How and when to cite within your text according to APA style
How to create a References list, citing a variety of sources:
What to do if you come across something unusual not covered in this tutorial
What is APA?
APA = American Psychological Association
Promulgates guidelines for preparing student research papers and projects and scholarly manuscripts in the social and behavioral sciences
“APA style” refers to a system of citing research sources
For all papers in APA style, use 12-pt, Times New Roman font
Why Should I Cite?
1. Citing identifies sources used in a research paper or project
2. It gives credit to those researchers, authors, and writers whose words or ideas you borrow, acknowledging their role in shaping your research.
3. It allows others to follow-up on or retrieve this material
4. To avoid charges of plagiarism
What is Plagiarism?
The unacknowledged use or appropriation of another person’s words or ideas
A form of cheating or stealing
A serious academic offense
When you borrow words or ideas from sources to support your argument or research you must give proper credit. By crediting your sources, you avoid plagiarism. If you do not cite a source--intentionally or unintentionally--you are guilty of plagiarism.
When Should I Cite?
Many students plagiarize unintentionally. Remember, whenever you summarize, paraphrase or quote another author's material you must properly credit your source.
If you are using another person’s idea, you must also cite your source!
One of my parents always said, “Don’t wet your bed” (Mom, 1990).
A paraphrase is a restatement of the text of your source in your own words (more detail than a summary)
Quotations can be direct (using quotation marks) or indirect (no quotation marks and often introduced by ‘that’)
A noted psychologist states, “As recently as 20 years ago, a bed-wetter was psychologically castigated for what could have been a physiological problem” (Tikling, 2009).
A noted psychologist observes that just two decades ago bed-wetters suffered psychologically for a medical problem that may have had a physiological source (Tikling, 2009).
In any of these cases, you must credit your source
How Do I Cite?
There are two parts to citing according to APA style:
1. Brief In-text citations (often in parentheses) within the body of your essay or paper
2. List of full citations in the References page at the end of your paper
Sources cited in the text must appear in the References page.
Conversely, each entry in the References page must be cited in the text.
APA provides these guidelines for citations:
“References . . . are cited in text with an author-date . . . and are listed alphabetically in the reference list” (Publication Manual, 2010).
Reference list citations:
“Choose references judiciously . . . [and] reference data must be correct and complete” (Publication Manual, 2009).
Place the parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence before the punctuation mark.
Bedwetting emissions have been determined to consist mostly of two parts hydrogen to one part oxygen, plus assorted diurnal chemicals (Wasser, 2009).
You must provide information that will allow the reader to locate exactly where you found information in your sources. Usually this is the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Wasser, 2009)
In-Text Citations, Cont’d
When the author's name appears as part of your sentence (known as a “signal phrase”), do not use it again in the parenthetical citation. Just give the year of publication:
Wasser (2009) argues that bedwetting is
ultimately a genetically predisposed behavior.
When there are two authors, name both authors every time their work is referenced in your paper:
Among epidemiological samples, Selbst and Tikling (2008) found that early onset social anxiety disorder results from adverse parental responses to bedwetting.
The study also showed that there was a high rate of alcohol and drug abuse associated with unresolved bedwetting issues (Selbst and Tikling, 2008).
Other Citation Possibilities
When there are between 3 and 5 authors, name all at their first citing, including the year of publication. At subsequent citings in your paper, retain only the first author and replace the others with “et al.”:
Selbst, Tikling, Wang, Getz, and Wasser (2009) believe that bedwetters have a genetic predisposition for their behaviors.
In work with the Human Genome Project, Selbst et al. (2009) have identified the unique gene that contributes to bedwetting propensity.
When there are 6 or more authors, use first author’s surname and “et al.” for the others as in second example above in all citing instances.
If the author is a group (e.g., corporation, association, government agency), use the entire name in your in-text cite, though some groups’ names can be abbreviated after the first instance:
According to government figures, boys are 35% more likely across the socio-economic spectrum than girls to wet their beds (National Institute of Mental Health, 2000). Next instance: (NIMH, 2000)
When a work has no identified author, cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry; if article, chapter or web page, use quotation marks, if periodical, book, report, use italics:
Bedwetters also wet couches (“IKEA Report,” 2005)
A popular college prep handbook, College Bound Seniors (2008), recommends use of the upper bunk if your roommate is a bed-wetter.
When possible, give only the last
two digits for the second number
Author Comma Title Page Number
Cite as you normally would and
separate citations with a semicolon
Other Citation Possibilities, Cont’d
Sometimes you may want to refer to more than one source in your in-text citation. In that case, you should place them alphabetically, separated by a semicolon:
Primary enuresis in young children is the expression of auto-erotic pleasure (Freud 1901; Jung 1905).
To cite a specific part of a source, indicate the page, especially if a direct quotation; chapter; figure; table; or equation at the appropriate point in the your text:
In a letter to Freud, Ferenczi wrote, “I believe that syphilis leads to erythrophobia only in those people who in their childhood had to energetically suppress their rage toward their parents because of unjust punishment [especially because of punishment for enuresis]” (Brabant, Falzeder, and Giampieri-Deutsch, 1992, p. 271).
Jung establishes the significance of the father in the development of enuresis in young children (1916, chapter 3).
In-text Citing of Electronic Sources
Treat electronic sources the same as print sources.
Direct quotations from e-sources which don’t have page numbers are referenced by paragraph or heading and paragraph number, if available:
Eiberg, Berendt, and Mohr (1995) concluded in a Danish study that “nocturnal enuresis, or nightly bedwetting in children more than seven years of age affects about 10% of seven-year-old children, with a wide range of frequencies between populations” (para. 4).
A recent Italian study found that “the prevalence of enuresis was higher when the child was from a family of low socio-economic status despite the child's age group” (Chiozza et al., 2002, “Results,” para 3). [This source has > 6 authors (in fact, 8), so ‘et al.’ is used for all authors after the first named author.]
The References list appears at the end of your paper on its own page.
Everything you referenced in your text must be listed in your References list .
Conversely, everything you list in the References list must be cited in your essay.
The References list provides the information needed for a reader to find and retrieve any source used in your paper.
Sample References Page
*Sources are listed alphabetically
Indent all lines after
the first ½ inch for
*The entire References page is double-spaced
Title “References” is centered
at the top of the page
Be sure to include the digital object identifier (doi), if the source has one
All citations end in a period (.), except those with a doi or URL
*All papers in APA style must be in 12-pt., Times New Roman font
Most Periodical Citations Will Include:
DOI (Digital Object Identifier)
Bennett, H. J. (2004, December). Bedwetting:An overview of treatment options. Nutrition Health Review, 90, 5-7. doi:10.9911.1137/1
All words in title are lower case--except for first word, first word after a colon, and proper nouns
Volume # in italics
“digital object identifier”
Digital Object Identifier (doi)
A unique alphanumeric sequence, starting with “10,” used to identify and to locate an item on the Internet
Example: doi:10.1000/186.ken888.888lee (no period at the end)
Also assigned to print sources
In a database, the doi is sometimes hidden behind a button with the name of the database on it (e.g., PsychINFO) or the word “Article.”
When a doi is present, the URL is not necessary
General Tips: Print Resources
Author’s last name first, then his first (and middle) name(s) abbreviated.
If more than one author, but no more than six, list all authors, separated by a comma, and connecting the last with an ampersand:
Schulman, S. L., Colish, Y., von Zuben, F. C., & Kodman-Jones, C.
Titles of books and periodicals are italicized and only the first word in title and after a colon and proper nouns are capitalized:
Water world: Enuresis, the wet and dry of it.
Article and chapter titles appear in regular font with same rules for capitalization:
To treat bed-wetting, healthy doses of patience.
Books What Should Be Included?
Author(s) or Editor(s).
(Date of publication).
Edition (if indicated).
Place of publication:
DOI (if available).
Butler, R. J., Green, D., & Procter, H.
Child within: Taking the young
person's perspective by
applying personal construct
Wiley & Sons.
With one author:
Seligman, L. (1999). Selecting effective treatments: A comprehensive, systematic guide to treating mental disorders. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
With three to six authors:
Tikling, S. F., Avulsion, D. T., Bonds, B., & Huckabee, T. S. (2008). Unstoppable leakages: Every child deserves plumbing. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
List all authors Last Name in full, then first
(and middle) name(s) abbreviated
Italicize title of book
Use a colon between the
main title and the subtitle
Remember to indent all lines after the first line ½ inch
Date of publication in parentheses, followed by a period
If city of publication is not well-known, add state postal code
Editors as authors:
Schmandt, J., & Schmundt, R. (Eds.). (1999). Regional bedwetting styles: Impacts and response strategies. New York: Oxford University Press.
Book by a corporate author:
National Research Council. (1992). China and the damming of the Three Gorges: Opportunities for psychic enuresis. Washington: National Academy.
For books with editors, list the editor’(s)
name(s) followed by “Eds.” in parentheses.
Follow with a period.
For corporate author, use full name
Two or More Sources by the Same Author(s):
Firor, J., Aberding, F. T., & Jakins, P. R. (2009). The changing atmosphere: Enuretic raindrops. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Firor, J., Aberding, F. T., & Jakins, P. R. (2010). The adipose greenhouse: Population, climate change, and creating a sustainable water supply. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
List sources by the same author(s) in chronological
order of their publication date.
Periodical Articles What Should Be Included?
(Publication date in parenthesis.).
Periodical title (journal, magazine) italicized.
Volume # italicized, (Issue # in parentheses),
Page numbers of the article.
Digital Object Identifier or URL preceded by the phrase, “Retrieved from” (w/o quotation marks)
Depends on the type of periodical: Journal, Magazine, or Newspaper
But they generally require this information
What Should Be Included? Journal Articles
(Date of publication.).
Periodical title (journal, magazine, newspaper) Italicized.
Volume #(Issue #),
Digital Object Identifier.
Farley, H. W., Long, H., Close, G., & Short, M.
The scientific case for modern anthropogenic causes for enlarged prostate due to childhood enuresis in adult males.
Journal article with doi:
Farley, H. W., Long, H., & Short, M. (2008). The scientific case for modern anthropogenic causes for
enlarged prostate due to childhood enuresis in adult males. Monthly Review, 60(3), 68-90.
Manthorpe, C, Womening, M., Evadam, J., & Biternatura, L. (2009, May). "Feminists look at the scienc of enuretic doppelgangers. New Scientist85(3), 29-31.
Tilgham, S. M. (2009, September 30). Science vs. women--a radical solution. New York Times, pp. F1, F5.
Volume numbers in italics
Dates: For journals, year; for magazine, month and if applicable, week; for daily newspaper, date. Note Formats: YYYY, MMM, DD.
Issue # in parentheses
Periodical titles in italics
In a newspaper article reference, use “pp.” if more than one page, “p.” if only a single page.
General Tips Electronic Resources
Digital Object Identifier (doi): Imperative that you include the doi if it’s available
e.g., doi:10.3598.23444/k8iei.777 (no period at the end)
Uniform Resource Locator (URL): If the doi is not available, use the URL (begins with “http:”) preceded by the phrase “Retrieved from”
e.g., Retrieved from http://www.netlibrary.com (no period at the end)
Database: Generally not necessary to identify, unless the database is archival (e.g., JSTOR, ERIC)
Internet Sources What Should Be Included?
Author(s), if available:
(Date electronic publication was last updated.).
Title of the document.
Title of scholarly project, database, periodical, or website.
Woo, C., & Hwang, D.
Adjunctive behaviors in enuretic preschoolers.
In S. Sue (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2010 ed.).
Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behavioralism
Joyce, J., Dedalus, S., Bloom, L., & Bloom, M. (2009). Chiastic structure and its affect on Mobius strips, Escher prints, and enuretic behaviors of gimpy gertys. HyperJoyce Studies. Hypermedia Joyce Studies, 10. Retrieved from http://hjs.ff.cuni.cz/main/essays.php?essay=joyce
Yee, P., & Yee, K. (2008). Climatological impacts on and fractal patterns of urinal stains. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov
Laurance, A. R. A. B. (2008). Can carbon-laundering save bedsheets? Bioscience,58(4), 286-87. doi:10.2010.1492/cc.3shps
Digital Object Identifier
Volume #(Issue#), page numbers
Electronic Articles, Continued
Ball, J. N., Chain, A., & Bonds, B. (2008, October 9). “Warmer climates a determinant in free-flow enuretic behaviors.” Wall Street Journal, pp. A1, A5.
If only a single page, use “p.”; if continuous pages, use hyphen, e.g., A1-A5
Electronic versions of print book:
Salty, J. (2009). Bed-time stories for bedwetters: Putting a cork in it [10th ed.]. doi: 10.1036/00713393722
Sweet, W. (2010). Kicking the bedwetting habit: What it takes to dry up [Rev. ed.]. Retrieved from http://www.netlibrary.com
Trojan, S. C. (n.d.). Creating a climate for change: Communicating change and facilitating social change. Retrieved from http://www.googlebooks.com/itemID=456
Info re: editions, volume numbers, page numbers go in brackets followed by a period
Other sources can also be used
Technical & research reports
Meetings & symposia
Doctoral dissertations & master’s theses
Data sets, software, measurement instruments, and apparatus
Internet messages boards, electronic mailing lists, online communities
Other Sources What Should Be Included?
Browning, R. & Barrett, E. (2006). Romantic auras and enuretic halos (Report No. 1869). Devonshire, England.
National Institute of Mental Health. Task Force on Female Enenurism. (2008). Report on the sexualization of prepubscent girls diagnosed with enurism. Retreived from http://www.nimh.gov/taskforceenurism/sexualization
Meetings & symposia, published proceedings:
Hegel, J., Bach, J. S., & Maeterninck, F. (2008, May). Dialectics, atonal harmony, francophile politics and interdisciplinary enuretics. In Godel, J. (Chair), 109th Symposium of Enuretics Anonymous. Symposium conducted at the meeting of Enuretics Anonymous, Thailand.
Other Sources What Should Be Included? Cont’d
Wannabee, R. J. (1996). Bedwetters and broomsticks: An inquiry into discipline and enurism(Master’s thesis). Retrieved from University Microfilms. (Accession No. 192883-96)
Audiovisual Media, video:
Hitchcock, A. (Director). (1957). Rear window on enuretic behavior among adults [DVD]. Available from Universal Studios.
Internet message boards, electronic mailing lists, and online communities—blog post:
Jobs, S. (2010, June 6). I-phone 4 and enuretic ring tones [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://www.apple.com/newproducts/iphone/4/php
Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. (2010.) 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. (2010.) 6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Trimmer, J. F. A guide to MLA documentation: with an appendix to APA style. (2013.) 9th ed. Boston:
If you come across anything not mentioned in this presentation or need further information, consult the Publication Manual of the APA
in the library!
Subtitle for this slim, but handy guide is “with an appendix to APA style.”