Who wrote this argument,and what are his/her training,personal background,and political learning?
Who is the intended audience?
Where did it appear originally?
When was the argument written?
Why was the article written?
A Step-By-Step analysis of Toulmin Method of evaluation of logical pattern
Analyze the Claim
Identify the Claim
Look for Qualifiers: Absolute,Relative,or Universal /”typically” /“usually” /“most of the time”
Find the Exceptions
Summarize the Claim
Assess the arguer’s refutations
Note the Counter Arguments
Argumentation versus Persuasion
These words are often used interchangeably.
Argumentation: the process of forming reasons and of drawing conclusions and applying them to a case in discussion. An argument involves the process of establishing a claim and then proving it with the use of logical reasoning, examples, and research.
Persuasion: the tactical process of moving to a belief, position or a course of action.
Good argumentative writing is more defined when utilized with other forms of writing such as description, a short narrative, classification, cause and effect,comparison/contrast, etc.
Styles of argumentative of writing
Toulmin model: Follows the pattern of a claim (proposition/thesis), data (support) with qualifiers, warrant, and a concession.
Rogers’ model: Use of Rogerian arguments to come to a conclusion that mixes both views of the issue to reach a common ground.
Introduction in Argumentative/Persuasive essays include:
A” hook or grabber” to catch attention(Strong Statement:”Cigarettes are the number one cause of lung cancer in the world!”),(Quotations:E.Hubbard once said, “Truth is stronger than fiction.”), Statistics,anecdote,a question,exaggeration or outrageous statement:The whole world watched as the comet flew overhead.
Thesis or focus statement: Topic,stance,Purpose,scope,organization
[Grabber:Strong Statement]Of all the problems facing the environment today,the one that bothers me the most is global warming.Some scientists say that the earth is getting warmer because of the greenhouse effect.[Thesis]In this paper I will describe the greenhouse effect and whether the atmosphere is actually getting warmer.
THE BODY of a Persuasive
Provide evidence to support the opinion offered in the thesis statement
Use Deductive/Inductive reasoning to provide solid reasons to back your thesis
Elaborate with the use of statistics or research,examples,or real-life experiences
Clarify a position,draw comparison,make an analysis,draw an analogy,refute counter arguments,and generate hypothetical instances(cues:e.g. suppose that,what if,etc.)
Restate your thesis or focus statement
Summarize the main points by paraphrasing
Write a personal comment or call for action: with a prediction,with a question to draw reader’s own conclusion,with a recommendation stressing the actions or remedies that should be taken
General Guideline for Writing a Persuasive Essay
Have a firm opinion that you like your audience to accept
Begin with a grabber or hook
Offer evidence to support your opinion
Discuss and refute the opposing views
Conclude with a restatement of what you want the reader to do or believe
Make sure the information you receive is relevant and credible and valid
Historical, scientific, and geographical facts
Authoritative point of view
How much endorsing evidence?
How well established is evidence?
Does it support/fit your claim?
Allow it to be conclusive
The Three Persuasive Appeals
Logic- the appeal to reason
Emotion- the appeal to emotion
Credibility- the appeal of one’s character
Logos: reasoning strategies
Induction: A process through which the premises provide some basis for the conclusion.
Deduction: A process through which the premises provide conclusive proof for the conclusion. Reductio ad Absurdum: (to reduce to absurdity) To question a position by showing that its consequence are problematic if carried to their logical end.
Questions of Credibility
Has the reader been able to rely on what you have said in the past? If they are unfamiliar with you…
Do you know what you’re talking about? Are you familiar with all sides of the issue?
Have you done your research on the issue?
Have you documented your research thoroughly and accurately?