Apush unit 8 Test Part 1 (Matching, Short Answer & Long Essay) Matching

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APUSH Unit 8 Test - Part 1 (Matching, Short Answer & Long Essay)
Match each item with the correct statement below.


Bessie Smith


Langston Hughes


Marcus Garvey


assembly line


Charles Lindbergh


Duke Ellington


Kellogg-Briand Pact


Five-Party Naval Limitation Treaty


welfare capitalism



____ 1. writer who became a leading voice of the African American experience in the United States

____ 2. a system in which companies allowed workers profit sharing, medical care benefits, and pensions
____ 3. leader of the “back to Africa” movement
____ 4. pilot of the first solo nonstop transatlantic flight
____ 5. composer, pianist, and bandleader whose sound was a blend of improvisation and orchestration
____ 6. attempted to outlaw war
____ 7. agreement to halt production on warships
____ 8. enormously increased manufacturing efficiency
____ 9. singer who seemed to symbolize soul
Match each item with the correct statement below.


Civilian Conservation Corps


Harry Hopkins


Wagner Act


John L. Lewis


Frances Perkins


National Recovery Administration


Committee for Industrial Organization


Henry Morgenthau


Huey Long


Francis Townsend

____ 10. started the United Auto Workers (UAW)

____ 11. offered unemployed young men work planting trees, fighting forest fires, and building reservoirs
____ 12. set up a process whereby dissatisfied union members could take their complaints to binding arbitration
____ 13. urged consumers to buy goods only from companies that displayed its blue eagle symbol
____ 14. first female cabinet member
____ 15. Louisiana senator who championed the downtrodden and built a powerful and corrupt political machine
____ 16. leader of the United Mine Workers
____ 17. treasury secretary who favored balancing the budget
____ 18. head of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and, later, the Works Progress Administration
____ 19. proposed a monthly government pension for citizens over age 60 to be entirely spent each month
Match each item with the correct statement below.




Adolf Hitler


Benito Mussolini




Neville Chamberlain


cash and carry









____ 20. unification

____ 21. Nazi extermination camp
____ 22. Der Führer
____ 23. period when Britain and France waited for the Germans to attack
____ 24. Nazi government secret police
____ 25. Il Duce
____ 26. mass killing of millions of European Jews by the Nazis
____ 27. requirement imposed by the Neutrality Act of 1937 for the purchase of nonmilitary supplies from the U.S.
____ 28. used a large number of tanks and aircraft to encircle enemies and cut off supply lines
____ 29. leader who promised “peace in our time”
Match each item with the correct statement below.


Maginot Line


Atlantic Charter






strategic materials


America First Committee

____ 30. French fortifications along the German border

____ 31. agreement that committed the U.S. and Britain to a postwar world of democracy, nonaggression, and free trade
____ 32. things that a country needs to fight a war
____ 33. staunchly isolationist group that opposed any American intervention or aid to the Allies
____ 34. idea that trade between nations creates prosperity and helps prevent war
____ 35. government-owned farms organized during one of Stalin’s Five-Year Plans
Short Answer

Answer the following 10 questions in the manner of the AP U. S. History Exam’s Short Answer format. This requires no thesis, just a complete answer!

The Fundamentalist Movement


Fundamentalist Beliefs

The Scopes Trial

A religious movement

The Bible is literally true and without error.

Historic 1925 trial where evolutionists and creationists clashed

The name “Fundamentalism” came from the name of a series of pamphlets.

Rejected theory of evolution; embraced theory of creationism as written in the Bible

John T. Scopes volunteered to test the Butler Act, which outlawed any teaching of evolution.

Grew as a reaction to the “new morality,” which caused Americans to lose their traditional values

Billy Sunday and Aimee Semple McPherson preached traditional religious and moral values.

William Jennings Bryan represented creationists; Clarence Darrow defended Scopes; Scopes convicted, but conviction later overturned

36. What conflict existed between fundamentalists and people who shared Clarence Darrow’s view?

“What has advertising done? It has made the world a better place to live in by constantly suggesting public improvement and urging the adoption of hygienic methods in the homes of the people.”

The Essentials of Advertising (1921)

37. How has advertising made the world a better place, according to the excerpt?

“It was hot weather when they tried the infidel Scopes at Dayton, Tenn., but I went down there very willingly. . . . The Scopes jury . . . was composed mostly of [country folk], with a few Dayton sophisticates added to leaven the mass. . . . [After a preacher delivered a sermon], there arose out of the darkness a woman with her hair pulled back into a little tight knot. . . . She was denouncing the reading of books. . . .”

—H. L. Mencken
38. Why would a jury composed as Mencken describes be more inclined to convict Scopes?

“When the closing bell rang, the great bull market was dead and buried. 16,410,000 shares had changed hands. Leading stocks had lost as much as 77% of their peak value. The Dow Jones Index was off 40%. . . . Not only the little speculators, but the lordly, experienced big traders had been wiped out . . . and the whole financial structure of the nation had been shaken to its foundations.”

—from Stock Market Crash, 1929
39. At the closing bell, how had investors and the nation been affected?

The First New Deal, 1933–1935




Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

March 1933

Employed single men, ages 18–25, for natural resource conservation

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

May 1933

Built hydroelectric plants and dams aimed at improving seven Southern states and attracting industry to the South

Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)

May 1933

Reduced agricultural surplus and raised prices for struggling farmers

Federal Emergency Relief Agency (FERA)

May 1933

Granted federal money to state and local governments to be used to help the unemployed

National Recovery Administration (NRA)

June 1933

Controlled industrial production and prices with industry-created codes of fair competition

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

June 1933

Guaranteed bank deposits up to $2,500

Public Works Administration (PWA)

Civil Works Administration (CWA)

June 1933
November 1933

(canceled 1934)

Provided employment in construction of airports, parks, schools, and roads

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

June 1934

Regulated the stock market to avoid dishonest practices

40. Using the chart and your knowledge of the text, how would relief programs such as FERA, the CCC, and CWA and recovery programs such as AAA and NRA work together to lift the country out of the Depression?

“Even though large tracts of Europe have fallen . . . we shall not flag or fail. . . . We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.”

—Prime Minister Winston Churchill, speech to Parliament

41. Winston Churchill delivered this speech on June 4, 1940. Briefly explain what Churchill is talking about and why he made the speech.

42. What does the fact that Roosevelt made a “destroyers-for-bases” deal with Britain in 1940 tell us about the different strengths of the two countries?

The Good and the Bad in American Wartime Society

Reasons to Celebrate

Causes for Concern

End of Great Depression

Racial tension over jobs and equality

Creation of 19 million new jobs

Labor shortage

Average family income doubled

Housing shortages

43. Referring to the chart above, discuss the problem associated with the 19 million new jobs created by the war.

“We would not be obliged to run up the beaches near Tokyo assault-firing while being mortared and shelled, for all the fake manliness of our facades, we cried with relief and joy. We were going to live. We were going to grow up to adulthood after all.”

—U.S. Army officer recalling his reaction to the dropping of atomic bombs on Japan

44. What was V-J Day, and why was it a source of relief and joy for the veteran quoted in the passage?

45. Based on what you know of the 1920s and the items in the list above, how can you describe this decade?


Choose 10 of the following questions and answer them in the manner of the AP U. S. History Exam’s Long Answer format. This requires at least a basic thesis!

46. Use the diagram to help you explain how supporters of supply-side economics believed that lower tax rates would actually result in more tax money collected.

47. According to the National Origins Act of 1924, the United States would accept the most new immigrants from which nation shown in the graph? From which nation would the fewest new immigrants be accepted? Explain how the National Origins Act favored immigrants from some regions of Europe over others.

48. Use the example depicted in the diagram to explain how buying on margin works, and its risks and rewards.
49. Discuss the New Deal’s legacy, including its effectiveness in dealing with the Depression and its lasting effects on the role of government.
50. Why did Jews not simply flee Germany and immigrate to the United States during the Nazi reign?
51. Explain the purpose of the Doolittle Raid and the problems military planners had to solve to make it successful.
52. Describe the different points of view in the debate over the use of the atomic bomb and explain why Truman finally decided to use it.
53. How did the rise of the mass media and marketing affect the kind of people Americans admired and imitated?
54. Do you see any hidden dangers in the social and economic life that Americans pursued in the 1920s for which they would one day have to pay? What were these dangers, and in what way were they potentially threatening?
55. Compare the presidential leadership of Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover. What did they have in common, and how did they differ? How did their personal qualities affect their political success in the 1920s?
56. What evidence indicated throughout the 1920s that the economy was not as healthy as most believed? Why weren't these weaknesses addressed?
57. In what ways did the Washington Conference, Kellogg-Briand Pact, and Stimson doctrine each fall short of ensuring American national security?
58. Were the Harding scandals largely a product of individual weakness and corruption, or did they reflect post-World War I political climate? Why did the Republican party suffer so little damage from the scandals?
59. Outline the causes of the great crash of 1929. Why did it come so unexpectedly?
60. The text authors state that during the 1920s "isolation [from foreign involvement] was enthroned in Washington." What evidence supports this view? What evidence would you cite to argue that American foreign policy was not really as isolationist as it first appears?
61. Explain how American tariff policy and policy on war debts and reparations contributed to deepening the Great Depression, even if they did not cause it. Why were Americans so generally indifferent to the effects of their policies on Europe during these years?
62. Explain Herbert Hoover's election victory in 1928. Consider the personal qualities and policies of the two candidates, the state of the economy, and the public mood. What were the campaign issues? Was Smith's defeat attributable to anti-Catholicism, or would even a different, Protestant Democratic candidate have gone down to defeat?
63. In what ways did Herbert Hoover combine the values and beliefs of an older, nineteenth-century America with the experience and outlook of the modern corporate economy?
64. Historians have not looked too kindly on the presidents of the 1920s, usually judging them as mediocre. Do you agree with this evaluation of their performance? Explain.
65. In the years 1900-1920 progressivism enjoyed widespread support among the American public. Why were progressives of the 1920s, including La Follette's Progressive party, so ineffective and uninfluential? What happened to the once-powerful progressives and their ideals?
66. It has been said that the 1920s saw a shift from the old Republican philosophy of small government to a new belief that government ought to actively aid big business. What evidence is there for this view? In what ways did Republican presidents continue to believe that government should keep hands off the economy?
67. Many historians now believe that Herbert Hoover has been unfairly maligned as the villain of the Great Depression. What blame, if any, does Hoover deserve for the economic collapse and the suffering of the public? Why does the text state that Hoover was caught "on the horns of a cruel dilemma"?
68. Compare and contrast the first two years of the New Deal with the later New Deal after 1934. Account for the differences.
69. Explain how Roosevelt expected each of these early New Deal efforts to aid in recovery from the Great Depression: a. the Civilian Conservation Corps, b. the ending of the gold standard for American currency, and c. the National Recovery Administration.
70. What were the benefits of hiring unemployed artists and writers through the Federal Art Project of the Works Progress Administration?
71. How revolutionary was the New Deal? Evaluate the significant changes that it wrought, and determine how different the nation became because of it.
72. List the major factors that brought a close to the New Deal in the late 1930s. Separate the list into those that President Roosevelt had some control over and those that he did not. Explain how the combination of these factors ended the New Deal.
73. Select the three most important programs of the New Deal, explain what they did, and tell why you chose these three.
74. Had you lived at the time, do you think you would have been pro- or anti-Roosevelt? Why? Cite specific actions of President Roosevelt and the New Dealers to illustrate your position.
75. Cite at least three New Deal programs that clearly derived from the early-twentieth-century progressive era. Also, explain how government action during World War I itself can be viewed as a precursor to the New Deal.
76. What role did women play in the government and intellectual life of the 1930s? How did the interests and concerns of women in this period differ from those of the 1920s (see Chapter 32)?
77. How important was Eleanor Roosevelt to the New Deal's image and success? Was she more important as a role model or for her political influence on her husband?
78. The text authors conclude that Franklin Roosevelt "was in fact Hamiltonian in his espousal of big government, but Jeffersonian in his concern for the 'forgotten man.' " How did the New Deal specifically reflect this combination of "Hamiltonian means" to achieve "Jeffersonian ends"? What were the successes and failures of this approach?
79. A popular slogan of the mid-1930s claimed that "Roosevelt wants you to join a union." Explain why this assertion contained some truth.
80. Cite evidence to demonstrate that "the most damning indictment of the New Deal was that it failed to cure the Depression." Then cite achievements of value that the New Deal did in fact accomplish.
81. What were the most enduring accomplishments of the New Deal? Which of its efforts had the least long-term impact?
82. Among New Deal laws or programs that have become permanent parts of American life since the 1930s are Social Security, the Securities Exchange Commission, the full legalization of labor unions, and federal banking deposit insurance. What has made these laws or programs so popular and enduring? Could they ever be ended?
83. Is it accurate to say that Franklin Roosevelt should actually be regarded as a savior of the capitalist system and a hero to American business? Why or why not?
84. What are the arguments for and against the Japanese American relocation camps used in World War II? Do you agree with the text authors that these camps were "unnecessary and unfair"? Why or why not?
85. List at least 2 major turning points of World War II. Justify your choices.

APUSH Unit 8 Test - Part 1 (Matching, Short Answer & Long Essay)

Answer Section
1. F
2. E
3. B
4. C
5. H
6. D
7. I
8. G
9. A
10. D
11. A
12. B
13. H
14. C
15. E
16. G
17. I
18. F
19. J
20. G
21. E
22. F
23. J
24. I
25. B
26. D
27. H
28. A
29. C
30. A
31. D
32. C
33. F
34. B
35. E
36. Fundamentalists held to the literal interpretation of the Bible, while Clarence Darrow and others held to the evolutionist view that life on Earth developed over millions of years.
37. Advertising has made the world a better place by suggesting public improvements and by urging the adoption of hygienic methods (cleaning methods) in people’s homes.
38. The Scopes jury was composed mostly of rural Tennesseans, who were more likely to be religious fundamentalists who would uphold the traditional interpretation of Creation over evolution.
39. All investors, including small speculators and big traders, had lost everything. The entire financial structure of the nation had been devastated.
40. The relief programs such as FERA and the CCC were designed to create employment so people would have money coming in. Recovery programs such as the AAA and NRA helped agriculture and industry to reestablish themselves and restart production and stabilize prices. Employed people with steady salaries were better able to buy the food and goods produced by the agricultural and industrial sectors.
41. Churchill wanted to rally British support to oppose Hitler after France fell. He also wanted to gain the support of the United States.
42. Britain needed more destroyers. It had been fighting the war in Europe since 1939. The U.S. Navy was strongly equipped. The United States swapped destroyers for bases to preserve its neutrality.
43. There was a serious labor shortage because so many men were away at war.
44. V-J Day was the day Japan surrendered. For the veteran quoted in the passage, this meant that soldiers would be spared from participating in an invasion of Japan. Such an invasion would have resulted in massive American casualties.
45. The 1920s were a time of many inventions and innovations that made life easier for people and gave them more leisure time.
46. Supporters of supply-side economics, such as Secretary of the Treasury Mellon, believed that high taxes reduced the money available for private investment and prevented business expansion. Mellon argued that high tax rates actually reduced the amount of tax money the government collected. If taxes were lower, businesses and consumers would spend and invest their extra money, causing the economy to grow. As the economy grew, Americans would earn more money, and the government would actually collect more taxes at a lower rate than it would if it kept rates high.
47. Based on the bar graph, the United States would accept the most new immigrants from Britain and the fewest from Serbia. The law set quotas at 2 percent of each national group already residing in the United States in 1890. Although the law seemed to limit immigrants from all countries, it actually favored immigrants from regions already heavily represented in the United States. Because more immigrants from northwestern European countries lived in the United States as of the 1890 census, a larger portion of the quota would go to new immigrants from this region than from southern or eastern Europe.
48. When buying stock on margin, investors made only a small cash down payment—as low as 10 percent of the price. With $1,000, an investor could buy $10,000 worth of stock. The other $9,000 would come as a loan from a stockbroker. If the stock price rose to, say, $12,000, the investor could sell it, pay off the $9,000 loan, and make a quick $2,000 profit on the $1,000 investment. However, if the stock price dropped to, say, $8,000, the broker might issue a margin call, demanding the investor repay the loan at once. In this case, the investor may not be able to repay the loan. After selling the stock and giving the broker $8,000, the investor would still have to come up with $1,000 of his or her own money to pay off the $9,000 loan. Not only would the investor have lost his or her initial $1,000 investment, but with the additional $1,000 paid to the stockholder, the investor’s total loss would be $2,000.
49. The New Deal had only limited success in ending the Depression. Unemployment remained high, and economic recovery was not complete until after World War II. Even so, the New Deal gave many Americans a stronger sense of security and stability. The New Deal tended to operate so that it balanced competing economic interests. Business leaders, farmers, workers, consumers, homeowners, and others now looked to government to protect their interests. This “broker” role in mediating among competing interests has continued under the administrations of both parties ever since. Also, the New Deal programs created a “safety net” that protected people against economic disaster. After the Roosevelt years, the American people felt that the government had a duty to maintain this safety net, even though it required a larger, more expensive federal government.
50. During the early years of Nazi rule, many Jews were reluctant to leave Germany. They were well integrated into German society and did not want to give up the lives they had built there. Many believed conditions would improve. When conditions worsened and large numbers of Jews tried to emigrate, they encountered numerous obstacles. German law forbade Jews from taking more than about four dollars out of Germany. American immigration law would not allow anyone to immigrate to the United States if they were “likely to become a public charge.” Immigration officials assumed this applied to German Jews, who had to leave their money behind. Unemployment and anti-Semitic attitudes also made the idea of increasing immigration quotas unpopular with Americans.
51. President Roosevelt wanted to bomb Tokyo to raise the morale of the American people. American planes, however, could reach Tokyo only if an aircraft carrier brought them close enough. Unfortunately, Japanese ships in the North Pacific prevented carriers from getting close enough to Japan to launch their short-range bombers. A military planner suggested replacing the carriers’ usual bombers with long-range B-25 bombers that could attack from farther away. Although the B-25s could take off from a carrier, they could not land on its short deck. After attacking Japan, they would have to land in China. The raid resulted in the first American bombs to fall on Japan.
52. One adviser opposed using the bomb because it would kill civilians indiscriminately. Instead, he believed an economic blockade and conventional bombing might convince Japan to surrender. Another adviser wanted to warn the Japanese about the bomb while at the same time telling them that they could keep the emperor if they surrendered. Another adviser wanted to drop the bomb without any warning to shock Japan into surrendering. All his advisers warned President Truman to expect massive casualties if the United States invaded Japan. Truman decided to drop the bomb because it was his duty as president to use every weapon available to save American lives.
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