busignani, Alberto. Gropius. New York: Hamlyn, 1973.
Fitch, James Marton. Walter Gropius. New York: George Braziller, 1960.
* Giedion, Sigfried. Walter Gropius: Work and Teamwork. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1954.
Gropius, Ise, ed. Walter Gropius: Buildings, Plans, Projects, 1906-1969. Lincoln, Mass.: Ise Gropius, 1972.
Gropius, Walter. Apollo in the Democracy: The Cultural Obligation of the Architect. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968.
---------- The New Architecture and the Bauhaus, trans. P. Morton Shand. London: Faber and Faber, 1935.
---------- Scope of Total Architecture. New York: Harper, 1955.
Herbert, Gilbert. The Synthetic Vision of Walter Gropius. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 1959.




Josef Hoffmann (1870-1956)
* Gresleri, Giuliano. Josef Hoffmann. New York: Rizzoli, 1985.
Meyer, Christian. Josef Hoffmann: Architect and Designer, 1870-1956. Vienna and New York: Galerie Metropole, [1981].

Le Corbusier (Charles Edouard Jeanneret) (1887-1966)
* Benton, Tim. The Villas of Le Corbusier, 1920-1930. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987.
Blake, Peter. The Master Builders. New York: Knopf, 1960.
Boesiger, Willy. Le Corbusier. New York: Praeger, 1972.
* Brooks, H. Allen, ed. Le Corbusier. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.
Curtis, William J. R. Le Corbusier: Ideas and Forms. New York: Rizzoli, 1986.
* Boesiger, Willy, and H. Girsberger, eds. Le Corbusier, 1910-1965. New York: Praeger, 1967.
Choay, Françoise. Le Corbusier. New York: George Braziller, 1960.
Evenson, Norma. Le Corbusier: The Machine and the Grand Design. New York: George Braziller, 1970.
Gans, Deborah. The Le Corbusier Guide. Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press, 1987.
Guiton, Jacques. The Ideas of Le Corbusier on Architecture and Urban Planning, trans. Margaret Guiton. New York: George Braziller, 1981.
Le Corbusier. The City of Tomorrow and Its Planning. 1929; New York: Dover, 1987.
* ---------- The Modulor: A Harmonious Measure to the Human Scale Universally Applicable to Architecture and Mechanics, trans. Peter de Francia and Anna Bostock. London: Faber & Faber, 1954.

--------- Talks with Students, trans. Pierre Chase. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999.

* ---------- Towards a New Architecture, trans. Frederick Etchells. New York: Praeger, 1970.


* Richards, Simon. Le Corbusier and the Concept of Self. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.
Serenyi, Peter, ed. Le Corbusier in Perspective. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975.
Sekler, Eduard Franz, ed. Le Corbusier at Work: The Genesis of the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978.
Walden, Russell, ed. The Open Hand: Essays on Le Corbusier. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1977.
Weber, Nicholas Fox. Le Corbusier: A Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2008.

Erich Mendelsohn (1887-1953)
King, Susan. The Drawings of Eric Mendelsohn. San Francisco: California Print Company, 1969.
Von Eckardt, Wolf. Eric Mendelsohn. New York: George Braziller, 1960.
Zevi, Bruno. Erich Mendelsohn. New York: Rizzoli, 1985.

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969)
Achilles, Rolf, Kevin Harrington, and Charlotte Myhrun, eds. Mies van der Rohe as Educator. Chicago: Illinois Institute of Technology, 1986.
Blake, Peter. The Master Builders. New York: Knopf, 1960.
Blaser, Werner. After Mies: Mies van der Rohe, Teaching and Principles. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1977.
---------- Mies van der Rohe: Furniture and Interiors. Woodbury, N.Y.: Barron's, 1982.

---------- Mies van der Rohe: The Art of Structure. New York: Praeger, 1965.
Bonta, Juan Pablo. Architecture and Its Interpretation. New York: Rizzoli, 1979.
Carter, Peter James. Mies van der Rohe at Work. New York: Praeger, 1974.
* Drexler, Arthur. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. New York: George Braziller, 1960.
* Hilberseimer, Ludwig. Mies van der Rohe. Chicago: P. Theobald, 1956.
* Johnson, Philip. Mies van der Rohe. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1947.
Hochman, Elaine S. Architects of Fortune: Mies van der Rohe and the Third Reich. New York: Fromm International Publishing Corporation, 1990.
* Schulze, Franz. Mies van der Rohe: A Critical Biography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.
----------, ed. Mies van der Rohe: Critical Essays. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1989.
Spaeth, David A. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe: An Annotated Bibliography and Chronology. New York: Garland, 1979.
---------- Mies van der Rohe. New York: Rizzoli, 1985.
* Speyer, A. James. Mies van der Rohe. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1968.
* Tegethoff, Wolf. Mies van der Rohe: The Villas and the Country Houses. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1985.
Zukowsky, John, ed.. Mies Reconsidered: His Career, Legacy, and Disciples. New York: Rizzoli, 1986.


Hermann Muthesius (1861-1927)
Muthesius, Hermann. The English House, ed. Dennis Sharp; trans. Janet Seligman. 1904, 1905; New York: Rizzoli, 1979.



Hans Poelzig (1869-1936)
* Posener, Julius. Hans Poelzig: Reflections on his Life and Work. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992.


Gerrit Thomas Rietveld (1888-1964)
Brown, Theodore M. The Work of G. Rietveld, Architect. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1958.
Buffinga, A. G. Th. Rietveld. Amsterdam: Meulenhoff, 1971.
Overy, Paul. The Rietveld Schroeder House. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1988.
Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, ed. G. Rietveld, Architect. Amsterdam: Teksten Catalogues, 1971.

Antonio Sant'Elia (1888-1916)
* Caramel, Luciano. Antonio Sant'Elia: The Complete Works. New York: Rizzoli, 1988.

Hans Scharoun (1893-1972)
Bürkle, J. Christoph. Hans Scharoun. Zurich: Artemis, 1993.

Bruno Taut (1884-1967)
Taut, Bruno. Modern Architecture. London: The Studio, Ltd. [1929].

Henry Van de Velde (1863-1957)
* Sembach, Klaus-Jurgen. Henry Van de Velde. New York: Rizzoli, 1989.
Van de Velde, Henry. Formule de la beauté architectonique moderne. 1916-1917; Brussels: L'Equerre, [1923].



Theodore van Doesburg (1883-1931)
Baljeu, Joost. Theodore van Doesburg. London: Studio Vista, 1974.

Charles Francis Annesley Voysey (1857-1941)
Durant, Stuart. C. F. A. Voysey. London: Academy Editions/St. Martin's Press, 1992.


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