Ap u. S. Gov’t Review crrrrruuuunch time! Ap gov't Review A. Review coverage



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AP U.S. Gov’t Review

  • CRRRRRUUUUNCH TIME!
  • AP Gov't Review

A. Review coverage

  • I. Constitutional Underpinnings +Fed = 5-15%
  • II. Political Beliefs + behavior = 10-20%
  • III. Political Parties SIG + Mass Media = 10-20%
  • IV. Institutions = 35-45%
  • V. Public Policy = 5-15%
  • VI. Civil Rights + Civil Liberties = 5-15%
  • AP Gov't Review

B. Exam Breakdown

  • 60 MC questions – ½ of total score – 45 mins
  • II. Essays – 4 free response in 100 minutes
  • Each essay is worth 1/8 of total score . . .
  • Or a combined total of 50 % of total.
  • Essays can cover either separate components outlined previously or combine elements or factors discussed in part A. See adjoining sheet for possible themes or subject matter.
  • AP Gov't Review

Examination Tools

  • Text book
  • Note
  • Peers
  • Review materials
  • And the old guy. . .
  • I
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  • B
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  • If
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  • Is
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  • Be
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  • Up
  • To
  • Me

I. Constitutional Underpinnings

  • What is the purpose of Politics?
    • A conflicting state where one Selects leaders
    • Leaders work w/in institutions
    • To make. . .
  • Answer: Policy
  • B. 1. System - Define democracy –
  • answer: it selects + formulates policy which represents + responds to the public preferences.
  • a. Theory encompasses 5 elements:
  • (1) equality in voting
  • (2) effective participation
  • (3) Enlightened understanding - plethora of ideas. . .
  • (4) citizen control of the agenda.
  • (5) inclusion of all who are willing to participate.
  • AP Gov't Review
  • b. Majority rule w/ minority rights. An issue of “power” .
  • What is a majority . . .
  • Majority = An acculumalation of minorities
  • B. Who really Governs?
  • (1) Pluralist theory
  • competition among groups .
  • (2) Elite + Class Theory
  • Class splits . . .Big Business rules!
  • (3) Hyperpluralism
  • Groups divide gov’t, making it ineffective. . .
  • AP Gov't Review

C. Political theorists represent theories

  • Hume
  • Human nature that man was evil. . .Gov’t by the many with negotiation and compromise promoting a union + eventually establishing a republic.
  • 2. Hobbes
  • one needs an inherited monarchy to promote the legitimacy of gov’t. Absolutism rules. . .Self interest is nat’l interest.
  • 3. Locke
  • 1689 - social contract theory - Life, liberty and property - Consent of the gov’t by Parliament( few) who had a stake in society because it represented people of property. . .poor people don’t lose much when life deteriorates.
  • 4. Rousseau
  • Rule by all - a complete democracy --
  • AP Gov't Review
  • Rousseau Hume Locke Hobbes
  • All Many Few One
  • hyperplurlism plurlism Elite/class Absolute
  • The above is a . . . .
  • Political spectrum!
  • D. When one governs, one seeks power --
  • Define:
  • Ability to persuade someone else that it is in their (self)ish interest to follow you.
  • AP Gov't Review

Power Distribution

  • 1. Power can be distributed three ways in a democracy:
  • (a) power elite - (Hobbes) - Representative Democracy
  • (b) political elite- (Hobbes + Locke) - Participatory democracy
  • (c) majoritarian rule- (Locke or Hume) Direct Democracy
  • (d) Mob rule - Rousseau
  • 2. What does one do with power? ---
  • Make Policy: - Actions of Gov’t. . .
  • AP Gov't Review

Revolution + the 1st Constitution

  • Articles of Confederation
  • A ). What could it do And worse. . .what couldn’t it do. . .
  • What showed it’s the A+C true weaknesses –
  • Shay’s Rebellion
  • The second Constitution:
  • a. Equality
  • 1)Representation is established by what type of Gov’t?
  • Anwer: (REPUBLICAN) –
  • AP Gov't Review
  • New Jersey Plan offered what?
  • (= represent)
  • Virginia Plan which offered?
  • (prop. representation )
  • led to which agreement?
  • Connecticut Compromise: that offered:
  • US Senate ( 2 Senators per state) US House - (Reps per population of state)
  • AP Gov't Review
  • 2) slavery - South wanted all males counted? Three-fifths compromise. - A show stopper
  • b. Who can vote –
  • Property owners vs. disenfranchised.
  • Who controlled elections?
  • Answer. States set election laws. Why?
  • c. Economics – Who will control?
  • Congress shall rule + it will build the infrastructure (Post offices to taxation- Article I)
  • AP Gov't Review

d. Individual rights

  • Constitution lacked in this area- show stopper although the Constitution did mention six issues:
  • 1) Writ of habeas corpus
  • 2) bill of attainders
  • 3) ex post facto laws
  • 4) religious preferences to hold office
  • 5) treasonous offenses
  • 6) trial by jury
  • But were we being ruled by “men” or by laws . . . to protect us from these “men” wanted the ???
  • the Bill of Rights was added to protect us from gov’t. . .a recollection of all the ills that the colonists resided under British rule.
  • AP Gov't Review
  • e. Popular sovereignty? What is it?
  • Answer> ability to control one’s destiny
  • f. Checks + Balances? What is it?
  • Each branch oversees the other
  • g. Separation of Powers . . .
  • Who wrote the doctrine?
  • Montesqueiu. . .What does it mean?
  • Each branch has a certain function?
  • h. What was the purpose of the B Of R?
  • Answer: Protect one from gov’t
  • AP Gov't Review

Ratification

  • States voted- - -only needed ? states to ratify
  • 9 (A of Confed needed ? approval to amend)
  • unanimous
  • a. Federalists v. Anti-feds -
  • (1) issue -- the 2nd Constitution was a “class-based
  • document that benefited only the economic
  • elite!
  • (2) fundamental liberties! Were the Bill of Rights
  • enough?
  • (3) Federal $$$$$. . .diminishes State $$$$$.
  • Result – Who ratified the constitution?
  • State special conventions would ratify, not state legislators
  • AP Gov't Review

9. “Changing” the Constitution-

  • Amendment Process
  • a. Formal process – 2 steps?
  • (1) proposal – Vote
    • 2/3 of each Congress or National convention
  • (2) Ratification
  • - 3/4 of state leg or spec convention
  • (3) - 27 Amendments - taxation to congressional salaries
  • b. informal process- 4 ways
  • (1) Federal court decisions - Marbury v. Madison
  • (2) Changing political practices - Dems v. Reps
  • Liberals v. Conservatives
  • (4) Domestic politics to foreign politics. Policy makers carry big sticks in implementing policy.
  • AP Gov't Review

Federalism

  • Define – a decentralization of gov’t. -- a “sharing of the wealth” + gov’t power.
  • DELEGATED powers belong to; Feds rule - Make war
  • INHERENT
  • 1) all gov’t possess these pwrs. . .immigration
  • (b) Expressed – (Enumerated)
  • 1) Stated specifically . . .Congress makes law
  • (c) Implied
  • 1) (Makes expressed powers work) – Congress establishes a civil service system to hire federal workers.
  • AP Gov't Review
  • b. Concurrent POWERS
  • shared power.
  • i.e. education, taxation, Safety
  • c. reserved POWERS
  • states rule - welfare, local education control, local gov’ts, professional licensing.
  • 2. Who shall rule in conflict – Where in the Constitution:
  • Art VI- Supremacy Clause - and Implied powers of national gov’t upheld with . ..
  • McCullogh v. Maryland. Established the which clause?
  • “elastic clause” that gave the Congress the >>>
  • Necessary and Proper Clause (implied powers) to enact policies to run the country!
  • AP Gov't Review
  • 3. If not stated- states have the rights - Which Amendment? 10th
  • 4. Commerce power – Court Case?
  • Gibbons v. Ogden . Interstate + international commerce . Congress rules!
  • 5. Full Faith and Credit clause
  • One state’s validity carries over state borders - i.e. marriage licences.
  • AP Gov't Review

6. From Dual to cooperative federalism -

  • a. Education sets the stage for both the Feds + states to work together in “fiscal harmony”
  • b. “Shared Costs” of Fiscal federalism-
  • c. Grant-In-Aid
  • Feds sell land to fund programs!
  • d. Categorical grants
  • specific $$ for specific projec w/ strings attached. . .non-discrimatory - Cross cutting requirements - Offenders lose it all!
  • (1)Project grants
    • competitive requests
  • (2) Formula grant-
  • Do you meet the formula. i.e. public housing, employment programs
  • AP Gov't Review
  • e. Block grants
  • social service endeavors w/ less strings attached. SIGS pursue the $350 billion
  • f. Mandates
  • Feds dictate specific guidelines. . .if don’t comply, penalized or lose the funding. . .
  • Special ed, Disability Act, Clean Air.
  • Medicaid
  • unfunded mandates. . .
  • Laws w/o funding. . .
  • AP Gov't Review

Practice Essay

  • 6. The United States Constitution has endured for more than two centuries as the framework of government. However, the meaning of the Constitution has been changed both by formal and informal methods.
  • (a) Identify two formal methods for adding amendments to the Constitution.
  • (b) Describe two informal methods that have been used to change the meaning of the Constitution. Provide one specific example for each informal method you described.
  • (c) Explain why informal methods are used more often than the formal amendment process.
  • AP Gov't Review

Essay Rubrics #1

  • Hse + Sen Proposal w/ supermajority
  • or special convention . . . State Leg confirm
  • with 38 or spec convention.
  • b. Need two 0f five informal methods
  • c. Informal is easier and can happen daily, especially w/ court cases. Formal does provide more of a thorough legislative process. . .just not a judicial whim.
  • AP Gov't Review

Practice Essay #2

  • The US has evolved from a system of dual federalism to a system of cooperative federalism. In the past two decades, some powers have devolved from the federal gov’t to the state gov’t.
  • Identify and explain one factor that led to the nat’l gov’t having significantly more power than the states.
  • Identify and explain one factor that led to cooperative federalism.
  • Identify and explain one factor than led to devolution.
  • AP Gov't Review

Essay #2 Answer

  • Court rulings: McCullogh v. Maryland (Elastic clause and N+P + Clause . States can’t tax (2 pts)
  • Grants in Aid encouraged state dev; Medicare handouts but they all come with “conditions of aid. (2 pts)
  • Debt load, more state right advocates. TANF program was once a categorical grant but now it is a block grant. 2 pts
  • AP Gov't Review

II. Political Culture

  • How does one determine the socialization of the American constituent?
  • 1. Six factors
  • a. Tradition + customs
  • b. Impact of events
  • c. Changes in the way of political elites
  • d. families
  • e. school
  • f. relationships (as the paradigms shift)
  • AP Gov't Review
  • 2. WHO establishes our political value
  • system. . .Who sets the agenda?
  • a. SIGS
  • b. Political institutions
  • c. Media “The New Parent” (hand out media handout)
  • d. family
  • e. Social Economic Stratification (SES) as one grows older.
  • AP Gov't Review

B. America’s Demographics: Who are we?

  • 1. Demographics . . . Deal with what?
  • a. gender
  • b. occupation
  • c. Race
  • d. religion
  • e. SES - social class
  • 2. How does one determine demographics?
  • Census building - It will happen every 10 years. How does it impact us “politically”?
  • a.Congressional apportionment / Electoral College
  • b. Redistricting
  • c. Block grant distribution
  • 3) Minority/majority is influencing the great melting pot. by 2050 - Whites will be only 52% of society
  • Who is the largest minority?
  • Hispanics
  • AP Gov't Review
  • 4. What Act requires employers to document the citizenship of employees or face fines?
  • Simpson/Mazzoli
  • 3. How has the shifting of America occurred?
  • from Frost Belt to Sun Belt: (SW, SE and Texas dramatic population increases(20% growth rates) while North has 5% growth) How has this impacted the American political scene?
  • Answer: Congress + reapportionment; Red + Blue states . . .more
  • AP Gov't Review
  • 4. GRAY POWER –
  • Baby boomers graying rapidly. How has this impacted the political landscape?
  • Answer: they wish to collect their $5 trillion in Social Security benefits! -- Their SIGS possess clout - i,e, AARP, others.
  • AP Gov't Review

c. How does one gauge America’s pulse?

  • POLLING-
  • 1. Early 1950’s George Gallup “Polled” a microcosm of American political thought . . . What scientific device?
  • - a Sample --
  • the more “random” the better. . .????
  • everyone has a chance of being selected. . .
  • b) Biased sample-
  • stated preference
  • c) representative sample .
  • i.e. Democrats only
  • 2. Samples are not perfect -- ???
  • sampling error . . .
  • 1-5% error rate per 1,-000- 2,000 responses. . .The bigger the sample. . . .the less the sampling error.
  • 3. random-digit dialing speeds up the process!
  • AP Gov't Review

How do Polls assist politicians . . .

  • detect public preferences. . .
  • Are their shifts in thinking . . .creating possible “shifts” in policy making.
  • It has become the issue of selling policy instead of possibly doing what’s right!
  • Avoiding compromises to appease radical shifts!. Politicians love them when they agree with them, they hate them when they disagree.
  • 5. Bandwagon effects is . . .
  • jump on board. . .instead of doing what’s right!
  • AP Gov't Review
  • 6. What is an Exit poll ?
  • QA voters after they vote. What’s wrong w/ them?
  • - Can control elections, East votes earlier than west.
  • 7. What is a push poll?
  • Answer: Opponent asks a negative Q late in campaign and the contender doesn’t have time to respond.
  • 8. Polls can show 3 items. . .
  • a. relevancy, or salience of a topic + intensity
  • b. stability
  • c. direction. . .positive or negative
  • AP Gov't Review

d. Liberals + conservatives?

  • Size of gov’t `Liberals `Conservatives
  • Nat’l, fed big govt, centralized small. . .state. . .decentralized
  • (b) Change
  • progressive status quo
  • (c) international diplomacy
    • Coalitions Isolationists + Security
  • (d) View of man
          • Can be cured Evil, needs order
  • (e) Use of violence to maintain order
  • Changing environment disciplinarians
  • 2. True Liberals
  • a) Blue dogs –
  • Conservative Democrats, Dixiecrats
  • AP Gov't Review
  • Reagan era shift to the right. . .Clinton era shift to the left, then to the middle. . .Bush era – Right . . . Politically. . .what is this called?
  • Re-alignment of political ideology.
  • AP Gov't Review

D. Political participation: The many forms--

  • How: 8 ways to participate.
  • 1. Voting. Only 50% vote in nat’l elections. Voters see a lack of political efficacy?
  • Answer: not being able to politically “effect” society through the political process.
  • They have no influence. . . (T-19)
  • 2. Join SIGS
  • 3. Give $$$$ to SIGS thru PACS
  • 4. Become a political elite
  • 5. Contacting gov’t officials on a regular basis
  • 6. Working on a campaign
  • 7. civil disobedience
  • 8. Violence
  • Who participates more?
  • higher SES participate more. . . and get more!
  • AP Gov't Review

E. Mass Media:

  • Fourth Estate (Mass Media) –Power originates . . .
  • 1st Amendment provides the incentive to report the “News” which is . . . .
  • a timely occurence that “informs the public”.
  • 2. What is a “Media Event. . .
  • Get your name or picture in print or on the tube! either through “news” events or paid advertising!
  • Often Politicians “make” news to get on the news.
  • 3. What is a “Spin Master”?
  • Person hired specifically to promote the image of the candidate! i.e. Reagan era advice:
  • AP Gov't Review
  • 7. Competition in the medias has forced them to be much more aggressive and “bend” the journalistic rules of using reliable sources and the “sound bite” and great images! What is a Sound bite?
  • Answer- Short clip of a dramatic statement from the politician.
  • AP Gov't Review
  • 8. Narrowcasting v. Broadcasting. . .
  • (focus on specific news or issues 24 hours a day) may fulfill political junkies or spin issues out of control.
  • Or one can turn to the BLOGGERS . . .
  • 9. Politicians can manipulate the press by sending up:
  • trial balloons to see how the public will react to certain issues. Then back off if the response is negative.
  • both the political elites and the medias dance to get the upperhand. . .and both seek the advantage in dispensing their agenda. . .
  • The Press’ wishes to inform the masses. . . vs. the politicians’ attempt to put it in a good light. . .
  • 10. Undoubtedly, “coverage” impacts public opinion!
  • AP Gov't Review

11. 4 Mass media roles

  • a. Signaler
  • alert the public ASAP – 24/7 news
  • b. Agenda setting
  • focus public’s att’n
  • c. Common Carrier role
  • Open channel from politician to constituent
  • d. Watch dog role
  • Protect the public from politicians.
  • There is tension between what two roles?
  • Common carrier and watch dog
  • More of a tendency to report bad . . .than a bias tint.
  • AP Gov't Review

criticisms of the press

  • Not objective – Biases are prevalent
  • Only a few own a lot – the big 6
  • Sensational news more important than the real news.
  • Selling image instead of the issues

E. Amassing public support

  • Special Interest groups (SIGS)
  • Purpose of
  • “influencing” the gov’t at all levels, all branches. No gov’t stone shall be left unturned!
    • Political parties goals are to:
    • “make” policy. . . SIGS goal is too:
    • Influence. . .
  • AP Gov't Review

Types of groups

  • Biggest:
  • 1. Business or economic sector – heavily funded.
  • 2. Labor
  • 3. Single issue
  • 4. Public interest
  • 5. Smallest
  • You if you can find a friend.
  • How Influence? Six strategies or techniques. . .
  • a. Provide data to Gov’t + agencies. Policy specialists ( Pol parties are party generalists)
  • b. draft legislation via the Iron Triangle (issue) network of
  • SIGS
  • Gov’t agencies
  • Congressional subcommittees
  • c. lawsuits (amicus curiae, Friend of the court)
  • class action court cases.
  • d. education
  • e. Watchdogs of gov’t. . .
  • f. Lobbyists- “hired guns or political persuaders, whose job is to promote the SIGS interests via. . .pressure (garnering votes, + $$$$, idealists. )
  • AP Gov't Review

4. SUCCESSFUL SIGS:

  • What determines success?
  • a. size of the group . . .
  • is it a “potential group”---
  • a mixture (consumers) of many who “could” belong,
  • vs.an “actual group” of hard core (NRA) followers.
  • Potential groups (or large groups) suffer from? “free-rider status”. i.e. all minimum wage earners benefit from minimum wage increases. . .so why work toward it. . .
  • AP Gov't Review
  • b. Intensity - Single issue groups - NRA, NOW, Gun Control, abortion
  • c. $$$$ - As of 1974, corporations and Unions can not directly fund political campaigns. . .BUT Political Action Committees (PACS) , the political arm of SIGS, can fund candidates’ campaigns
  • w/ what type of money?
  • Hard $$$ NOOOOT Soft! Or via. . .
  • 527’s
  • AP Gov't Review
  • Buckley v. Valeo?
  • extended $$$ to “indirect” financing (TV ads)
  • (b). Soft Money - 1980 - Can “earmark” funds to a political party, unlimited contributions. . . $400 million allocated in 2000 election to Dems + Republicans.
  • Today soft money is not regulated. Citizens United v. FEC
  • AP Gov't Review
  • d. Going Public. . .reaching out to influence public opinion. . Ads sell! a great form of propaganda!
  • Interest group participation is culmination of political participatory activities.
  • AP Gov't Review

III. Political parties + elections

  • A. . US Parties typically been two-party - offering American voters a choice. . .which is what democracy is all about!
  • 1. Historically - Federalists v. anti-federalists
  • evolved into Democrats v. Republicans although
  • 3rd parties have popped up. What are the types
  • a. ideological - Socialists, Independents
  • b. Single issue - free soilers, Greenpeace
  • c. Economic protests - greenback party
  • d. splinter - Bull Moose . . .Which 3rd party was “MOST” successful. . .
  • Bull Moose . . .How judge success?
  • AP Gov't Review
  • 2. Republicans and Democrats have switched in ideological dominance since 1800, referred to as . . .
  • Re-alignment.. . .
  • Since 1968, era of one party runs the Exec Branch, the other controls Congress . . .which could create legislative gridlock. This is called:
  • Divided gov’t. . .
  • 3. ALL parties promote same purpose: 6 purposes:
  • a. pick Candidates via a nomination
  • b. runs campaigns
  • c. establish an image. . .
  • d. articulate policies
  • e. coordinate policymaking
  • f. compete for votes
  • AP Gov't Review
  • Down’s Rational Choice theory states . .
  • centrist policies usually win. . .don’t drift too far from moderate proposals.
  • 2) Many voters have moved to the middle of party identification >>> this is called
  • Moderation . . . .or moderites . . .
  • Nope. . . How about
  • a dealignment of party ID.
  • AP Gov't Review

B. Party machines -

  • each ???? manages its own operation –
  • The states- decentralized and fragmented system.
  • 1. What dominates - It’s the good boy/girl club. Patronage - Party regulars become gov’t appointees.
  • 2. Finding the right candidates takes parties through “grass roots” democracy all the way through campaigns until election day.
  • It seems to last foooooooor evvvvverrrrr!
  • How does one come across a potential party elite?
  • Be a party regular! and hold a public office at some level - US Congressperson or state Guv
  • AP Gov't Review
  • b. Goal of a President candidate running for the candidacy?
    • Amass enough delegates at the nat’l convention to win the NOMINATION! All 50 states run their own shows! How amass delegates?
  • (1). caucus (12 states use this road) . . . What is it?
  • finds delegates for the next level. . . The town mtg.
  • First caucus?
  • IOWA and also begins platform development.
  • (2).Primaries
  • Electoral event that weeds out the candidates, not parties. . .you can win w/o party endorsement.. .but it is difficult
  • 1968 McGovern-Fraser commission set rules for Dems:
  • - More Minority representation at DEM convention. But
  • The super delegates . . . .
  • Top Natl officials get delegate spots
  • AP Gov't Review
  • closed primary:
    • (1) only party faithful can vote
  • (b) Open primary:
  • You select which camp to vote in
  • (c) Blanket –
  • all parties run on one ballot. - -
  • Supreme Court said it was unconstitutional, violated basic function of political party - to choose candidates - Democratic party v. Jones.
  • (d) GOAL- you win the primary, so . . .
  • you get the number of delegates the state law allocates. Some are proportional, some winner take all. . .
  • (e) Goal during campaign
  • >>>> get the BIG MOo o o o! which gives you??? 4M’s. .
  • (1) Momentum
  • (2) After all the primaries - tally up your delegates and a majority gets you the . . .
  • nomination at the convention.
  • AP Gov't Review

Majority vs. Plurality

  • Majority needs ____ of the vote.
  • Answer: 50+. . . .an example where one needs it
  • AN: electoral college . . .passing legislation
  • A plurality needs _____ of the vote
  • One more than all the others…. Example
  • Winning elections. . .
  • Winner take all means . . .
  • Win it and you get all the bennies
  • Proportional . . .
  • Divide up the pie based on the vote . . .Example
  • Some states use proportional to determine delegates in Primaries
  • AP Gov't Review
  • (3) $$$$$$$$ . . . Campaign donations flood in. . .
  • (4) Media attention. . .Press wants to promote a(n) . . . .
  • Horse race for the nomination.
  • AP Gov't Review

C. Nat’l convention

  • 1. Nat’l convention – what happens here?
  • select presidential + VP candidates,
  • sets platform, endorses all party nominees for other offices! Ho Hum (T-30)
  • 2. National committee
  • 3. national chairperson
  • 4. Goal after nomination:
  • form enough coalitions ( of SIGS) to win the election.
  • 5. Campaign highway. Goal:
  • (a) dominate the media
  • (b) vanquish your opponent
  • AP Gov't Review

c. Spends lots of $$$

  • “money is the mother’s milk of politics”
  • What was established in 1974 following H20GATE scandal to control flow of money to parties?
  • FEC . . .what does it do?
  • •gives public financing to candidates.
  • •limits presidential candidates expenditures to $80 million per candidate
  • • requires disclosure of all expenses.
  • • limits an individual’s candidate’s contributions to $2,300.
  • •PACs can spend “unlimited amounts”. . .ct case?
  • (Buckley v. Valeo) indirectly until 2002. This was called?
  • soft money. Now Citizens’ United v. FEC
  • • -Voluntary contributions
  • 6. Today- many constituents are pulling away from party ID’s -- dealignment- - and this is leading to:
  • AP Gov't Review

Recent 3rd Party Players?

  • 1. Ralph Nader . . .stole some of Al Gore’s left wing thunder in 2000 election. . .It was that close! and . . .
  • 2. Ross Perot took away George Bush Sr’s thunder in 1992 when Bill Clinton won.
  • In the ’04/08 elections, were 3rd parties an issue?
  • c. Third parties have an uphill fight. . .
  • (1) Single member plurality voting system (winner take all) system favors two parties. . .
  • (2) Two Big Parties have organization. . .
  • (3) Two Big parties can moderate views to enhance voters.
  • AP Gov't Review

E. Elections

  • Legitimizing the political process
  • 1. Elections provide for:
  • a. Institutionalizing the political process. All forms of political participation can end here ..,
  • Voting -
  • b. Access to political power w/o violence. . Ballot instead of bullets.
  • c. guiding policy direction - either by selecting a new person or by initiatives or referendums?
  • Special election to vote on voter initiatives.
  • 2. 2000 Election was one of a kind. . . Becuause . .
  • AP Gov't Review
  • a. US Supreme Ct ruled in Bush v. Gore that: although a recount was legal, the same procedure had to be used in ALL counties, not only those in question. . .
  • AND there was not enough time to accomplish that mission B4 December 12, when the electoral college was to meet. . .soooooo Bush won Florida and w/ 271 electoral votes to Gore’s 269. . . So why the controversy???
  • b. only the 4th time the winner of the popular vote lost an election.
  • AP Gov't Review

Getting Citizen’s to vote

  • Sufferage an issue in three constitutional amendments:
  • 15th, 19th, 26th. YOUR 18.
  • you can vote. . .but too many don’t. 51% in 2000 election. . High 50’s in ’04.
  • Only 30%+ in off year voting. Many more appeared in 04. MN leads in voter turnout.
  • 2. Who does vote: Six characteristics:
  • a. Old b. high SES c. Educated d. Gender
  • e. Married f. union membership
  • AP Gov't Review

Who doesn’t or can’t vote? WHY?

  • Not old enough
  • Aliens
  • Felons
  • Too busy
  • Lack political efficacy
  • Not registered.
  • AP Gov't Review

Election Essay

  • 4. Since the 1960’s, the process of selecting presidential candidates has been altered by the changing role of presidential primaries and national party conventions. Identify and explain four effects that have resulted from this change in the presidential selection process.
  • AP Gov't Review

Election Rubric

  • Effects:
  • Longer campaigns>> Increased costs >> Early fund raising>>Media coverage >>
  • Front loading >>Ticket balancing >>
  • New breed of spin masters >>Full time job to run>> party leadership role declines>>
  • Regional party blocs>>Primaries, caucuses are REALLY Important>>conventions are not>> truly republican>> Swing states!!
  • AP Gov't Review
  • 3. (a) Identify a third-party candidate within the last two decades who received significant popular votes but no electoral votes and provide an explanation for that discrepancy.
  • (b) Identify a third-party candidate who received significant popular votes as well as significant electoral votes, and provide an explanation for that outcome.
  • (c) In seeking to win presidential electons, third parties face challenges not faced by major parties. Identify two of these challenges and explain why third parties face these challenges.
  • AP Gov't Review

IV. Congress + Budget

  • The Independent Politician
  • Why are congressperson so independent? 4 reasons. . .
  • Congresspersons (represent themselves and/or constituents. . .not political parties
  • They do NOT have to support the “gov’t” in power. . .they are “separate”, but equal partners in the political system.
  • 3. A vote against the Gov’t, does not bring about a collapse of gov’t, i.e. GB, Italy, France, Germany. US Gov’t continues day to day operations even w/ gridlock. . .
  • 4. Pol parties do NOT control nominations for office, so they cannot control . . .
  • how a legislator votes on legislation.
  • AP Gov't Review
  • B. Congressional powers
  • Powers: initiate, modify, approve or reject legislation in a variety of political arenas,
  • + they share supervision of administrative agencies . . .
  • 3. build consensus among legislators + constituents.
  • 4. educate
  • 5. oversees bureaucracies
  • 4) investigates
  • 5) House-initiates $$$ bills;
  • 6. Senate-confirms, ratifies executive decisions
  • a) Art.1 sect 8, clauses 1-17 expressed powers; clause 18- implied powers (raise troops). This is called>>>
  • Necessary + proper clause – the court case is >>>
  • b) McCullogh v. Maryland
  • AP Gov't Review
  • c) Gibbons v. Ogden – gave us >>>
  • Commerce Clause –
  • states can’t interfere w/ Congr attempt to regulate interstate commerce!
  • This led to what legislation in the 1960s?
  • civil rights legislation
  • AP Gov't Review

C. Constitutional Requirements

  • House Senate
  • Age
  • 25 30
  • Citizen
  • 7 9
  • Residency Yes Yes
  • (district) State
  • Native Born
  • No No
  • Members
  • 435 100
  • Occupation Business Law
  • Law Business
  • Women 108 78? 14?
  • AP Gov't Review
  • Since both houses possess decentralized power bases, Congress persons engage in Substantive representation >>> which is
  • representing interests of groups.
  • 2. Congressional goal-
  • Get elected-- Stay elected!
  • Incumbency -- What is it?
  • 1) I’m in, now get me out. As party partisanship declines. . .legislators bear more of the burden to getting re-elected.
  • 3. Safe districts prevail-?
  • 90% of reps in the 1980’s got re-elected by 60% of the vote. 50% for senators. Marginal districts claim only 55% or less of the votes. In 2004 election, 90% of incumbents got re-elected.
  • AP Gov't Review

d) What makes an incumbent so invincible?

  • 1) + visibility -- contacting the constituents. . .somehow i.e. travel home, franking, getting on the news
  • 2) + credit claiming- Casework (helping out constituents to the vast porkbarrel (getting a chunk of that $1.9 trillion and bringing it home to mama. Why did Brainerd get a by-pass?
  • 3) position taking - meeting roll call votes.
  • 4) weak opponents - who lack the cash flow. opponents miss out on #1 + #2 above
  • AP Gov't Review

e. How are incumbents vulnerable?

  • (1) Scandals
  • (2) re-apportionment
  • (3) gerrymandering - drawing districts to favor one party over another. State issue.
  • (4) Majority-Minority districts gives minorities advantage in electing minorities.
  • What court case made majority/minority unconstitutional .
  • Shaw v. Reno however, Supreme Ct claimed re-districting in North Carolina was unconstitutional
  • AP Gov't Review

Making policy

  • A collection of generalists making policy on specific topics.
  • If one needs to know how to vote on a bill. . .who do you ask ?
  • a committee person for advice
  • 1. House - Protecting the Masses .
  • a)–Who is the traffic cop on legislation?
  • House Rules Committee controls the flow of bills - establishes a “rule” for each bill which schedules it.
  • b) Leadership – Who is the top person?
  • Speaker - only office mandated by the Constitution – Who selects?
  • Party caucus selected – 4 powers?
  • ((a)) Presides over the House; Prez succession – 3rd
  • ((b)) Committee assignments influence
  • ((c)) appoints Rules Committee members
  • ((d)) Influences bill assignments to Committee
  • AP Gov't Review

Senate

  • a. leadership
  • 1) Vice President - President of the Senate
  • Significant power?
  • but he can break a tie vote. . .and it happens
  • 2) Majority Leader - selected by Whom?
  • Congressional Party caucus. - 3)Minority Leader –
  • 4) PARTY whips-
  • AP Gov't Review

Committees– what types?

  • legislation and Oversight
  • a. Standing Committees
  • separate subject matter committees
  • b Joint Committees –
  • Hse + senate share membership i.e. taxation
  • c. Conference committees –
  • Two bills need one explanation- Both houses compromise here.
  • d. select committees –
  • for specific reason
  • AP Gov't Review
  • f. committees also perform >>>
  • oversight if and when a bill ever becomes law.
  • g. Committee chairpersons – How selected? Party caucus. Seniority prevails but majority caucuses now can choose chairpersons. What do they do?
  • Manage legislation thru bill making process.
  • h. Caucuses v. party leadership-
  • legislators ban together under ideological flag: Black caucus, pro-life, pro-choice, gun control
  • AP Gov't Review

Law Question

  • Legislation must go through an arduous process before a bill becomes a law.
  • Describe 3 stages where a bill may be eliminated in the legislative law-making process.
  • Of the 3 described in (a), explain which one contributes to the most bills being eliminated.
  • Explain two factors indicating how partisanship is involved in the success or failure of developing legislation.
  • AP Gov't Review

Law answer

  • a) There are 15 ways. Must be truly distinct. . .no double dipping.
  • b) Answers my vary, but for example, 90% of legislation is terminated in the committee process.
  • c. Divided gov’t within the legislature.
  • 1) Filibusters
  • 2) Party line voting is high on roll call votes.
  • 3) Party line voting in committee
  • AP Gov't Review

Bill >>>> LAW

  • Who can introduce a Bill:
  • You, legislator, president, bureaucracy. .
  • 2. Speaker or Sen Majority leader does what?
  • titles it + numbers it.
  • 3. Off to Committee action -
  • Subcommittee >>>>
    • schedule hearings, Revise it, approve it, kill it
  • b. Committee >>>>
  • schedules hearings, Revise it, approve it, kill it
  • AP Gov't Review
  • c. House - Rules committee –
  • Schedules Hse rules for floor action
  • 1) closed rule –
    • limits debate, amendments
  • 2) open rule –
  • amendments allowed
  • 3) restrictive rule –
  • selective amendments
  • 4) A discharge petition???
  • can avoid “Rules”. Speaker can initiate
  • 5) Suspend the “Rules” . . .
  • To floor for vote.
  • d. Senate –Who schedules debate?
  • House Majority leader. .
  • OOPS– Senate Majority leader.
  • Amendments are open for any cause.
  • AP Gov't Review

3. Floor action

  • a. Committee of the Whole – Where found?
    • Hse - (100 or more members) can debate bills. No “riders” can be added. . .
  • b. Quorum call –
  • 218 House members needed to vote. . .majority passes legislation
  • c. Senate can add What to legislation?
  • riders
  • 4. If Senate and/or House disagree, Bill goes to:
  • Select committee . . .
  • Oops – conference committee
  • 5. Full House + Full Senate vote on conference committee version --
  • 6. To President for signature or his veto
  • AP Gov't Review

Passing Legislation?

  • 1. Appeasing the “Chief Legislator
  • 2. Party influence - 50% of the time legislators will vote party line. . . Hse partisanship is stronger than the Senate.
  • 3. Who do legislators attempt to please?
  • Constituency support - legislators are seen as “trustees” and instructed delegates = politicos,
  • 4. Who else do Reps appease?
  • SIGS + lobbyists - Been restricted by Congress in reporting who they represent and how much they spend. . ..
  • AP Gov't Review

GEE. The Federal $$$$ Tree. . .

  • The annual assessment of gov’t expenditures + assets
  • Budget
  • Gov’t collects $$$ via and spends it via expenditures. If tax allocations are higher. . .it’s a(n)
  • entitlement . . .
  • OOPS – Surplus
  • b. if expenses are higher. . .it’s a . . .
  • debt >>> Add them up it’s
  • national deficit
  • OOPS deficit. . .big one is a debt,
  • c. a $11.2 trillion dollar shortfall. . .of which 10% of the current budget pays JUST the INTEREST.
  • AP Gov't Review
  • 2. Federal income:
  • (1) #1 source
  • Income tax – which Amendment:
  • 16th power to tax people via the IRS - 50%
  • (2) Corporate tax- 10%
  • (3) Social Insurance - FICA - 33%
  • (4) Borrowing - Debt load - shifts burden to future tax payers. Provokes thoughts of a “balanced budget amendment” w/ certain provisions.
  • (5) Lost Federal income-?
  • Fed tax “loopholes” the Grand DEDUCTION: -- Tax BREAKS! TAX
  • Expenditures
  • AP Gov't Review
  • 3. Federal expenditures top 3:
  • (1) Education
  • OOPS - Social Service state- (income security costs for the elderly, the poor, and the needy- Social Security Act 1935, Medicare 1965, 1/3 of federal budget.
  • (2) National Defense
  • (3) Interest on the Debt
  • The budget process is based on what idea? How much should I get next year. . .
  • incrementalism –
  • Discretionary expenditures
    • Increase last years budget by an “increment” to satisfy this years budget. Your budget proposal goes to whom? OMB
  • (2) Uncontrollable expenditures - 2/3 of the budget
  • entitlements - You qualify, you get them, no matter what the cost to the gov’t, even if all the funds are depleted. . .
  • AP Gov't Review

Where does the budget process Begin:

  • 1. Federal agencies submit their requests to
  • OMB. . . Who consolidate requests and then gives them to the president who then
  • 2. Puts together the budget and delivers it via State Of The Union .
  • 3. Congress then holds hearings w/ the standing committees and finally approves the . . .
  • 4. 13 Appropriations bills. President signs it!
  • AP Gov't Review

Budget Reform

  • Instead of just thinking we will only spend so much, Congress has established reforms to improve the process --1974 Act
  • (a) Fixed budget calendar
  • (b) budget committee
  • (c) CBO
  • (d) 1974 Reforms - budget resolution established in April sets the bottom line
  • (1) budget reconciliation- change appropriations to reflect proposed savings
  • (2) authorization bill ????
  • sets program spending limits.
  • (3) Appropriations bill –????? Show me the $$$$
  • funds programs based on an authorization bill. Can’t go higher, but can give lower amounts.
  • AP Gov't Review

Social Policy

  • What are the two types of social welfare?
  • Student scholarships and grants
  • OOPS:
  • 1) Social Insurance. . .
  • a. Transfer payments:
  • Benefits given by the gov’t to individuals
  • b. Cash pay outs –i.e. Social security payments; Entitlements- also referred to as social insurance programs- you pay, you play! Also Unemployment Insurance
  • 2) In-kind transfers – food stamps, low interest college loans.
  • AP Gov't Review
  • 2. Public assistance program:
  • Funded by tax revenues and available only to the “needy” through a “means test”?
  • One must prove they need “welfare”.
  • TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (formerly AFDC) that was put in place by the 1996 Welfare to Work Act
  • 1)) Five year welfare status.
  • 2))Must find work w/in two years
  • 3)) unmarried teen mothers must stay in school and live w/ parent or guardian
  • 4)) Mothers must ID deliquent fathers
  • AP Gov't Review
  • a. Which program does the public view more favorably: Means tested or social insurance programs? Why?
  • Answer: Social insurance programs are entitled because you pay into it.
  • Means tested are often viewed as “throwing $$$ at a problem, not necessarily fixing the problem.
  • AP Gov't Review

Education works . . .BUT . . .

  • Enforcement is difficult w/ the caseload and the thought of reducing gov’t costs.
  • Education . . .
  • the Horatio Alger approach of bettering oneself through school is a popular. . .and expensive notion.
  • Fact: the quality of education depends significantly on the wealth of the community in which a child resides.
  • AP Gov't Review
  • . Largest state budget allocation is education. . .but
  • Parents want results:
  • School choice. . .let schools compete
  • Voucher system:
  • Court ruled states can give parents vouchers for private access to schools >>>
  • Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (02)
  • 3) Purpose of NCLB . . .
  • Integrate public schools via busing
  • Nope that was Mecklenburg . . .
  • Set Nat’l standards for math + reading
  • 4) Race To The Top…
  • President Obama’s Education Initiative
  • AP Gov't Review

Congress Essay

  • 2. Political scientists often note that “Congress is too responsive to constituents, and, especially to organized interests. . .” while others argue that Congress is too insulated from ordinary citizens.
  • a. Identify an organized interest and explain what characteristics the interest may possess so Congress would address its needs.
  • b. Describe how Congress can “insulate” itself from its constituents and provide an example to support your claim.
  • c. Explain how Congress can overcome organized interests and better meet the needs of its constituents
  • AP Gov't Review

Congress #1 Essay Rubrics

  • Size, Educate, $$, Lobby (amicus curaie)
  • Prioritize agenda, Senate terms, Casework, Hire spinmasters????, Set limits on lobbyists, Log rolling
  • Polling. Use bennies of incumbency. Safe districts. Raise $$ to fight SIGS
  • c. Earmarks and porkbarreling. . .log rolling.
  • Target negative spin.

Practice Essay #2

  • The framers of the United States Constitution created a legislative system that is bicameral. However, it is not just bicameral; the framers also established two houses distinctly different in character and authority. (06)
  • A. Explain two reasons why the framers created a bicameral legislature.
  • B Identify one power unique to the House of Representatives and explain why the framers gave the House the power.
  • C. Identify one power unique to the Senate and explain why the framers gave the Senate that power.
  • AP Gov't Review

V. President + Fed Bur

  • Which Article sets the stage for “Executive Power to be Vested in a president. .
  • II.
  • So What does Art VI do?
  • Supremacy Clause
  • II.
  • 1. Constitutional Requirements
  • (a) 35 or older
  • (b) natural born
  • (c) 14 years of residency
  • (d) term limits ? Which amendment?
  • 22. amendment-2 terms plus2)
  • (e) disability of president turns to . . .
  • to 25th amendment + succession process. A new non-elected VP needs approval from both houses.
  • (f) popularly elected, sometimes (accidential presidents)
  • Not elected by the populace . . .
  • AP Gov't Review

Formal Powers

  • Domestic
  • Power of the purse. . .
  • NOPE
  • 1) Chief legislator-State of the Union, advises,
  • approves or veto’s legislation
  • 2) Chief executive . . .
  • 3) Administrative powers - enforce the laws, select gov’t officials (w/Senate approval); run the bureaucracy via “Executive Orders”. “Take Care” clause of Article II.
  • 4) Judicial powers - reprieves, pardons, commute federal felons; nominate federal judges w/ Senate majority confirmation.
  • AP Gov't Review

Formal Foreign policy powers

  • 1) National Security
  • a) commander in chief
  • b) Head of State (receives ambassadors and other heads of state)
  • AP Gov't Review

Informal powers

  • a. presidential precedent (Washington turning to a cabinet for advice)
  • b. Actions of Congress –
  • giving president power i.e. 1965 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution v. War Powers Act.
  • c. Media’s use of the Bully Pulpit. Prez goes directly to the people. i.e. Clinton in ‘97 budget freeze. . .Congress lost that battle.
  • d. Executive Orders . . . Can be formal or informal
  • AP Gov't Review

Executive Branch

  • 1. VP is a heart beat away. . . His/her qualifications?
  • a. Same constitutional requirements as president.
  • b. Political professional, eases one into the congressional gridlock.
  • c. faithful follower which might deter his own presidential ambitions. i.e., Bush + Gore.
  • d. Which amendment changed how VP was selected?
  • 12th
  • 2. Cabinet positions -- How many
  • -14 secretaries and the AG
  • All must be confirmed by the
  • . . . Senate.
  • a. Responsibilities- execute presidential and congressional
  • b. Requirements- President supporters, usually partisan selections,
  • AP Gov't Review

EOB

  • What is its function?
  • More advisors for domestic and foreign policy. In theory partisan, in reality, civil servants who stay as presidents move on.
  • Office heads appointed + confirmed by Senate
  • a. NSC - crisis mg’ment- liaison to military, CIA
  • b. CEA - economic trend management
  • c. OMB- presidential budget oversight; watches Congress and the Bureaucracy
  • AP Gov't Review

WHO(s)

  • Partisan followers whose sole function is to support the president.
  • If not, find another job. West Wing residents whose purpose is to oversee the political and policy interests of the president-
  • no Senate confirm here!
  • AP Gov't Review

The other beaurocrats

  • filled by “federal” employees (85%) unless truly specialists in a given field (lawyers or businesspersons).
  • a. Party ID not that relevant because . . .
  • b. Appease caucus groups: Hispanics, women, blacks, elderly, far right constituents. Here are your participants in the issue network.
  • AP Gov't Review

President Quality . . .

  • How get others to follow -
  • 1. Act of Persuasion - Constitution is vague on what the PRESident can do. . .so great leaders get creative --
  • a. Powers enhanced by:
  • 1) national constituency -
  • 2) ceremonial head of state - and party, at least in first term. This can erode quickly if one’s party deserts you and others compete in the primaries against you! It’s tough to beat an incumbent!
  • AP Gov't Review

Who does the President have to appease?

  • a. DC political pundits - can one do the job? Can one possess power- (charismatic leadership)
  • One gets 100 days to show your stuff! Make it count because the “honeymoon is over.”
  • b. partisan grassroots- Chief of Party- Be a good Republican.
  • c. Joe Public- Use the polls to your advantage. TV spots are what you make them. When you are hot, your legislation flows, your fellow party people get re-elected. (coat-tail effect)
  • AP Gov't Review

Chief legislator

  • in name only. . . the power is shared with Congress
  • a. Advises- 4 ways
  • (1) shapes policy (2) consults Congress (3) bargains
  • (4) appeals to partisans (friends to the party)
  • b. Disapprovals
  • Veto - It takes ____ of Hse + Sen to override. –
  • 2/3 of congress to override
  • ___ day limit or its law. Overrides seldom happen
  • Pocket veto –
  • Congress adjourns; After 10 days it fails
  • b) line-item veto- State guvs can eliminate portions of a bill . . . ‘96 Congress approved and President agreed for an “enhanced rescission” of legislation. President had 5 days to “line-out” legislation. BUT Supreme Ct ruled it unconstitutional (Clinton v. City of NY)
  • AP Gov't Review

Directory: cms -> lib3 -> MO01001773 -> Centricity -> Domain
lib3 -> The Art of Persuasive Writing Opinion vs. Argument vs. Persuasion
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Domain -> Unit 2 – How to Write a Persuasive Essay Myaccess com Prompts Using the prompts below and write a Synthesis essay for each using the provided resources. Username: id# sjsd Password: id# Prompt #1: Time Spent with Electronic Video Games
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