Ap test review session 3 600 C. E. – 1450 C. E. The Post-Classical Age islam begins



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AP TEST REVIEW Session 3

ISLAM BEGINS

  • Prophet Muhammad in Mecca, early 7th century
  • Message from God was to make his people (Arabs) of one religion (monotheistic) to unify themselves and submit to his will
  • Polytheist Mecca rejected him, forcing his “Hijra” to Medina in 622 C.E.
  • Muhammad and his Umma return to Mecca and conquer it, thus beginning the spread of Islam throughout the Arab world and beyond

After Muhammad’s death in 632 CE, Abu Bakr takes over and becomes the first CALIPH (political and religious leader combined)

    • Islam will continue to grow and spread into Southwest Asia, Africa, and Europe
    • Sunni and Shia Islam split over the issue of succession of Muhammad

Umayyad Caliphate

  • Capital located in Damascus, Syria
  • Arabic became the official language
  • Gold and silver became monetary standard
  • Conquered people were encouraged to convert to Islam for sake of unity; those who did not convert were taxed
  • In power from 661-750 C.E.
  • Arabs were the higher social class (original converts to Islam, therefore became the preferred social class)

ABBASID CALIPHATE

  • Reigned from 750 – 1258 C.E.
  • “Golden Age” of Islam
  • Built magnificent capital at Baghdad
  • Trade was a priority for the Abbasid
  • Huge innovations in science, math, medicine, literature
  • Established libraries that helped preserve Western culture
  • Sufis helped convert people through their mystical, romantic methodology which stressed personal relationship to Allah
  • Converts to Islam (the “Mawali”) were treated better than in the Umayyad Caliphate where Arabs were the elites

THE ABBASID GOLDEN AGE

WOMEN IN ISLAM

  • Typical of a patriarchal society, women were viewed as property and had little rights
  • Women’s testimony was worth ½ of a man’s
  • Qu’ran established basic rights for women and gave them equality before God
  • Khadija, Muhammad’s first wife, was an influential figure
  • Women were veiled in public (modesty and protection)
  • Women were kept at home mostly since domestic responsibilities were seen as their primary duty in life
  • Men could have many wives but women were required to be faithful to one man

DECLINE OF THE ABBASID

  • Weakened by:
    • conflict between Sunni/Shia
    • Different ethnic groups in expanding Muslim world
    • Turkish Mamluks revolted (military slaves)
    • Seljuk Turks were also threatening
    • Mongol Invasion was the final blow that ended the Abbasid Caliphate in the 13th century

BYZANTINE EMPIRE

  • The Roman Empire in the East (divided Empire)
  • Greek speakers (not Latin like in the West)
  • Orthodox Christianity (not Catholic)
  • Byzantine Rulers had absolute authority
    • Caesaropapism (both emperor and pope)
    • Outlasts the Western Roman Empire by almost 1000 years

JUSTINIAN & The Justinian Code

  • Justinian ruled the Byzantine Empire in the 6th century CE and restored the glory of the Roman Empire at Constantinople. His legal system (Justinian Code), based on the 12 Tables of Rome, was significant because they kept a codified legal system in use in Europe. He also built the Hagia Sofia in Constantinople

Justinian’s Reign

  • Constantinople’s glory was restored
  • Trade and the arts flourished
  • Justinian Code made laws codified and kept Roman legal principles alive
  • Hagia Sofia was constructed

HAGIA SOFIA (INSIDE)

Orthodox vs. Catholic

  • The two Christian denominations were at odds with each other over several theological issues
    • Language of the liturgy
    • Marriage of priests
    • Communion
    • Trinitarian nature of God
      • Eventually there was a SCHISM in 1054 C.E. when leaders from both churches excommunicated each other!
      • East vs. West

RUSSIA

  • Vladimir converts the people of Kiev to Orthodox Christianity; will stay distinct from Western Europe as a result
  • St. Cyril uses Greek alphabet to create a Slavic alphabet in order to better reach his potential converts

FRANKS VS. MUSLIMS

  • In Europe, Christianity was growing but so was the threat from Islam (Spain and southern Italy)
  • King Clovis of the Franks (Germanic tribe) unified the region under the religion of Catholicism, making it easier to fight another religion like Islam
  • Charles Martel helped defeat Muslim army at the Battle of Tours in 732 (stopping Islam from dominating northern Europe)
  • Martel forms the Carolingian Dynasty and crowns his son Pepin (who gets blessed by the Pope, a sign of the power of the Papacy in northern Europe)

CHARLES MARTEL and the Battle of Tours, 732 C.E.

HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE

  • Pepin’s son Charles (Charlemagne) will build the empire and it will come to be called the Holy Roman Empire

CHARLEMAGNE

A Different Kind of Empire:

  • The Holy Roman Empire was small, decentralized, and relatively weak
  • Local lords had a great deal of power and did not consult Charlemagne on everything
  • Charlemagne did not collect taxes and did not build a very strong empire
  • Treaty of Verdun breaks the empire into thirds in 843 C.E. (going to his 3 grandsons)

OMG!!! RUN FOR YOUR LIFE!

THE NORSEMEN (VIKINGS)

  • Excellent seafarers from northern Europe who also were really excellent raiders
  • Also good fishermen & merchants
  • Eventually converted to Christianity, and they weren’t quite as much fun to be around (according to this guy)

FEUDALISM IN EUROPE

FEUDAL PYRAMID

  • KING
    • NOBLES
      • LESSER LORDS (VASSALS)
        • LESSER VASSALS
          • PEASANTS (serfs)

FEUDAL SYSTEM

  • Estates given to vassals = FIEFS (later manors)
  • Lord and peasants lived on the manor
  • Peasants worked for the lord in exchange for protection and homes
  • Serfs were tied to the land and couldn’t leave or move without permission
  • Code of Chivalry in place to keep lords (knights) in line
  • Women of elite class were valued for feminine traits but still essentially considered property

HANSEATIC LEAGUE

  • A trade alliance throughout northern Europe
  • Made possible due to the growth of towns thanks to the decline of the manor system and the birth of the middle class in Europe

ARCHITECTURE: GOTHIC STYLE

  • Gothic Architecture was known for pointed spires, flying buttresses, and stained glass

THE CRUSADES

  • Military campaigns to take back the Holy Land and convert Muslims and non-Christians to Christianity
  • Control of the trade routes of the Mediterranean and Silk Roads was also vital

The Church Militant

  • Pope Innocent III issued decrees on church doctrine
  • Jews and heretics were persecuted (tortured, excommunicated, killed, or exiled)
      • The Inquisition with Pope Gregory IX

Bubonic Plague

  • Estimated 35 million deaths
  • Started in China and spread due to trade and the Mongol control of Silk Road
  • Helped bring an end to feudalism in Europe (loss of workers meant more value to peasants/serfs)
  • Social and economic changes were sped up
  • Church lost power and believers

CHANGES IN EUROPE

  • England unifies under William the Conqueror
    • Magna Carta (1215 C.E.) gives rights to nobles and lessens absolute power of king
  • Germanic and Italian city-states decentralize
  • “Countries” start to form, along linguistic and cultural lines
  • France and England begin fighting, and haven’t really stopped hating each other since…Hundred Years War (1337-1453)
  • Queen Isabella marries Ferdinand and unifies Spain (with the Catholic Church’s blessing and assistance)
  • Spain becomes a world power and the world is about to change in a big way

TANG DYNASTY CHINA

  • Ruled from 618-907 CE
  • Expanded into Manchuria, Tibet, Korea, Mongolia
  • Overexpansion led to lack of control and warlords seized power, Tang collapsed

CHINA- continued

  • Tang and Song Dynasties used the civil service examinations which began under the Han
  • This kept numbers of educated, Confucianist, loyal government workers in bureaucracy
  • Tang collected tribute from other countries including Vietnam and Korea
  • Moveable Type helped literacy (Song)
  • Song also developed gunpowder and the junk ship, along with the magnetic compass
  • Champa rice helped double the population and contributed to urbanization in China

CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATIONS

CHINESE INNOVATIONS

EMPRESS WU ZHAO

  • Tang Dynasty had a woman emperor (unique)
  • Blame it on Buddhism! Confucianists were not happy with this development

Foot Binding during Song Dynasty

  • To keep women in rightful place (for elites this meant at home), Chinese practiced foot binding to keep the female feet small and childlike (big feet were considered masculine)

JAPAN

  • Yamato Clan takes over leadership, claiming to be direct descendants of the sun goddess, one of the main deities in Shinto religion
  • Yamato stayed in power for 1500 years…even today the emperor is from the same family
  • Hereditary social structure: different than Confucianist China and civil service exams based on merit rather than family

FEUDAL JAPAN

If Japan could do it all over again, you know they would have someone very different at the top of the feudal pyramid…

BUSHIDO (Chivalry)

THE DELHI SULTANATE of INDIA

  • Islamic invaders took over northwestern India and tried to convert Hindus or tax them
  • Northern India was changed, many converted to Islam while those in the south stayed Hindu
  • Much development occurred during this time period for India

Delhi Sultanate India

THE MONGOLS

  • Excellent horsemen and archers
  • Genghis Khan in the early 1200’s unified various Mongol tribes and began conquest of much of Eurasia

MONGOL HORDES

  • Golden Horde conquered Russia
  • Kublai Khan (emperor) ruled in China (Yuan Dynasty)
  • Il-Khanate ruled SW Asia
  • Chagatai ruled in South Asia

PAX MONGOLICA

  • Trade flourished thanks to Mongol control of the trade routes (no one dared messed with traders since the Mongols would exact revenge if money did not reach them)
  • Mongols were in the game solely for wealth extraction, not promotion of their own culture (unlike Greeks, British, French)

AFRICA

  • Mali in western Africa (city of Timbuktu)
  • Mansa Musa travels to Mecca and shows off the great wealth of his kingdom (gold/salt)
  • Islam had major impact on West Africa

TRANS-SAHARA TRADE ROUTES

THE AMERICAS

  • Maya in Central America
  • Inca in the Andes Mountains of S. America
  • Aztec in Mexico

AZTEC EMPIRE

  • Tenochtitlan capital city
  • Tens of thousands of ritual sacrifices to deities (war captives)
  • Warriors were the elite social class
  • Tribute required of neighboring states

AZTECS…gotta get that Sun to keep rising.

INCA EMPIRE

  • 2000 miles of South American coastline
  • Professional army
  • Established bureaucracy
  • Unified language
  • Roads and bridges connecting the empire
  • Mit’a System in place to maintain infrastructure of empire

MAYA

  • Largely agricultural peasant population
  • Warfare frequent (decentralized city-states)
  • Large cities of 40,000 people

INDIAN OCEAN TRADE

  • In the post-classical era, Persians and Arabs dominated trade in the Indian Ocean
  • Connected ports in eastern Africa (Swahili Coast) with ports in Western India and the Persian Gulf
  • Boats used monsoon winds to travel
  • Safer travel in Indian Ocean compared to the Mediterranean (where warfare was constant)
  • Blended cultures as a result of sailors marrying women in different ports

THE SILK ROAD

  • Carried more than silk (porcelain, paper)
  • Religions were also transmitted along the Silk Road
    • Buddhism from India to China
    • Islam to Central Asia and beyond
    • Christianity
    • Cultural Diffusion at work (religion, languages, food, art, and products spread around the world as a result of the Silk Road)

AP Essay Prompts from the Post-Classical Era

  • 2010 Comparative Essay
  • Analyze similarities and differences in the rise of TWO of the following empires:
  • Mongol Empire
  • Aztec Empire
  • A West African Sudanic Empire (Mali OR Ghana OR Songhai)

AP Essay Prompts from the Post-Classical Era

  • 2009 Change and Continuity over Time
  • Analyze changes and continuities in patterns of interactions along the Silk Roads from 200 BCE to 1450 CE

AP Essay Prompts from the Post-Classical Era

  • 2008 Change and Continuity over Time
  • Analyze changes and continuities in commerce in the Indian Ocean region from 650 CE to 1750 CE

AP Essay Prompts from the Post-Classical Era

  • 2005 Comparison Essay
  • Compare and contrast the political and economic effects of Mongol rule on TWO of the following regions:
  • China
  • Middle East
  • Russia

AP Essay Prompts from the Post-Classical Era

  • 2003 Change and Continuity Essay
  • Describe and analyze the cultural, economic, and political impact of Islam on ONE of the following regions between 1000 CE and 1750 CE:
  • West Africa
  • South Asia
  • Europe

AP Essay Prompts from the Post-Classical Era

  • 2002 DBQ Essay
  • Using the documents, compare and contrast the attitudes of Christianity and Islam toward merchants and trade from the religions’ origins until about 1500.

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