Ap european Study Guide From After Black Death to Current History

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In early 1915 Germany launched a counter-blockade using the murderously effective submarine, a new weapon that violated traditional niceties of fair warning under international law (German submarines began sinking British ships in war zone)

  • In 1917, Germany after being forced to relax submarine warfare to prevent the United States from entering, resumed unrestricted submarine warfare

  • British shipping losses reached staggering proportions and by late 1917, naval strategists had come up with an effective response: the convoy system for safe transatlantic shipping; United States entered the war almost three years after its start

  • The Home Front

    1. Mobilizing for Total War

      1. In every country the masses believed that their nation was in the right and defending itself from aggression; even socialists supported the war; in Germany the trade unions voted not to strike and socialist in Reichstag voted money for war (counter Russia)

      2. By mid-October generals and politicians had begun to realize that more than patriotism would be needed to win the war, whose end was not in sight

      3. Every country experience a relentless, desperate demand for men and weapons; countries faced countless shortages, for prewar Europe had depended on foreign trade and a great international division of labor (organization and economic life changed)

      4. In each country a government of national unity began to plan and control economic and social life in order to wage “total war” (free-market capitalism was abandoned)

        1. Government planning boards established priorities and decided what was to be produced and consumed; rationing, price, and wage controls, and even restrictions on workers’ freedom of movement were imposed by the government

        2. The planned economy of total war released the tremendous energies but total war was based on productive industrial economies not confined to a single nation

        3. The war was a war of whole peoples and entire populations

        4. The ability of governments to manage and control highly complicated economies strengthened the cause of socialism (became a realistic economic blueprint)

      5. Germany went the furthest in developing a planned economy to wage total war

        1. Walter Rathenau, the Jewish industrialist convinced the government to set up the War Raw Materials Board to ration and distribute raw materials

        2. The board launched successful attempts to produce substitutes, such as synthetic nitrates which was used to make explosives (highly important and useful)

        3. Food was rationed in accordance with physical need and men and women doing hard manual work were given extra rations while only few received milk rations

      6. Following the battles of Verdun and Somme in 1916, Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg was driven from office in 1917 by military leaders Hindenburg and Ludendorff, who became the real rulers of Germany; decreed the ultimate mobilization for total war

      7. In December 1916, military leaders rammed through the Reichstag the Auxiliary Service Law, which required all males between seventeen and sixty to work only at jobs considered critical to the war effort (many women were working in factories already and children were organized by their teachers into garbage brigades)

      8. In Germany, total war led to the establishment of history’s first “totalitarian” society and war production increase while some people starved to death

      9. In Great Britain, a shortage of shells led to the establishment of the Ministry of Munitions under David Lloyd George which organized private industry to produce for the war, controlled profits, allocated labor, fixed wages, and settled labor disputes

      10. More than 90 percent of all imports were bought and allocated directly by the state

    2. The Social Impact

      1. Millions of men at the front and the insatiable needs of the military created a tremendous demand for works and demand for labor brought about changes

        1. Having proved their loyalty in August 1914, labor unions became a partner of government and private industry in the planned war economy; unions cooperated with war governments on work rules, wages, and production schedules in return for real participation and important decisions (paralleled entry of socialist leaders)

        2. In every country, large numbers of women left home and domestic service to work in industry, transportation and offices and women became highly visible

        3. Government pressure and the principle of equal pay for equal work overcame objections as the war expanded the range of a woman and as a result of the women’s war effort, Britain, Germany, and Austria granted suffrage after the war

      2. War also promoted greater social equality, blurring class distinctions and lessening the gap between the rich and the poor (Great Britain was the prime example as bottom third of population lived better than they had ever had; labor shortage)

      3. Death had no respect for traditional social distinctions and it decimated the young aristocratic officers who led the charge and feel heavily on the mass of drafted peasants and unskilled workers who followed but death often spared the aristocrats of labor, the skilled works and the foremen (need to train the unskilled workers)

    3. Growing Political Tensions

      1. During the first two years of war, most soldiers and civilians supported governments; belief in just cause, patriotic nationalism, the planned economy, and a shared burdens united peoples behind their various national leaders (newspapers were censored)

      2. Governments used both crude and subtle propaganda to maintain popular support; patriotic posters, slanted news, and biased editorials inflamed hatreds and helped sustain efforts but people were beginning to crack under the strain of war in 1916

      3. In April 1916 Irish nationalists in Dublin tried to take advantage of this situation and rose up against British rule in their great Easter Rebellion; strikes over inadequate food began to flare up and soldiers’ morale began to decline

      4. A rising tide of war-weariness and defeatism also swept France’s civilian population before Georges Clemencause emerged as wartime leader in November 1917

      5. After the death of Francis Joseph, a symbol of unity disappeared and in April 1917, the minister feared another winter of war would bring revolution and disintegration

      6. The strain of total war and of the Auxiliary Service Law was evident in Germany; national political unity was collapsing and a growing minority of socialists in the Reichstag began to vote against war credits calling for a compromise

      7. In July 1917 a coalition of socialists and Catholics passed a resolution in the Reichstag to that effect and when the bread ration was reduced, more than 200,000 workers struck and demonstrated for a week in Berlin returning to work only under the threat of prison and military discipline (countries were beginning to crack)

  • The Russian Revolution

    1. The Fall of Imperial Russia

      1. Tsar Nicholas II vowed never to make peace as long as the enemy stood on Russian soil and Russia’s lower house, the Duma, voted war credits; conservatives anticipated expansion in the Balkans, while liberals and most socialists believed alliance with Britain and France would bring democratic reform (for a moment, Russia was united)

      2. Despite declining morale among soldiers and civilians and heavy losses in 1915, Russia’s battered peasant army did not collapse but continued to fight until early 1917

      3. Russia moved toward full mobilization on the home front and the Duma took the lead, setting up special committees to coordinated defense, industry, transportation and agriculture; Russia mobilized less effectively for total war than any other country

      4. The great problem of Russia was leadership (under a constitution from 1905)

        1. The tsar had retained complete control over the bureaucracy and the army

        2. Legislation proposed by the Duma (wealthy and conservative classes) was subject to the tsar’s veto and Nicholas II wished to maintain the sacred inheritance of supreme royal power, with the Orthodox church, was, for him, the key to Russia

        3. Nicholas failed to form a close partnership with his citizens and rely on the bureaucratic apparatus, distrusting the moderate Duma, rejecting popular involvement, and resisting calls to share power (could have been more effective)

      5. The Duma, the educated middle classes, and the masses became increasingly critical of the tsar’s leadership and following Nicholas’s dismissal of the minister of war, demands for more democratic and responsive government exploded in Summer 1915

      6. In September 1915, various parties formed the Progressive Bloc, which called for a completely new government responsible to the Duma instead of the tsar; in answer, Nicholas temporarily adjourned the Duma and announced that he was traveling to the front in order to lead and rally Russia’s armies; his departure was a fatal turning point

        1. Control of the government was taken over by the hysterical empress, Tsarina Alexandra and the monk Rasputin (her most trusted adviser)

        2. Rasputin’s influence rested on mysterious healing powers and only Rasputin could stop the bleeding of Alexis, the heir, who suffered from hemophilia

        3. In an attempt to right the situation and end rumors that Rasputin was the empress’s lover, three members of the high aristocracy murdered Rasputin in December 1916 and the empress went into shock because of his prophecy: “If I die or you desert me, in six months you will lose your son and throne”

        4. On March 8 women calling for bread in Petrograd started riots; soldiers joined the revolutionary crowd and the Duma responded by declaring a provisional government on March 12, 1917 and Nicholas II abdicated three days later

    2. The Provisional Government

      1. The patriotic upper and middle classes rejoiced at the prospect of a more determined and effective war effort, while workers happily anticipated better wages and food; all classes and political parties called for liberty and democracy (were not disappointed)

      2. The provisional government established equality before the law; freedom of religion, speech, and assembly; the right to unions to organize and strike; and the rest of the classic liberal program (but socialists leaders rejected social revolution)

      3. The reorganized government formed in May 1917, which included agrarian socialist Alexander Kerensky, refused to confiscate large landholdings and to give them to peasants, fearing that such action would only disintegrate Russia’s peasant army

      4. The provisional government had to share power with a formidable rival—the Petrograd Society of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies, a huge fluctuating mass meeting of two to three thousand workers, soldiers, and socialist intellectuals

      5. The Society undermined the work of the provisional government even issuing the Army Order No. 1 which issued to all Russian military forces formed by the provisional government (stripped officers of their authority and placed power in the hands of elected committees of common soldiers -- protect revolution)

      6. The Army Order No. 1 led to total collapse of army discipline and many peasant soldiers began returning to their villages to help their families get a share of land, which peasants were simply seizing as they settled old scores in upheaval

      7. Liberty was turning into anarchy in the summer of 1917 and it was an opportunity for the most radical and most talented of Russia’s socialists leaders, Vladimir Lenin

    3. Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution

      1. Lenin found revolutionary faith in Marxian socialism; three ideas were central to him

        1. Lenin stressed that capitalism could be destroyed only by violent revolution and denounced all revisionists theories of a peaceful evolution to socialism

        2. Under certain conditions a socialist revolution was possible even in a relatively backward country like Russia (peasants were poor and potential revolutionaries)

        3. Lenin believed that at a given moment revolution was determined more by human leadership than by vast historical laws and leading to his third idea: the necessity of a highly disciplined workers’ party (controlled by intellectuals)

      2. At meetings of the Russian Social Democratic Labor party in 1903, Lenin demanded a small, disciplined, elitist party, while his opponents wanted a more democratic party and the party split into Bolsheviks (supported Lenin, majority) andMensheviks

      3. Lenin saw the war as a product of imperialistic rivalries and as a marvelous opportunity for class war and socialist upheaval (observed events from Switzerland)

      4. Since propaganda and internal subversion were accepted weapons for total war, the German government provided Lenin and colleagues with safe passage across Germany and back into Russia in April 1917 (hoped Lenin would undermine Russia)

      5. Arriving on April 3, Lenin attacked at once and rejected all cooperation with the “bourgeois” provisional government of the liberals and moderate socialists

      6. An attempt by the Bolsheviks to seize power in July collapsed and although he was charged with being a German agent, conspiracy between Kerensky and his commander in chief, General Lavr Kornilov resulted in Kornilov’s leading an attack against eh provisional government (counterrevolutionary threat)

      7. Kerensky had lost all credit with the army, the only force that might have saved him and the democratic government in Russia

    4. Trotsky and the Seizure of Power

      1. Throughout the summer of 1917, the Bolsheviks appealed effectively to the workers and soldiers of Petrograd, increasing their popular support and in October, the Bolsheviks gained a majority in the Petrograd Soviet and Lenin had found a strong right arm in Leon Trotsky, the second most important person in Russian Revolution

        1. Trotsky first convinced the Petrograd Soviet to form a special military-revolutionary committee in October and make him its leader (military power)

        2. Trotsky’s second master stroke was to insist that the Bolsheviks reduce opposition to their coup by taking power in the name of the more popular, democratic soviets

        3. On the night of November 6, militants from Trotsky’s committee joined Bolshevik soldiers to seize government buildings and went on to the congress of soviets where a Bolshevik majority declared that all power had passed to the soviets and named Lenin head of the new government

      2. The Bolsheviks came to power for three key reasons in late 1917

        1. Democracy had given way to anarchy: power was there to be taken for

        2. In Lenin and Trotsky the Bolsheviks had an utterly determined and truly superior leadership, which both the tsarist and provisional government lacked

        3. In 1917, the Bolsheviks succeeded in appealing to many soldiers and urban workers, people who were exhausted by war and eager for socialism

    5. Dictatorship and Civil War

      1. Since summer, a peasant revolution had been sweeping across Russia as the peasants invaded and divided among themselves the estates of the landlords and the church and thus Lenin’s first law supposedly gave land to the peasants (already happened)

      2. Lenin also granted urban workers direct control of factories by workers’ committees

      3. Lenin acknowledged that Russia had lost the war with Germany (peace at any price)

        1. Germany demanded in December 1917 that the Soviet government give up all its western territories (Poles, Finns, Lithuanians, and other non-Russians)

        2. In February 1918, Lenin had his way in a close vote in the Central Committee

        3. Russia lost a third of its population in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in March 1918

      4. In November 1917 the Bolsheviks proclaimed their regime only a “provisional workers’ and peasants’ government promising that a freely elected Constituent Assembly would draw up a new constitution (free elections produced setback)

      5. The Socialist Revolutionaries (peasants’ party) had a clear majority and the Constituent Assembly met for only one day, on January 18, 1918, was permanently disbanded by Bolshevik soldiers, and Lenin formed a one-party government

      6. The officers of the old army took the lead in organizing the White opposition to the Bolsheviks in southern Russia, Ukraine, Siberia, and west of Petrograd and the Whites came from many social groups united by their hatred of the Reds

        1. By summer of 1918 eighteen self-proclaimed regional governments were competing with Lenin’s Bolsheviks in Moscow and the Whites began to attack in October 1919 as they closed in on Lenin’s government from three sides

        2. By the spring of 1920, the White armies had been almost completely defeated and the Bolshevik Red Army had retaken Belorussia and Ukraine

        3. The Communists also reconquered the independent nationalists governments of the Caucasus the following year; the civil war was over and Lenin had won

      7. Lenin and the Bolsheviks had won the civil war for several reasons

        1. Strategically, they controlled the center, while the Whites were always on the fringes and disunited; it did not unite all the foes of the Bolsheviks under one

        2. General Anton Denikin refused to call for a democratic republic and a federation of nationalities although he knew that doing so would help his cause

        3. The Communists had developed a better army; in March 1918, Trotsky as war commissar reestablished the draft and the most drastic discipline for the newly formed Red Army (soldiers disobeying an order were summarily shot)

        4. Establishing “war communism” the application of total war concept to a civil conflict, they seized grain from peasants, introduced rationing, nationalized all banks and industry, and required everyone to work (labor discipline)

      8. Revolutionary terror also contributed to the Communist victory

        1. The old tsarist secret police was re-established as the Cheka, which hunted down and executed thousands of real or supposed foes, such as the tsar and his family

        2. The terror caused by the secret police became a tool of the government (fear)

      9. Foreign military intervention in the civil war ended up helping the Communists

        1. After Lenin made peace with Germany, the Allies (Americans, British, and Japanese) sent troops to prevent war material they had sent to the provisional government from being captured by the Germans; Western governments, particularly France, began to support White armies after nationalization

        2. Allied intervention permitted the Communists to appeal to patriotic nationalism

      10. A radically new government, based on socialism and one-party dictatorship, came to power in a European state, maintained power, and encouraged worldwide revolution

  • The Peace Settlement

    1. The End of War

      1. After the Russian Revolution in March 1917, there were major strikes in Germany

        1. In July a coalition of moderates passed a “peace resolution” in the Reichstag, calling for peace without territorial annexations; in response to this moderation born of war-weariness, the German military established a virtual dictatorship

        2. The military exploited the collapse of Russian armies after the Bolshevik Revolution and won concessions from Lenin in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

      2. General Ludendorff and company fell on France once more in the spring of 1918

        1. German armies pushed forward but his overextended forces never broke through

        2. The German army was stopped in July at the second Battle of the Marne, where fresh American soldiers saw action; the addition of 2 million men in arms to the war effort by August by America tipped the scales in favor of Allied victory

        3. By September, British, French, and American armies were advancing steadily on all fronts and General Ludendorff realized that Germany had lost the war

      3. General Ludendorff insisted that moderate politicians shoulder the shame of defeat and on October 4, the emperor formed a new, more liberal German government to sue for peace; negotiations over an armistice dragged and German people finally rose up

      4. On November 3 sailors in Kiel mutinied and throughout northern Germany soldiers and workers began to establish revolutionary councils on the Russian soviet model; also on that day, Austria-Hungary surrendered to the Allies and began to break apart

      5. Revolution broke out in Germany and with army discipline collapsing, the emperor abdicated and fled to Holland; socialist leaders in Berlin proclaimed a German republic on November 9 and agreed to tough Allied terms of surrender

      6. The armistice went into effect on November 11, 1918 and the war was over

    2. Revolution in Germany

      1. Military defeat brought political revolution to Germany and Austria-Hungary

        1. In Austria-Hungary the revolution was nationalistic and republican in nature even though they started the war to preserve an antinationalistic dynastic state

        2. In its place, independent Austrian, Hungarian, and Czechoslovak republics were proclaimed, while the expanded Serbian monarchy united under Yugoslavia

      2. German Revolution of November 1918 resembled the Russian Revolution of 1917

        1. In both cases, a genuine popular uprising toppled an authoritarian monarchy and established a liberal provisional republic (liberal and moderate socialists took control, while workers’ and soldiers’ councils formed a counter-government)

        2. In Germany, however, moderate socialists won while the Lenin-like radical didn’t

        3. In communist terms, Germany was a bourgeois political revolution

      3. There were several reasons for the outcome of German’s new government

        1. The great majority of Marxian socialists leaders in the Social Democratic part wanted to establish real political democracy and civil liberties, and they favored the gradual elimination of capitalism (less support for extreme radicals)

        2. The German peasantry, which already had most of the land, did not provide the elemental force that had driven all great modern revolutions

        3. The moderate German Social Democrats accepted defeat and ended the war the day they took power; act ended decline in morale among soldiers and held army

      4. When radicals headed by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg tried to seize control of the government in Berlin in January, the moderate socialists called on the army to crush the uprising and the followers were brutally murdered by army leaders

      5. The act caused the radicals in the Social Democratic party to break way and form a pro-Lenin German Communist party (moderates could not have ruled Germany)

    3. The Treaty of Versailles

      1. The peace conference opened in Paris in January 1919 with seventy delegates representing twenty-seven victorious nations and expectations were high; general optimism and idealism had been strengthened by President Wilson’s 1918 peace proposal, the Fourteen Points, which stressed national self-determination and rights

      2. The real powers at the conference were United States, Great Britain, and France, for Germany was not allowed to participate and Russia was locked in civil war

        1. President Wilson became almost obsessed with creating the League of Nations; he believed that only an international organization could prevent future wars

        2. Lloyd George of Great Britain and Clemenceau of France were concerned with punishing Germany; Lloyd George had won electoral victory with this belief

        3. France’s Georges Clemenceau, the “Tiger” who had broken wartime defeatism and led his country to victory, like most Frenchmen, wanted revenge and security

        4. Clemenceau believed this required the creation of a buffer state between France and Germany, the permanent demilitarization of Germany, and vast German reparations (Wilson and George did not like this and Wilson left in April)

      3. Clemenceau’s obsession with security reflected his anxiety about France’s weakness and he gave up a Rhineland buffer state in return for a formal defensive alliance with the United States and Great Britain (promised to come to aid in German attack)

      4. The Treaty of Versailles between the Allies and Germany was the key to the settlement; Germany’s colonies were give to France, Britain, and Japan as League of Nations mandates and parts of Germany were ceded to the new Polish state; Germany had to limit its army to 100,000 men and agree to build no forts in the Rhineland

      5. The Allies declared that Germany with Austria was responsible for the war and had therefore to pay reparations equal to all civilian damages caused by the war

      6. When presented with the treaty, the German government protested vigorously but there was no alternative and on June 28, 1919, German representatives of the ruling moderate Social Democrats and the Catholic party signed the treaty at Versailles

      7. Separate peace treaties were concluded with other defeated powers—Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey (ratified existing situation in east-central Europe)

        1. Hungary was ceded to Rumania, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Yugoslavia

        2. Italy got some Austrian territory and the Turkish empire was broken up

        3. France received Lebanon and Syria, while Britain took Iraq and Palestine

        4. Germany’s holdings in China was mandated to Japan

        5. Officially League of Nations mandates were one of the more imperialistic elements of the peace settlement (age of Western imperialism lived on)

    4. American Rejection of the Versailles Treaty

      1. The principle of national self-determination was accepted and a new world organization complemented a traditional defensive alliance of satisfied powers

      2. Two great interrelated obstacles to peace were Germany and the United States

        1. Germany was plagued by communist uprisings, reactionary plots, and popular disillusionment with losing the war at the last minute; German socialists and their liberal and Catholic supporters need time to established a democratic republic

        2. The U.S. Senate and the American people rejected Wilson’s handiwork; Republican senators led by Henry Cabot Lodge refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles without changes in the articles creating the League of Nations

        3. The key issue was the League’s power to require member states to take collective action against aggression and Lodge believed this gave away Congress’s constitutional right to declare war; Wilson ordered Democratic senators to support

        4. In doing so, Wilson assured that the treaty would never be ratified by the United States in any form and that United States would never join the League of Nations

      3. The Senate refused to ratify Wilson’s defensive alliance with France and Great Britain and effectively, America had turned its back on Europe

      4. Using America’s action as an excuse, Great Britain too, refused to ratify its defensive alliance with France and France, bitterly betrayed by its allies, stood alone

      5. France would later take actions against Germany that would feed the fires of German resentment and seriously undermine democratic forces in the new republic

      6. The Western alliance had collapsed, and a grandiose plan for permanent peace had given way to a fragile truce (the United States must share the guilt for their actions)

    Chapter 28: The Age of Anxiety

    1. The Search for Peace and Political Stability

      1. Germany and the Western Powers

        1. Under the Allies’ naval blockade and threat to extend military occupation from the Rhineland had Germany’s new government signed the Treaty of Versailles in 1919

        2. The treaty had neither broken nor reduced Germany, which was still very strong

        3. By the end of 1919, France wanted to stress the harsh elements in the Treaty of Versailles and much of rich, industrialized France had been devastated

          1. Expected costs of reconstruction were staggering and like Great Britain, France had also borrowed large sums from the United States during the war

          2. Betrayed by the United States, many French leaders saw that large reparation payments could hold Germany down indefinitely and achieve its goal of security

          3. After the war a healthy, prosperous Germany appeared to be essential to the British economy as Germany had been Great Britain’s second-best market

          4. Many English people agreed with economist John Maynard Keynes (Economic Consequences of the Peace) who argued that reparations and harsh economic measures would indeed reduce Germany to the position of a second-rate power

          5. However such impoverishment would increase economic hardship in all countries

        4. The British were suspicious of France’s army (largest) and France’s foreign policy

          1. Since 1890, France had looked to Russia as an ally against Germany, but France soon turned to the newly formed states of eastern Europe of diplomatic support

          2. In 1921 France signed a mutual defense pact with Poland and associated itself closely with the so-called Little Entente, an alliance that joined Czechoslovakia, Rumania and Yugoslavia against defeated and bitter Hungary (League of Nations)

        5. The Allied reparations commission complete its work in April 1921 and announced

          1. Germany had to pay the enormous sum of 132 billion gold marks (33 billion) in annual installments of 2.5 billion bold marks; facing possible occupation of more of its territory, the young German republic made its first payment in 1921

          2. In 1922, wracked by rapid inflation and political assassinations and motivated by hostility, the Weimar Republic announced its inability to pay more and proposed a moratorium on reparations for three years (implication that money be reduced)

        6. The British were willing to accept his offer, but the French were not and led by their legalistic prime minister, Raymond Poincare, France decided they either had to call German’s bluff or see the entire peace settlement dissolve to France’s disadvantage

        7. Despite strong British protests, France and ally Belgium decided to pursue a firm policy and in 1923, French and Belgian armies began to occupy the Ruhr district, heartland of industrial Germany, creating a serious international crisis of the 1920s

      2. The Occupation of the Ruhr

        1. The strategy of Poincare and his French supporters was simple: since Germany was resisting to pay reparations in hard currency or gold, France and Belgium would collect reparations in kind—coal, steel, and machinery (used occupation)

        2. The German government ordered the people of the Ruhr to stop working and start passively resisting the French occupation; 10 percent of Germany need relief

          1. The French answer to passive resistance was to seal off not only the Ruhr but also the entire Rhineland from the rest of Germany, letting in only enough food; the French also revived plans for a separate state to be formed in the Rhineland

          2. French armies could not collect reparations from striking workers at gunpoint and even though French occupation was paralyzing Germany and its economy (80 percent of Germany’s steel and coal); occupation of the Ruhr turned rapid German inflation into runaway inflation and the German government began to print money to pay its bills (Germany money rapidly lost all value)

          3. Runaway inflation brought about a social revolution as middle-class virtues of thrift, caution, and self-reliance were mocked by catastrophic inflation and the German middle and lower middle classes burned with resentment

          4. Many hated and blamed Western governments and their own government

        3. In August 1923, Gustav Stresemann assumed leadership of the government and adopted a compromising attitude calling off the passive resistance in the Ruhr and in October agreed in principle to pay reparations for asked for a re-examination of Germany’s ability to pay; Poincare accepted (he became increasingly unpopular)

        4. In Germany and France, power was passing to the moderates and after five years of hostility and tension culmination in a kind of undeclared war in the Ruhr in 1923, Germany and France decided to give compromise and cooperation a try

      3. Hope in Foreign Affairs, 1924-1929

        1. The reparations commission appointed an international committee of financial experts headed by American banker Charles G. Dawes to re-examine reparations in Germany; the committee made a series of recommendations known as the Dawes Plan (1924)

          1. The plan having been accepted by France, Germany, and Britain stated that German reparations were to be reduced and placed on a sliding scale, like income tax, payments depending on the level of German economic prosperity

          2. The Dawes Plane also recommended large loans to Germany, which came U.S.; these loans were to help Stresemann’s government put its new currency on a firm basis and promote German recovery; Germany would get private loans from the U.S. and pay reparations to France and Britain, allowing them to repay the U.S.

        2. The German republic experienced a spectacular economic recovery and Germany easily paid about 1.3 billion dollars in reparations in 1927 and 1928

        3. In 1929 the Young Plan, named after the American businessman representing the U.S., further reduced German reparations and formalized the link between German reparations and French-British debts to the United States (worldwide recovery)

        4. In 1925 the leaders of Europe signed a number of agreements at Locarno, Switzerland

        5. Stresemann had suggested a treaty with France’s Aristide Briand (returned to office in 1924) and by this treaty, Germany and France pledged to accept their common border, and both Britain and Italy agreed to fight either country it if invaded the other

          1. Stresemann also agreed to settle boundary disputes with Poland and Czechoslovakia by peaceful means and France promised those countries military aid if they were attacked by Germany

          2. Stresemann and Briand shared Nobel Peace Prize in 1926; the spirit of Locarno gave Europeans a sense of growing security and stability in international affairs

        6. In 1926 Germany joined the League of Nations, where Stresemann continued his “peace offensive” and in 1928 fifteen countries signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact, which “condemned and renounced war as an instrument of national policy”

        7. The pact grew out of a suggestion by Briand that France and the United States renounce the possibility of war between their two countries; Secretary of State Frank Kellogg had proposed a multinational pact; optimism rested on hope that United States would accept its responsibilities as a world power and contribute to stability

      4. Hope in Democratic Government

        1. In Germany in 1923 communists momentarily entered provincial governments and in November a nobody named Adolf Hitler proclaimed a “national socialist revolution” but Hitler’s plot to seize control of the government was poorly organized and easily crushed, and Hitler was sentenced to prison (wrote My Struggle in prison)

        2. Throughout the 1920s, Hitler’s National Socialist party attracted support only from few anti-Semites, ultranationalists, and disgruntled ex-servicemen; democracy seemed to take root in Weimar Germany, new currency, and economy boomed

        3. The moderate businessmen who tended to dominate the various German coalition governments were convinced that economic prosperity demanded good relations with the Western powers and supported parliamentary government at home

        4. Although elections were held regularly, there were political divisions in the country

          1. Many nationalists and monarchists populated the right and the army; Germany’s Communists were active on the right and the Communist, directed from Moscow, reserved their greatest hatred for the Social Democrats (betrayed revolution)

          2. The working class were divided politically, but most supported the nonrevolutionary but socialist Social Democrats (similar to France’s situation)

          3. In France, Communists and Socialists battled for the support of the workers and after 1924 the democratically elected government rested in the hands of coalitions of moderates, and business interests were well represented

          4. The expenses, however, led to a large deficit and substantial inflation; Poincare was recalled to office, while Briand remained minister for foreign affairs

          5. The Poincare government proceeded to slash spending and raise taxes, restoring confidence in economy; franc was “saved” and good times prevailed until 1930

        5. Despite political shortcomings, France attracted artists and writers from all over the world in the 1920s (much of intellectual and artistic ferment flourished in Paris); France appealed to foreigners and the French as a harmonious combination of small businesses and family farms, of bold innovation and solid traditions

        6. Britain faced challenges after 1920; wartime trend toward greater social equality continued helping maintain social harmony but the great problem was unemployment

          1. In June 1921, 23 percent of the labor force were out of work and throughout the 1920s unemployment hovered at around 12 percent; the state provided unemployment benefits of equal size to all those without jobs and supplemented those payments with subsidized housing, medical aid, and old-age pensions

          2. Relative social harmony was accompanied by the rise of the Labour party as the determined champion of the working classes and of greater social equality

          3. Committed to the kind of moderate, “revisionist” socialism, the Labour party replaced the Liberal party as the main opposition to the Conservatives

          4. The prominence of the Labour party reflected the decline of old liberal ideals of competitive capitalism, limited government control, and individual responsibility

        7. In 1924 and 1929, the Labour party under Ramsay MacDonald governed the country with the support of the smaller Liberal party yet Labour moved toward socialism gradually and democratically, as the working classes won new benefits

        8. The Conservatives under Stanley Baldwin showed the same compromising spirit on social issues and social unrest in Britain was limited in the 1920s and 1930s; In 1922 Britain granted southern, Catholic Ireland full autonomy after bitter guerrilla war, thereby removing an other source of prewar friction (cautious optimism in late 1920s)

    2. The Great Depression 1929-1939

      1. The Economic Crisis

        1. Though economic activity was declining in many countries by 1929, the crash of the stock market in the United States in October of that year started the Great Depression

          1. The American stock market boom had seen stock prices double between early 1928 and September 1929, was built on borrowed money

          2. Many investors and speculators had bought stocks by paying only a small fraction of the total purchase price and borrowing the remainder from stock brokers

          3. Such buying “on margin” was dangerous as when prices started falling, the margin buyers either had to put up more money to sell shares to pay off brokers

          4. As thousands of people started selling all at once, the result was a financial panic

        2. The general economic consequences were swift and severe; battered investors and citizens started buying fewer goods and production began to slow down and unemployment began to rise (the American economy was caught in spiraling decline)

        3. The financial panic in the United States triggered a worldwide financial crisis and that crisis resulted in a drastic decline in production in country after country

          1. Throughout the 1920s, American bankers and investors had lent large amounts of capital not only to Germany but also to many other countries and once panic broke, New York bankers began recalling them (gold reserves to United States)

          2. It became very hard for European business people to borrow money and the panicky public began to withdraw its savings from the banks; these banking problems eventually led to the crash of the largest bank in Austria in 1931

          3. The recall of private loans by American bankers accelerated the collapse in world prices, as business people around the world dumped industrial goods and agricultural commodities in a frantic attempt to get cash to pay what they owed

        4. The financial crisis led to a general crisis of production: between 1929 and 1933, world output of goods fell by an estimated 38 percent (every country turned to itself)

        5. In 1931, Britain went off the gold standard, refusing to convert bank notes into gold, and reduced the value of its money; Britain’s goal was to make its good cheaper and more salable in the world market but because more than twenty nations including the U.S. in 1934 also went off the gold standard, no country gained a real advantage

        6. Country after country followed the example of the United States when it raised protective tariffs to their highest levels ever in 1930 trying to seal off national markets

        7. Two factors probably best explain the relentless slide from 1929 to early 1933

          1. The international economy lacked a leadership able to maintain stability when the crisis came; the unites States cut back its international lending and erected tariffs

          2. Poor national economic policy in almost every country existed; government generally cut their budgets and reduced spending when they should have run large deficits in attempt to stimulate economies (Since World War II, such a “counter-cyclical policy” advocated by Keynes became a good weapon against depression)

      2. Mass Unemployment

        1. The need for large-scale government spending was tied to mass unemployment; as the financial crisis led to cuts in production, workers lost their jobs and purchased less

        2. In Britain between 1930 and 1935, an average of 18 percent of the workers were unemployed while in 1932, unemployment soared to about 33 percent of the entire labor force in the United States (fourteen million people were out of work)

        3. Only by pumping new money into the economy could the government increase demand and break the vicious cycle of decline; along with economic effects, mass unemployment posed a great social problem that mere numbers cannot express

          1. Millions of people lost their spirit and dignity in an apparently hopeless search for work; homes and ways of life were disrupted in millions of personal tragedies

          2. People postponed marriages they could not afford, and birthrates fell sharply; there was an increase in suicide and mental illness; poverty became a reality

        4. Mass unemployment was a terrible time bomb preparing to explode

      3. The New Deal in the United States

        1. Of all the major industrial countries, only Germany was harder hit by the Great Depression, or reacted more radically to its, than the United States

        2. The Great Depression and the response to it marked a major turning point in history

          1. President Herbert Hoover and his administration initially reacted to the stock market crash and economic decline with dogged optimism and limited action

          2. When the full force of the financial crisis struck Europe in summer of 1931 and boomeranged back to the United States, people’s worst fears became reality

          3. Banks failed, unemployment soared and industrial production fell 50 percent

          4. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (crippled by polio) won a landslide electoral victory with grand but vague promises of a “New Deal for the forgotten man”

        3. Roosevelt’s basic goal was to reform capitalism in order to preserve; Roosevelt rejected socialism and government ownership of industry in 1933 and to right the situation, he chose forceful government intervention in the economy

        4. Roosevelt and his advisers were greatly influenced by American experience in World War I as the American economy had been thoroughly planned and regulated; government adopted similar policies to restore prosperity and reduce social inequality

        5. Government intervention and experimentation were combined in the New Deal

          1. The most ambitious attempt to control and plan the economy was the National Recovery Administration (NRA) that was established by Congress

          2. The key idea was to reduce competition and fix prices and wages for everyone

          3. This goal required government, business, and labor to hammer out detailed regulations for each industry (sponsored public work projects assure recovery)

          4. By the time the NRA was declared unconstitutional in 1935, Roosevelt and the New Deal were already moving away from planning and controlling the economy

        6. Roosevelt and his advisers attack the key problem of mass unemployment; new agencies were created to undertake a vast range of public works projects

          1. The Works Progress Administration (set up in 1935) employed at its peak in late 1938, the government agency employed more than three million individuals

          2. The WPA was enormously popular in a nation long schooled in self-reliance; the hope of a job with the government helped check the threat of social revolution

          3. The U.S. government in 1935 established a national social security system, with old-age pensions and unemployment benefits to protect many workers

          4. The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 gave unions organizers the green light by declaring collective bargaining to be the policy of the United States

          5. Following some strikes (sit-down strike at GM) the union membership more than doubled between 1935 and 1940 and government rulings helped ordinary people

        7. The New Deal was only partly successful as a response to the Great Depression; the economic situation then worsened seriously in the recession of 1937 and 1938, production fell sharply, and unemployment was still ten million in September 1939

        8. The New Deal never did pull the United States out of the depression; many argue the New Deal did not put enough money into the economy through deficit financing and like his predecessors, Roosevelt was attached to the ideal of the balanced budget

      4. The Scandinavian Response to the Depression

        1. Of all the Western democracies, the Scandinavian countries under Socialist leadership responded most successfully to the challenge of the Great Depression

        2. Having grown in the late nineteenth century, the Socialists became the largest political party in Sweden and then in Norway after the First World War

        3. In the 1920s they passed important social reform legislation for both peasants and workers, gained practical administrative experience, and developed unique socialism

        4. Flexible and nonrevolutionary, Scandinavian socialism grew out of a strong tradition of cooperative community action (labor leaders and capitalists worked together)

        5. When the economic crisis struck in 1929, Socialists in Scandinavia built on pattern of cooperative social action and Sweden in particular pioneered in the use of large-scale deficits to finance public works and maintained production and employment

        6. Scandinavian governments also increased social welfare benefits, from old-age pensions and unemployment insurance to subsidized housing + maternity allowances

        7. All this spending required a large bureaucracy and high taxes, first on the rich and then practically everyone (private, cooperative enterprise, and democracy thrived)

      5. Recovery and Reform in Britain and France

        1. In Britain MacDonald’s Labour government and then, after 1931, the Conservative-dominated coalition government followed orthodox economic theory; budget was balanced, but unemployed workers received barely enough welfare to live

        2. For Britain, the years after 1932 were actually somewhat better than the 1920s had been, quite the opposite situation in the United States and France

        3. The performance reflected the gradual reorientation of the British economy

          1. After going off the gold standard in 1931 and establishing protective tariffs in 1932, Britain concentrated increasingly on the national market

          2. New industries, such as automobiles and electrical appliances, grew in response

          3. Low interest rates encouraged a housing boom and by the end of the decade, there were highly visible differences between the old industrial areas of the north and the new, growing areas of the south (encouraged Britain to look inward)

        4. Because France was relatively less industrialized and more isolated from the world economy, the Great Depression came late, but once it hit France, it stayed and stayed

          1. Economic stagnation both reflected and heightened an ongoing political crisis there were no stability in government and coalition cabinets formed and fell

          2. The French lost the underlying unity that had made government instability bearable before 1914; fascist-type organization agitated against parliamentary democracy and looked to Mussolini’s Italy and Hitler’s Germany for inspiration

          3. In February 1934 French fascists and semi-fascists rioted and threatened to overturn the republic; at the same time, the Communist party and workers opposed to the existing system were looking to Stalin’s Russia for guidance

        5. Frightened by the growing strength of the fascists at home and abroad, the Communists, the Socialists, and the Radicals formed an alliance—the Popular Front—for the national elections of May 1936 (victory reflected trend of polarization)

        6. Communists and Socialists increased their numbers while the moderate Radicals slipped and the conservatives lost ground to the semi-fascists

        7. Blum’s Popular Front government made the first and only attempt to deal with the social and economic problems of the 1930s in France; the Popular Front encouraged the union movement and launched a far-reaching program social reform, complete with paid vacations and a forty-hour workweek (inflation and cries of revolution)

        8. Wealthy people sneaked their money out of the country, labor unrest grew, and France entered a sever financial crisis; Blum forced to announce “breathing spell”

        9. The fires of political dissension were also fanned by civil war in Spain and communists demanded that France support the Spanish republicans, while many French conservatives would gladly have joined Hitler and Mussolini in aiding the attack of Spanish fascists (Blum was forced to resign in June 1937, the Popular Front quickly collapse and France was within sight of civil war)

    Chapter 29: Dictatorships and the Second World War

    1. Authoritarian States

      1. Conservative Authoritarianism

        1. The traditional form of antidemocratic government in European history was conservative authoritarianism (leaders of such governments tried to prevent major changes that would undermine the existing social order)

        2. Authoritarian leaders depended on obedient bureaucracies,vigilant police departments and trustworthy armies; liberals, democrats, and socialists prosecuted

        3. The old-fashioned authoritarian government were preoccupied with the goal of mere survival and limited their demands to taxes, army recruits, and passive acceptance

        4. The parliamentary regimes that had been founded on the wreckage of empires in 1918 fell one by one and by early 1938 only economically and socially advanced Czechoslovakia remained true to liberal political ideals

          1. The lands lacked a tradition of self-government, with restraint and compromise

          2. Many of these new states were torn by ethnic conflicts that threatened existence

          3. Dictatorship appealed to nationalists and military leaders as a way to repress such tensions and preserve national unity (middle class weak in Eastern Europe)

        5. Although some of the conservative authoritarian regimes adopted certain Hitlerian and fascist characteristics in the 1930s, their general aims were limited

          1. They were more concerned with maintaining the status quo then with forcing society into rapid change or war; this tradition has continued into our own time

          2. In Hungary, Bela Kun formed a Lenin-style government, but communism in Hungary was soon crushed by foreign troops, landowners, and hostile peasants

          3. A combination of landowners instituted a semi-authoritarian regime, which maintained the status quo in the 1920s; Hungary had a parliament with controlled elections and the peasants did not have the right to vote (landed aristocracy)

          4. In the 1930s the Hungarian government remained conservative and nationalistic and it was increasingly opposed by a Nazi-like fascist movement, the Arrow Cross, which demanded radical reform and mobilization of the masses

        6. Another example of conservative authoritarianism was newly independent Poland, where democratic government was overturned in 1926 when General Joseph Pilsudski established a military dictatorship; Pilsudski silenced opposition and tried to build a strong state (supporters were army, major industrialists, and nationalists)

        7. Yet another example of conservative authoritarianism was Portugal in western Europe

          1. Shaken by military coups and uprisings after a republican revolution in 1910, Portugal finally got a strong dictator in Antonio de Oliveira Salazar in 1932

          2. Salazar gave the church the strongest possible position in the country, while controlling the press and outlawing most political activity but there was no attempt to mobilize the masses or to accomplish great projects (tradition)

      2. Totalitarianism or Fascism?

        1. While conservative authoritarianism predominated smaller states of Europe by the mid-1930s, radical dictatorships emerged in the Soviet Union, Germany, and Italy

        2. Leaders of the radical dictatorships rejected parliamentary restraint and liberal values; they exercised unprecedented control over the masses and sought to mobilize them for constant action (three main approaches to understanding radical dictatorships)

          1. The first approach relates the radical dictatorships to the rise of modern total-itarianism and the second focuses on the idea of fascism as the unifying impulse

          2. The third stresses the limitations of such generalization and uniqueness of regime

        3. The concept of totalitarianism emerged in the 1920s and the 1930s and in 1924 Mussolini spoke of the “fierce totalitarian will” of his movement in Italy; in the 1930s many exiled writers used the concept of totalitarianism to link Italian and German fascism with Society communism under a common antiliberal umbrella

          1. Early writers believed that modern totalitarianism burst on the scene with the revolutionary total war effort of 1914 to 1918 (subordinate all institutions)

          2. As stated by French thinker Halevy, the varieties of modern totalitarian tyranny—fascism, Nazism, and communism—are related with the nature of modern war

          3. Writers such as Halevy believed that the crucial experience of WW I was carried further by Lenin and the Bolsheviks during the Russian civil war; Lenin showed how a dedicated minority could make a total effort and achieve victory

          4. Lenin showed how institutions and human rights are subordinated to the needs of a single group and its leader and provided a model for single-party dictatorship

          5. Modern totalitarianism reached maturity in the 1930s in the Stalinist U.S.S.R. and Nazi Germany, according to this school of interpretation

        4. The grandiose vision of total state control broke decisively not only with conservative authoritarianism but also with nineteenth-century liberalism and democracy; indeed, totalitarianism was a radical revolt against liberalism as classical liberalism had sought to limit the power of the state and to protect the sacred rights of the people

        5. Liberals stood for rationality, peaceful progress, economic freedom, and a strong middle class and the totalitarianism believed in will power, preached conflict, and worshiped violence (individual was infinitely less valuable than the state)

        6. Modern totalitarianism was based not on an elite but on people who had become engaged in the political process, most notably through nationalism and socialism; real totalitarian states built on mass movements and possessed boundless dynamism

        7. Totalitarianism was in the end a permanent revolution, anunfinished revolution, in which rapid, profound change imposed from on high went on forever (Trotsky)

        8. A second group of writers approached radical dictatorships outside the Soviet Union through the concept of fascism; a term of pride for Mussolini and Hitler, who used it to describe the supposedly “total” and revolutionary character of their movements, fascism was severely criticized by these writers

          1. Fascism was linked to reactionary forces, decaying capitalism and domestic class conflict and Marxists argued that fascism was the way powerful capitalists sought to manipulate a mass movement capable of destroying the revolutionary working class and thus protect eh profits to be reaped through war and territorial expansion

          2. Less doctrinaire socialists saw fascism as only one of the several possible ways for the ruling class to escape from a general crisis of capitalism

          3. Fascist movements all across Europe showed that they shared many characteristics, including extreme, often expansionist nationalism; an antisocialism aimed at destroying working-class movements; alliances with capitalists and landowners; mass parties appealing to the middle class and peasantry; a dynamic and violent leader, and glorification of war and the military

          4. European fascism remains a product of class conflict, capitalist crisis, and postwar upheaval in these more recent studies but interpretation has become convincing

        9. Historians often adopt a third approach which emphasizes the uniqueness of developments in a country (challenge interpretations of totalitarianism and fascism)

        10. Four tentative judgments concerning these debates seem appropriate

          1. Leading schools of interpretation are rather closely linked to the political passions and the ideological commitments of the age (some liked totalitarian framework)

          2. The concept of totalitarianism retains real value (Germany and Soviet Union made an unprecedented “total claim” on the belief and behavior of their citizens

          3. Antidemocratic, antisocialist movements sprang up all over Europe but only in Italy and Germany (and some would say Spain) were they able to take power

          4. The problem of Europe’s radical dictatorships is complex few easy answers exist

    2. Stalin’s Soviet Union

      1. From Lenin to Stalin

        1. By the spring 1921 after Lenin and the Bolsheviks had won the civil war, in southern Russia drought combined with the ravages of war to produce one of the worst famines; the Bolsheviks had destroyed the economy as well as their foes

        2. In the face of economic disintegration, riots by peasants and workers, and an open rebellion by previously pro-Bolsheviks sailors at Kronstadt changed Lenin’s course

          1. In March 1921 Lenin announced the New Economic Plan, which re-established limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry

          2. With the NEP, Lenin substituted a grain tax on the country’s peasants producers, who were permitted to sell their surpluses in free markets; peasants were encouraged to buy as many goods as they could afford from private traders

          3. Heavy industry, railroads, and banks, however, remained wholly nationalized

        3. The NEP was shrewd and successful both politically and economically

          1. It was a necessary but temporary compromise with the Soviet Union’ peasantry

          2. Flushed with victory after the revolutionary gains of 1917, the peasants would have fought to hold onto their land (Lenin realized that in 1921, his government was not strong enough to take land from the peasants) Brest-Litovsk Treaty

          3. The NEP brought rapid recovery and in 1926 industrial output surpassed levels of 1913 and Soviet peasants were producing almost as much grain as before the war

          4. Counting shorter hours and increased social benefits, workers were living better than they had lived in the past (as the economy recovered and the government relaxed its censorship and repression, intense struggle for power began within the Communist party between stolid Stalin and the flamboyant Trotsky (after 1924)

        4. Joseph Dzhugashvili, later known as Stalin, joined the Bolsheviks in 1903 and after engaging in many revolutionary activities in the southern Transcaucasian area during the WW I, including a daring bank robbery to get money for the Bolsheviks

        5. This raid gained Lenin’s attention and approval; Stalin in his early writings focused on the oppression of minority peoples in the Russian Empire (good organizer)

          1. Trotsky, a great and inspiring leader who had planned the 1917 takeover and then created the victorious Red Army, appeared to have all the advantages

          2. Stalin succeeded Lenin because Stalin was more effective at gaining the all-important support of the party, the only genuine source of power in the state

          3. Rising to general secretary of the party’s Central Committee just before Lenin’s first stroke in 1922, Stalin used his office to win friends and allies with jobs and promises and Stalin also won recognition as commissar of nationalities, a key position in which he governed many of the minorities of the vast Soviet Union

        6. The “practical” Stalin also won because he appeared better able than the brilliant Trotsky to relate Marxian teaching to Soviet realities in the 1920s

          1. As commissar of nationalities he built on Lenin’s idea of granting minority groups a certain degree of freedom in culture and language while maintaining rigorous political control through carefully selected local communists (multinational state)

          2. Stalin developed a theory of “socialism in one country” that more appealing to the majority of communists than Trotsky’s doctrine of “permanent revolution”

          3. Stalin argued that the Russian-dominated Soviet Union had the ability to build socialism on its own while Trotsky maintained that socialism in the Soviet Union could succeed only if revolution occurred quickly throughout Europe

          4. Trotsky’s views seemed to sell their country short and to promise risky conflicts with capitalist countries by recklessly encouraging revolutionary movements

          5. Stalin’s willingness to break with the NEP and push socialism at home appealed to young militants (provided the party with a glimmer of hope against NEP)

        7. Stalin achieved absolute power between 1922 and 1927

          1. First, Stalin allied with Trotsky’s personal enemies to crush Trotsky, expelled from the Soviet Union in 1929 and eventually murdered in Mexico in 1940

          2. Stalin aligned with the moderates, who wanted to go slow at home, to suppress Trotsky’s radical followers and third, having defeated all the radicals, he turned against his allies, the moderates, and destroyed them as well

          3. Stalin’s final triumph came at the party congress of December 1927, which condemned all “deviation from the general party line” formulated by Stalin

      2. The Five-Year Plans

        1. The party congress of 1927, which ratified Stalin’s seizure of power, marked the end of the NEP and the beginning of the era of socialist five-year plans; the first five-year plan had staggering economic objectives (total industrial output increases by 250%)

          1. Heavy industry, the preferred sector, was to grow even faster (steel production)

          2. Agricultural production was slated to increase by 150 percent and one-fifth of the peasants in the Soviet Union were scheduled to give up private plots and join socialist collective farms (by 1930 economic and social change swept the country)

        2. Stalin unleashed his “second revolution” for a variety of interrelated reasons

          1. There were ideological considerations and since the country had recovered economically and their rule was secure, they burned to stamp out the NEP’s private traders, independent artisans, and few well-to-do peasants

          2. A new socialist offensive seemed necessary if the economy were to grow rapidly

          3. There were political considerations and internationally, there was the old problem of catching up with the advanced and capitalist nations of the West

          4. Domestically, there was what communist writers of the 1920s called the “cursed problem”—the problem of the peasants; for centuries, the peasantry had wanted to own the land and finally they had it and sooner or later, the communists reasoned that peasants would become conservative capitalists and pose a threat to regime

          5. Therefore, Stalin decided on a preventive war against the peasantry (absolutism)

        3. The war was collectivization—the forcible consolidation of individual peasants farms into large, state-controlled enterprises and beginning in 1929, peasants all over the Soviet Union were ordered to give up their land and join these collective farms

        4. As for the kulaks, the better-off peasants, Stalin instructed party workers to “liquidate them as a class” and stripped of land, the kulaks were generally not permitted to join the collective farms and many starved or were deported to forced-labor camps; the term kulak soon meant any peasant who opposed the new system

        5. Forced collectivization of the peasants led to economic and human disaster

          1. Large numbers of peasants slaughtered their animals and burned their cops in sullen, hopeless protest, and between 1929 and 1933, the number of livestock fell by at least half; nor were the state-controlled collective farms more productive

          2. The output of grain barely increased between 1928 and 1938 (identical to 1913)

          3. Communist economists had expected collectivized agriculture to pay for new factories but instead, the state had to invest heavily in agriculture and was unable to make any substantial financial contribute to industrial development at first

          4. Collectivization created human-made famine in 1932 and 1933 (many perished)

        6. Collectivization was a political victory of sorts for the Soviet Union government

          1. Regimented and indoctrinated as employees of the all-powerful state, the peasants were no longer even a potential political threat to Stalin and the Communist party

          2. The state was assured of grain for bread for urban workers, who were much more important politically than the peasants (collective farmers had to meet quotas)

        7. The industrial side of the five-year plans was more successful—quite spectacular

          1. The output of industry doubled in the first five-year plan and doubled in the second; No other major country had ever achieved such rapid industrial growth

          2. Heavy industry led the way, consumer industry grew slowly, and steel production (Stalin means “man of steel”) increased roughly 500 percent from 1928 to 1937

        8. Industrial growth also went hand in hand with urban development and more than twenty-five million people migrated to cities during the 1930s in the Soviet Union

          1. The great industrialization drive was achieved at enormous sacrifice and the creation of new factories required a great increase in total investment and a sharp decrease in consumption (few nations had ever invested more than one-sixth of their net national income); Soviet planners decreed more than one-third of the net income be devoted and that meant money being collect by hidden sales taxes

          2. There was therefore no improvement in average standard of living and average wages apparently purchases only about half as many goods in 1932 as in 1928

        9. Two other factors contributed to rapid growth: labor discipline and foreign engineers

          1. Between 1930 and 1932, trade unions lost most of their power and the government could assign workers to any job and individuals could not move

          2. Foreign engineers were hired to plan and construct many of the new factories and highly skilled American engineers were particularly important until newly trained Soviet experts began to replace them after 1932 (surge of socialist industry)

      3. Life in Stalinist Society

        1. The aim of Stalin’s five-year plans was to create a new kind of society and human personality as well as a strong industrial economy and a powerful army for the state

        2. Once everything was owned by the state, they believed, a socialist society and a new kind of human being would inevitably emerge and this had both good and bad aspects

          1. The most frightening aspect of society was brutal, unrestrained police terrorism; first directed against the peasants after 1929, terror was increasingly turned on leading Communists, powerful administrators, and ordinary people for no reason

          2. In the early 1930s, the top members of the party and government were Stalin’s obedient servants but there was some grumbling in the party

          3. After Stalin’s wife complained at a small gathering in November 1932, she died that same night, apparently by her own hand and in late 1934 Stalin’s number-two man, Sergei Kirov, was suddenly and mysteriously murdered

          4. In August 1936, sixteen prominent old Bolsheviks confessed to all manner of plots against Stalin in spectacular public trials in Moscow and then in 1937 lesser party officials and newer henchmen were arrested; in addition to party members, union officials, managers, intellectuals, army officers, and citizens were struck

          5. In all, at least eight million people were probably arrested

        3. Stalin’s mass purges were baffling and many explanations have been given for them

          1. Possibly Stalin believed that the old Communists, like the peasants under NEP, were a potential threat to be wiped out in a preventative attack

          2. Many leading Communists confessed to the crimes probably “in order to do a last service to the Party,” the party they loved even when it was wrong

          3. Some prisoners were cruelly tortured and warned that their loved ones would also die if they did not confess (Stalin’s bloodbath weakened the government/army)

          4. Others see the terror as an aspect of the fully developed totalitarian state, which must by its nature always be fighting real or imaginary enemies (message)

        4. Another aspect of life in the 1930s was constant propaganda and indoctrination

          1. Party activists lectured workers in factories and peasants on collective farms, while newspapers, films, and radio broadcasts endlessly recounted achievements

          2. Art and literature became highly political (“engineers of human minds”)

          3. Writers who could effectively combine creativity and political propaganda often lived better than top members of the political elite (glorified Russian nationalism)

          4. Stalin seldom appeared in public, but his presence was everywhere and although the government persecuted religion and turned churches into “museums of atheism,” the state had both Marxism-Leninism and Joseph Stalin

        5. Life was hard in Stalin’s Soviet Union and mass of people lived primarily on black bread and wore old, shabby clothing (constant shortages in the stores and in housing)

        6. A relatively lucky family received one room for all its members and shared both a kitchen and a toilet with others on the same floor as that family (average 4 per room)

        7. Idealism and ideology had real appeal for many communists, who saw themselves heroically building the world’s first socialist society while capitalism crumbled

        8. On a more practical level, Soviet workers did receive some important social benefits, such as old-age pensions, free medical services, free education and day-care centers

        9. The keys to improving one’s position were specialized skills and technical education

          1. Industrialization required massive numbers of train experts, such as skilled workers, engineers and plant managers (state provided tremendous incentives)

          2. The technical elite joined with the political and artistic elites in a new upper class, who members were rich, powerful, and insecure, especially during the purges

          3. Yet the possible gains of moving up outweighed the risks of the purges

      4. Mobilizing Women in the Soviet Union

        1. Marxists had traditionally believed that both capitalism and the middle-class husband exploited women and the Russian Revolution of 1917 immediately proclaimed complete equality of rights for women (in the 1920s divorce and abortion available)

        2. Women were encouraged to work outside the home and liberate themselves sexually

        3. After Stalin came to power, sexual and familial liberation was played down and the most lasting changes for women involved work and education

          1. Young women were constantly told that they had to be fully equal to men, that they could and should do anything men could do (peasant women enjoyed equality on collective farms with the advent of the five-year plans)

          2. Most of the opportunities open to men through education were also open to women and determined women pursued their studies and entered the ranks of the better-paid specialists in industry and science (medicine became women’s job)

          3. Stalinist society gave women great opportunities but demanded great sacrifices

        4. The vast majority of women simply had to work outside because wages were so low that its was almost impossible for a family to live only on the husband’s wages

        5. Most of the Soviet men in the 1930s still considered the home and the children the woman’s responsibility (men continued to monopolize the best jobs)

    3. Mussolini and Fascism in Italy

      1. The Seizure of Power

        1. In the early twentieth century Italy was a liberal state with civil rights and a constitutional monarchy and on the eve of WW I, the parliamentary regime finally granted universal male suffrage but serious problems existed in Italy

          1. Much of the Italian population was still poor and many peasants were more attached to their villages and local interests than to the national state

          2. The papacy, many devout Catholics, conservatives, and landowners remained strongly opposed to liberal institutions and to the heirs of Cavour and Garibaldi, the middle-class lawyers and politicians who ran the country for their own benefit

          3. Class differences were also extreme and a revolutionary socialists movement developed and only in Italy did the radical left win go the Socialist party gain the leadership as early as 1912 (Socialists party from Italy opposed war in beginning)

        2. The war worsened the political situation (having fought on the side of the Allies for purposes of territorial expansions, the parliamentary government bitterly disappointed Italian nationalists with Italy’s modest gains at Versailles; no social and land reform)

          1. The Russian Revolution inspired and energized Italy’s revolutionary socialist movement and the radical workers and peasants began occupying factories and seizing land in 1920, scaring and mobilizing the property-owning class

          2. After the war, the pope lifted his ban on participation by Catholics in Italian politics and a strong Catholic party quickly emerged and thus by 1921 revolutionary socialists, antiliberal conservatives, and property owners were all opposed—through for different reason—to the liberal parliamentary government

        3. Into the crosscurrents of unrest and fear stepped Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)

          1. Influenced by antidemocratic cults of violent action, the young Mussolini urged that Italy join the Allies, or which he was expelled from the Socialist party

          2. Returning home after being wounded at the front in 1917, Mussolini began organizing bitter war veterans into a band of fascists (“a union of forces”)

          3. Mussolini’s program was a radical combination of nationalists and socialists demands, including territorial expansion, benefits for workers, and land reform

          4. It competed directly with the well-organized Socialist party and failed to get off; when Mussolini saw that his violent verbal assaults on rival Socialists won him growing support from conservatives and middle classes, he shifted gears in 1920

        4. Mussolini and his growing private army of Clack Shirts began to grow violent; typically fascists would sweep down on a few isolated Socialist organizers but soon socialist newspapers, union halls and local Socialist headquarters were destroyed

        5. Mussolini’s toughs pushed Socialists out of the city governments of northern Italy

        6. Mussolini allowed his followers to convince themselves that they were not just opposing the “reds” but also making a real revolution of their own (dynamic)

        7. With the government breaking down in 1922, Mussolini stepped forward as the savior of order and property and striking a conservative note in his speeches and gaining the sympathetic neutrality of army leaders, Mussolini demanded the resignation of the existing government and his own appointment by the king

        8. Victor Emmanuel II asked Mussolini to form a new cabinet, Mussolini seized power “legally” and was granted dictatorial authority for one year by king and parliament

      2. The Regime in Action

        1. Mussolini became dictator on the strength of Italians’ rejection of parliamentary government coupled with fears of Soviet-style revolution (power not clear until 1924) Some of his dedicated supports pressed for a “second revolution” but Mussolini’s ministers included conservatives, moderates, and reform-minded Socialists

        2. A new electoral law was passed giving two-thirds of the representatives in the parliament to the party that won the most votes, a change that allowed the Fascists and their allies to win an overwhelming majority in the elections of 1924

        3. Shortly after, five of Mussolini’s fascist kidnapped and murdered Giacomo Matteotti, the leader of the Socialists in the parliament (opposition demanded violence cease)

        4. Declaring his desire to make the nation Fascist, he imposed a series of repressive measures; freedom of the press was abolished, elections were fixed, and the government ruled by decrees (Mussolini arrested his political opponents) and moreover, he created a fascist youth movement, fascist labor unions/organizations

        5. By the end of 1926, Italy was a one-party dictatorship under Mussolini’s leadership but Mussolini did not complete the establishment of a modern totalitarian state

          1. His Fascist party never destroyed the old power structure, as the communists did in the Soviet Union, or succeeded in dominating it, as the Nazis did in Germany

          2. Interested primarily in personal power, Mussolini was content to compromise with the old conservative classes that controlled the army, the economy, and state

          3. Mussolini never tried to purge these classes and controlled and propagandized labor but left big business to regulate itself (no land reform occurred in Italy)

        6. Mussolini also drew increasing support from the Catholic church and in the Lateran Agreement of 1929, he recognized the Vatican as a tiny independent state and he agreed to give the church heavy financial support (pope urged Italians to support)

        7. Mussolini abolished divorce and told women to say at home and produce children and to promote that goal, he decreed a special tax on bachelors in 1934 and in 1938 women were limited by law to a maximum of 10 percent of the better-paying job in industry and government (no change in attitude toward Italian women under fascism)

        8. Mussolini’s government did not pass racial laws until 1938 and did not persecute Jews savagely until late in the Second World War, when Italy was under Nazi control

        9. Nor did Mussolini establish a ruthless state police (never a totalitarian government)

    4. Hitler and Nazism in Germany

      1. The Roots of Nazism

        1. Nazism grew out of many complex developments: extreme nationalism and racism; these two ideas captured the mind of the young Hitler who dominated Nazism

          1. Adolf Hitler was born in Austria but after dropping out of high school following the death of his father he left for Vienna to become an artist

          2. Denied admission to the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, the dejected Hitler stayed in Vienna and found many beliefs that guided his later life

          3. In Vienna Hitler soaked up extreme German nationalism (Austro-German nationalists believed Germans to be a superior people and natural rulers of central Europe; advocated union with Germany and expulsion of “inferior people”)

        2. Hitler was deeply impressed by Vienna’s mayor, Karl Lueger (“Christian socialist”)

          1. With the help of the Catholic trade unions, he had succeeded in winning the support of the little people of Vienna for an attack on capitalism and liberalism

          2. Lueger showed Hitler the potential of anti-capitalist and antiliberal propaganda

          3. From Lueger and others, Hitler absorbed virulent anti-Semitism, racism, and hatred of the Slavs (particularly inspired by racism of Lanz von Liebenfels)

          4. Liebenfels stressed the superiority of Germanic races, the inevitability of racial conflict, and the inferiority of the Jews (anticipated policies of the Nazi state)

        3. Anti-Semitism and racism became Hitler’s most passionate convictions; the Jews, he claimed, directed an international conspiracy of finance capitalism and Marxian socialism against German culture, German unity, and the German race

        4. After he moved to Munich in 1913 to avoid the draft, Hitler greeted the outbreak of the First World War as salvation and the struggle and discipline of war gave life meaning and Hitler served bravely as a dispatch carrier on the western front

        5. When Germany was suddenly defeated in 1918, Hitler’s world was shattered as war was his reason for living; convinced that Jews and Marxists had “stabbed Germany in the back,” he vowed to fight on and his speeches began to attract attention

          1. In later 1919 Hitler joined a tiny extremist group in Munich called the German Workers’ party and in addition to denouncing Jews, Marxists, and democrats, the German Workers’ party promised unity under a German “national socialism” which would abolish injustices of capitalism and create a “people’s community”

          2. By 1921 Hitler had gained absolute control of this small but growing party and Hitler was already a master of mass propaganda and political showmanship

          3. Hitler’s most effective tool was the mass rally, a kind of political revival meeting and when he arrived he would work the audience with attacks on the Versailles treaty, the Jews, the war profiteers, and Germany’s Weimar Republic

        6. Party membership multiplied tenfold after early 1922 and in late 1923 Hitler decided on an armed uprising in Munich; Hitler found an ally in General Ludendorff

        7. After Hitler had overthrown the Bavarian government, Ludendorff was supposed to march on Berlin with Hitler’s support but the plot was poorly organized and it was crushed by the police and back up by the army, in less than a day

        8. Hitler was arrested, tried, and sentenced to five years in prison

      2. Hitler’s Road to Power

        1. At his trial, Hitler violently denounced the Weimar Republic and skillfully presented his own program and in doing so, gained enormous publicity and attention; Hitler concluded that he had to undermine, rather than overthrow, the government, that he had to used its democratic framework to intimidate the opposition and come to power

          1. Hitler forced his more violent supporters to accept his new strategy and he used his brief prison term (released in less than a year) to dictate Mein Kampf

          2. There he expounded on his basic themes: “race,” with a stress on anti-Semitism; “living space,” with a sweeping vision of war and conquered territory; and the leader-dictator (Fuhrer) with unlimited, arbitrary power

        2. In the years of prosperity and relative stability between 1924 and 1929, Hitler concentrated on building his National Socialist German Workers’ party, or Nazi party

          1. By 1928 the party had 100,000 highly disciplined members under Hitler’s absolute control and to appeal to the middle classes, Hitler de-emphasized the anti-capitalist elements of national socialism and vowed to fight Bolshevism

          2. The Nazi were still a small group in 1928 and only received 2.6 percent of the vote in the general elections and twelve seats in the Reichstag (parliament)

          3. There the Nazi deputies pursued the legal strategy of using democracy to destroy democracy (Hitler’s talented future minister of propaganda, Joseph Goebbels)

        3. In 1929 the Great Depression began striking down economic prosperity as unemployment jumped from 1.3 million in 1929 to 5 million in 1930; industrial production fell by ½ between 1929 and 1932 (by 1932, 43 percent unemployed); No factor contributed more to Hitler’s success than the economic crisis (promises)

        4. Hitler pitched his speeches especially to the middle and lower middle class business people, office workers, artisans and peasants (left conservative/moderate parties)

        5. Simultaneously, Hitler worked hard to win the support of two key elite groups

          1. Hitler promised big business leaders that he would restore their depression-shattered profits, by breaking Germany’s labor movement even reducing wages

          2. He reassured top army leaders that the Nazis would overturn the Versailles settlement and rearm Germany (successfully followed Mussolini’s fascist recipe)

          3. Hitler won at least the tacit approval of powerful conservatives

        6. The Nazis appealed strongly to German youth (mass movement of young Germans)

          1. Hitler and most of his top aides were much younger than other leading German politicians (“National Socialism is the organized will of the youth”)

          2. National recovery, exciting and rapid change, and personal advancement: these were the appeals of Nazism to the millions and millions of German youth

        7. In the election of 1930, the Nazis won 6.5 million votes and 107 seats, which made them second in strength only to the Social Democrats, the moderate socialists; as economic and political situation deteriorated, Hitler and the Nazis kept promising that they would bring economy recovery/national unity (largest party in Reichstag 1932)

        8. Another reason Hitler came to power was breakdown of democratic government as early as May 1930; unable to gain support of a majority in the Reichstag, Chancellor Heinrich Bruning convinced the president General Hindenburg, to authorize rule by decree (before, only used in emergency but Bruning intended to use it indefinitely)

        9. Bruning was determined to overcome the economic crisis by cutting back government spending and forcing down prices and wages (intensified economic collapse and convinced lower middle classes that the republican country’s leaders were corrupt)

        10. After President Hindenburg forced Bruning to resign in May 1932, the new government, headed by Franz von Papen, continued to rule by decree

        11. The continuation of the struggle between the Social Democrats and Communists was another aspect of the breakdown of democratic government

          1. The Communists refused to cooperate with the Social Democrats even after the elections of 1932; German Communists were blinded by the hatred of Socialists and by ideology: the Communists believed that fascism was reactionary

          2. Hitler’s rise represented the last agonies of monopoly capitalism and that a communist revolution would soon follow his taking of power

          3. Socialist leaders pleaded for at least a temporary alliance with the Communists to block Hitler but to no avail and perhaps the Weimar Republic had gone too far

        12. Finally, there was Hitler’s skill as a politician and as a master of mass propaganda and psychology, he had written in Mein Kampf that the masses were the “driving force of the most important changes in this world” and were driven by fanaticism

        13. To arouse such hysterical fanaticism, he believed that all propaganda had to be limited to a few simple, endlessly repeated slogans (passionate, irrational oratory)

        14. At the same time, Hitler continued to excel at dirty, back-room politics and in the complicated in-fighting in 1932, he succeeded in gaining additional support from key people in army and big business (thought they could use Hitler for own advantage)

        15. There would be only two other National Socialists and nine solid conservatives as ministers, and in such a coalition government, they reasoned, Hitler could be used and controlled; on January 30, 1933, Hitler was appointed chancellor by Hindenburg

      3. The Nazi State and Society

        1. Hitler moved rapidly and skillfully to establish an unshakable dictatorship

          1. His first step was to continue using terror and threats to gain more power while maintaining legal appearances; he immediately called for new elections and applied the enormous power of the government to restrict his opponents

          2. In the midst of a violent electoral campaign, the Reichstag building was partly destroyed by fire and Hitler screamed that the Communist party was responsible

          3. On the strength of this accusation, he convinced President Hinenburg to sign dictatorial emergency acts that practically abolished the freedom of speech and assembly as well as most of the basic personal liberties

          4. When the Nazis won only 44 percent of the vote in the elections, Hitler quickly outlawed the Communist party and arrested its parliamentary representatives

        2. On March 23, 1933, the Nazis pushed through the Reichstag the so-called Enabling Act, which gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for four years (only Social Democrats voted against this bill, for Hitler blackmailed the Center Catholic party)

          1. Hitler and the Nazis moved to smash or control all independent organizations

          2. Hitler and his propagandists constantly proclaimed that their revolution was legal and constitutional and this stress on legality, coupled with divide-and-conquer techniques, disarmed the opposition until it was too late for effective resistance

          3. The systematic subjugation of independent organizations and the apparent creation of a totalitarian state had massive repercussions; the Social Democratic and Center parties were soon dissolved and Germany became a one-party state

          4. Only the Nazi party was legal, elections were shams, Hitler and the Nazis took over the government bureaucracy that was intact, and created a series of overlapping Nazi part organizations responsible solely to Hitler

          5. The resulting system of dual government was riddled with rivalries, contra-dictions, and inefficiencies; Nazi state lacked the all-compassing unity

        3. The fractured system suited Hitler as he could play the established bureaucracy against his personal “party government” and maintain his freedom of action

        4. In the economic sphere, on big decision outlawed strikes and abolished independent labor unions, which were replaced by the Nazi Labor Front

          1. Professional people—doctors, lawyers, teachers, engineers—saw their previously independent organizations swallowed up in Nazi organizations; publishing houses were put under Nazi control, and universities and writers were quickly controlled

          2. Democratic, socialist, and Jewish literature was put on ever-growing blacklists

          3. Modern art and architecture were prohibited and life became anti-intellectual

        5. Only the army retained independence, and Hitler moved brutally and skillfully to establish his control there, too; he realized that the army as well as big business was suspicious of the Nazi storm troops (SA), the quasi-military band of three million toughs in brown shirts who had fought communists and beaten up Jews

          1. The storm troopers expected top positions in the army and even talked of a “second revolution” against capitalism; Hitler decided that the SA leaders had to be eliminated and on the night of June 30, 1934, Hitler’s elite personal guard (SS) arrested and shot without trial a thousand SA leaders and political enemies

          2. Army leaders and President Hindenburg responded to the purge with congratulatory telegrams and shortly thereafter army leaders whore a binding oath

          3. The SS grew rapidly and under its methodical, inhuman leader, Heinrich Himmler, the SS joined with the political police, the Gestapo, to expand its network of special courts and concentration camps; no one was safe

        6. From the beginning, Jews were a special object of Nazi persecution and by the end of 1934, most Jewish lawyers, doctors, professors, civil servants, and musicians had lost their jobs and the right to practice their professions; in 1935 the infamous Nuremberg Laws classified as Jewish as anyone having at least one Jewish grandparent and deprived Jews of all rights of citizenship (by 1938 ¼ of Germany’s Jews had left)

        7. Following the assassination of a German diplomat in Paris by a young Jewish boy trying desperately to strike out at persecution, the attack on Jews accelerated

        8. A well-organized wave of violence destroyed homes, synagogues, and businesses, after which German Jews were rounded up and made to pay for the damage

        9. It became very difficult for Jews to leave Germany; many Germans went along or looked the other way reflecting strong popular support Hitler’s government enjoyed

      4. Hitler’s Popularity

        1. Hitler had promised the masses economic recovery—“work and bread”—and he did

          1. Breaking with Bruning’s do-nothing policies, Hitler immediately launched a large public works program to pull Germany out of the depression

          2. Work began on superhighways, offices, gigantic sports stadiums, and public housing; in 1936 Germany turned toward rearmament, and government spending began to concentrate on the military (unemployment dropped steadily)

          3. By 1938 there was a shortage of workers, and women eventually took many jobs previously denied them by the antifeminist Nazis (everyone had to work and between 1932 and 1938 standard of living for the worker increased moderately

          4. The profits of business rose sharply and economic recovery was tangible evidence in their daily lives that the excitement and dynamism of Nazi rule was positive

        2. For masses of ordinary German citizens, who were not Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, communists, or homosexuals, Hitler’s government meant greater equality and more opportunities (position of traditional German elites strong)

        3. Barriers between classes were generally high and Hitler’s rule introduced changes that lowered barriers (stiff educational requirements favoring well-to-do relaxed)

        4. The new Nazi elite included many young and poorly educated dropouts and Nazis tolerated privilege and wealth only as long as they served the needs of the party

        5. Millions of modest middle-class and lower-middle-class people felt that Germany was becoming more open and equal, as Nazi propagandists constantly claimed

        6. It is significant that the Nazis shared with the Italian fascists the stereotypic view of women as housewives and mothers (pressure of war mobilized German women)

        7. Hitler’s rapid nationalism continued to appeal to Germans after 1933 and since the wars against Napoleon, many Germans had believed in a special mission for them

        8. When Hitler went from one foreign triumph to another and a great German empire seemed within reach, the majority of the population was delighted

        9. Not all Germans supported Hitler, however, and a number of German groups actively resisted him after 1933 (tens of thousands of political enemies were imprisoned)

        10. Opponents of the Nazis pursued various goals and under totalitarian conditions they were never unified (communists and social democrats in the trade unions); after 1935, a second group do opponents arose in the Catholic and Protestant churches; finally in 1938, some high-ranking army officers plotted against him, unsuccessfully

    5. Nazi Expansion and the Second World War

      1. Aggression and Appeasement, 1933-1939

        1. When Hitler was weak, he righteously proclaimed that he intended to overturn the “unjust system” established by the treaties of Versailles and Locarno (legal means)

          1. As Hitler grew stronger and as other leaders showed willingness to compromise, he increased his demands and finally began attacking his independent neighbors

          2. Hitler realized that his aggressive policies had to be carefully camouflaged at first, for Germany’s army was limited by the Treaty of Versailles to only 100,00 men; conquest of living space in the East and its ruthless Germanization” had dangers

          3. To avoid such threats, Hitler loudly proclaimed his peaceful intentions to all

          4. Hitler still felt strong enough to walk out of a sixty-nation disarmament conference and withdrawn from the League of Nations in October of 1933

        2. Following the action, met with widespread approval at home, Hitler moved to incorporate independent Austria into a greater Germany; Austrian Nazis climaxed an attempted overthrow by murdering the Austrian chancellor in July 1934 but failed to take power because a worried Mussolini mass his troops and threatened to fight

        3. When in March 1935 Hitler established a general military draft and declared the “unequal” disarmament clauses of the Treaty of Versailles null and void, other countries appeared to understand the danger (France, Italy, Britain warned Germany)

          1. The emerging united front against Hitler quickly collapsed and of crucial importance, Britain adopted a policy of appeasement, granting Hitler everything he could reasonable want (and more) in order to avoid a war

          2. The first step was an Anglo-German naval agreement in June 1935 that broke Germany’s isolation and the second step came in March 1936 when Hitler suddenly marched his armies into the demilitarized Rhineland (violating treaties)

          3. Hitler had ordered his troops to retreat if France resisted militarily but an uncertain France would not move without British support and the occupation of German soil by German armies seemed right to Britain (psychological defeat)

          4. British appeasement, which practically dictated French policy, lasted far in 1939 and was motivated by British feelings of guilt toward Germany and the pacifism of a population still horrified by the memory of the First World War

          5. Many powerful conservatives in Britain underestimated Hitler and believed that Soviet communism was the real danger and that Hitler could be used to stop it

        4. The Soviet Union watched developments suspiciously as Hitler found powerful allies

          1. In 1935 Mussolini decided that imperial expansion was needed to revitalize Italian fascism and attacked the independent African kingdom of Ethiopia

          2. Western powers and the League of Nations condemned Italian aggression without saving Ethiopia from defeat and Hitler (secretly supplied Ethiopia) supported Italy energetically and thereby overcame Mussolini’s lingering doubts about the Nazis

          3. The result in 1936 was an agreement on close cooperation between Italy and Germany, the so-called Rome-Berlin Axis and Japan soon joined the Axis alliance

          4. Germany and Italy intervened in the long, complicated Spanish Civil War, where their support eventually helped General Francisco Franco’s fascist movement defeat republican Spain (Spain’s only official aid came from the U.S.S.R)

        5. In late 1937 while proclaiming peaceful intentions to the British and gullible prime minister, Neville Chamberlain, Hitler told his generals his real plans; his “unshakable decision” to crush Austria and Czechoslovakia at the earliest possible moment as the first step in his long-contemplated drive to the east for extra living space

          1. By threatening Austria with invasion, Hitler forced the Austrian chancellor in March 1938 to put local Nazis in control of the government and Austria became two more provinces of Greater Germany in March of 1938

          2. Hitler began demanding that the pro-Nazi, German-speaking minority of western Czechoslovakia—the Sudetenland—be turned over to Germany (but Czechoslovakia was prepared to defend as France had been it’s ally since 1924 and if France fought, the Soviet Union was pledge to help)

          3. In September 1938 negotiations to which the U.S.S.R. was not invited, Chamberlain and the French agreed with Hitler that the Sudetenland should be ceded to Germany and sold out by Western powers, Czechoslovakia gave in

        6. Confirmed once again in this opinion of the Western democracies as weak and racially degenerate, Hitler accelerate his aggression and in a violation of his assurances that Sudetenland was his last territorial demand, Hitler’s armies occupied the Czech lands in March 1939, while Slovakia became a puppet state

        7. When Hitler used the question of German minorities in Danzig as a pretext to confront Poland, a suddenly militant Chamberlain declared that Britain and France would fight if Hitler attacked his eastern neighbor (Hitler decided to press on)

        8. Hitler and Stalin signed a ten-year Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact in August 1939 whereby each dictator promised to remain neutral if the other became involved in war; an attached protocol divided eastern Europe into German and Soviet zones “in the event of a political territorial reorganization” (total secret protocol)

        9. Stalin had remained distrustful of Western intentions and on September 1, 1939, German armies and warplanes smashed into Poland from three sides

        10. Two days later, Britain and France, finally true to their word, declared war on Germany; the Second World War had begun

      2. Hitler’s Empire, 1939-1942

        1. Hitler’s armies crushed Poland in four weeks using ablitzkrieg or “lightning war”

          1. While the Soviet Union took the eastern half of Poland and the Baltic states of Lithuania, Estonia, and Latvia, French and British armies dug in in the west

          2. In Spring 1940 after occupying Denmark, Norway, and Holland, German columns broke through southern Belgium, split the Franco-British forces, and trapped the entire British army on the beaches of Dunkirk (lightning war struck again)

        2. France was taken by the Nazis and the marshal Henri-Philippe Petain formed a new French government (Vichy government) to accept the defeat and German armies occupied most of France (By July 1940 Italy was an ally and Soviet Union a neutral)

        3. Only Britain led by the uncompromising Winston Churchill remained unconquered and Churchill proved to be one of history’s greatest wartime leaders, rallying the British with stirring speeches, infectious confidence, and bulldog determination

          1. Germany sought to gain control of the air and the Battle of Britain, up to a thousand German planes attacked British airfields and key factories in a single day, dueling with British defenders high in the skies (heavy losses on both sides)

          2. Hitler changed his strategy in September and turned from military objectives to indiscriminate bombing of British cities in an attempt to break British morale

          3. British factories increased production of their excellent fighter planes, anti-aircraft defense improved with the help of radar and in September and October 1940, Britain was beating Germany three to one in air war (no possibility of invasion)

        4. The most reasonable German strategy would have been to attack Britain through the eastern Mediterranean, taking Egypt and the Suez Canal and pinching off Britain’s supply of oil and Mussolini’s defeats in Greece had drawn Hitler into the Balkans where Germany had conquered Greece and Yugoslavia while forcing Hungary, Rumania, and Bulgaria into alliances with Germany by April 1941

          1. By late 1940 Hitler decided on his next move and in June 1941 German armies suddenly attacked the Soviet Union along a vast front and Hitler’s decision was a wild, irrational gamble epitomizing the self-destructive ambitions of Nazism

          2. Faithfully fulfilling all obligations under the Nazi-Soviet pact and even ignoring warnings of impending invasion, Stalin was caught off guard

          3. By October 1941 Leningrad was practically surrounded but when a severe winter struck German armies, the invaders stopped as they wore summer uniforms

        5. Engaged in a general but undeclared war against China since 1937, Japan’s rulers had increasingly come into diplomatic conflict with the United States

          1. When the Japanese occupied French Indochina in July 1941, the United States retaliated by cutting off sales of oil products and tension mounted further and on December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii

          2. Hitler immediately declared war on the United State, without treaty obligations

          3. When Japanese forces advanced swiftly into Southeast Asia, Hitler and his European allies continued the two-front war against the Soviet Union and Great Britain and not until late 1942 did the Nazis suffer their first major defeats

        6. Hitler and the top Nazi leadership began building their “New Order” and they continued their efforts until their final collapse in 1945

          1. Hitler’s New Order was based on the guiding principle of Nazi totalitarianism: racial imperialism and Nordic peoples (Dutch, Norwegians, and Danes) received preferential treatment, for they were racially related to the Germans

          2. The French, an “inferior” Latin people, occupied the middle position and were heavily taxed to support the Nazi war effort but were tolerated as a race

          3. Once Nazi reverses began to mount in late 1942, all the occupied territories of western and northern Europe were exploited with increasing intensity

          4. Slavs in the conquered territories to the east were treated with harsh hatred as “sub-humans” and at the height of success in 1941 to 1942, Hitler planned for the Poles, Ukrainians, and Russian to be enslaved and forced to die out

          5. Himmler and the SS in parts of Poland arrested and evacuated Polish peasants to create a German “mass settlement space”; the Polish workers and Soviet prisoners of war were transported to Germany then systematically worked to death

          6. The conditions of Soviet slave labor in German were so harsh that four out of five Soviet prisoners did not survive the Second World War

        7. Jews were condemned to extermination, along with Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and captured communists (by 1939 German Jews had lost all their civil rights)

          1. In Poland, Jews from all over Europe were concentrated in ghettos, compelled to swear the Jewish star, and turned into slave laborers and by late 1941, Himmler’s SS began to carry out the final solution of the Jewish question” (Jews murdered)

          2. All over Hitler’s empire, Jews were systematically arrested, packed onto freight trains, and dispatched to extermination camps (concentration camps)

        8. At camps, the victims were taken by force or deception to “shower rooms,” which were actually gas chambers (first perfected in the execution of seventy thousand mentally ill Germans between 1938 and 1941) permitted rapid, hideous, and thoroughly bureaucratized mass murder (people choked to death on poison gas)

        9. Body parts were used and at Auschwitz-Birkenau, the most infamous of the Nazi death factories, as many as twelve thousand humans were slaughtered each day

        10. The extermination of European Jews was the ultimate monstrosity of Nazi racism and racial imperialism; by 1945, six million Jews had been murdered

      3. The Grand Alliance

        1. While the Nazis built their savage empire, the Allies faced the hard fact that change, rather than choice, had brought them together (only the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and Hitler’s immediate declaration of war had overwhelmed the isolation)

          1. The Allies overcame their mutual suspicions and built an unshakable alliance on the quicksand of accident; by means of three interrelated policies they succeeded

          2. President Roosevelt accepted Churchill’s contention that the United States should concentrate first on defeating Hitler and only after victory in Europe would the United States turn toward the Pacific for on all-out attack on Japan (lesser threat)

          3. America’s policy of “Europe first” helped solidify the anti-Hitler coalition

        2. Second, within the European framework the Americans and the British put immediate military needs first and avoided conflicts that might have split the alliance until after

        3. To further encourage mutual trust, the Allies adopted the principle of the “unconditional surrender “ of Germany and Japan (cemented the Grand Alliance because it denied Hitler any hope of dividing his foes; this also meant that victorious allies would come together to divide all of Germany, and most of the Continent

        4. The United State geared up rapidly for all-out war production and drew heavily on a generally cooperative Latin America for resources (50 billion dollars given total)

        5. Too strong to lose and too weak to win standing alone, Britain continued to make a great contribution and the economy was totally mobilized and the sharing of burdens through rationing and heavy taxes on war profits maintained social harmony

        6. As for the Soviet Union, in the face of German advance, whole factories an populations were successfully evacuated to eastern Russia and Siberia, war production was reorganized and expanded, and the Red Army was well supplied

        7. The United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union were aided by a growing resistance movement against the Nazis throughout Europe, even in Germany; after the U.S.S.R. was invaded in June 1941, communists throughout Europe took the lead in the under-ground resistance, joined by a growing number of patriots and Christians

      4. The Tide of Battle

        1. The Germans renewed their offensive against he Soviet Union in July 1942 and

          1. They drove toward the southern city of Stalingrad in attempt to cripple communications and seize crucial oil fields of Baku (occupied the ruined city)

          2. In November 1942, Soviet armies counterattacked, rolled over Rumanian and Italian troops, and surrounding the entire German Sixth Army of 300,000 men and by January 1943, only 123,000 soldiers were left to surrender (refused to retreat)

        2. In late 1942 the tide also turned in the Pacific and in North Africa and by late spring 1942, Japan had established a great empire in East Asia (appeals to local nationalists using propaganda and many preferred Japan’s Greater Asian Co-prosperity Sphere)

          1. In the Battle of Coral Sea in May 1942, Allied naval and air power stooped Japanese advance and also relived Australia from the threat of invasion; this victory was followed by the Battle of Midway island where American pilots sank all four attack aircraft carriers establishing American naval superiority in Pacific

          2. In August 1942 American marines attacked Guadalcanal in the Solomon islands (only 15 percent of Allied resources going to first war in Pacific) the Americans under General Douglas MacArthur and Admiral Chester Nimitz, and the Australians began “island hopping” toward Japan (Japanese forces on defensive)

        3. In May 1942 combined German and Italian armies under General Erwin Rommel attacked Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time but were finally defeated by British forces at the Battle of El Alamein (70 milers from Alexandria)

        4. In October the British counterattacked in Egypt and an Anglo-American force landed in Morocco and Algeria (French possessions went over to the side of the Allies)

        5. Having driven the Axis powers from North Africa by the spring of 1934, Allied forces maintained initiative by invading Sicily and then mainland Italy and Mussolini disposed, the new Italian government accepted unconditional surrender in September

        6. Germany applied itself to total war in 1942 (production tripled between 1942 and 1944) and British and American bomb raids killed many German citizens (no effect)

        7. After an unsuccessful attempt on Hitler’s life in July 1944, thousands of Germans were brutally liquidated by SS fanatics (Germans fought on suicidal stoicism)

        8. On June 6, 1944, American and British forces under General Dwight Eisenhower landed on the beaches of Normandy in history’s greatest naval invasion (tricked Germans into believing the attack would come near the Belgian border)

        9. In a hundred dramatic days, the 2.5 million men broke through German lines and Eisenhower moved forward cautiously on a broad front; not until March 1945 did American troops cross the Rhine River and enter Germany

        10. The Soviets reached the outskirts of Warsaw by August 1944 and in January 1945 Red armies moved westward through Poland and on April 26 met on the Elbe River

        11. As Soviet forces fought their way into Berlin, Hitler committed suicide in his bunker and on May 7, the remaining German commanders capitulated

        12. Three months later, the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, the Japanese surrendered, and WW II ended (50 million deaths)

    Chapter 30: Cold War Conflicts and Social Transformations, 1945-1985

    1. The Division of Europe

      1. The Originsof the Cold War

        1. The Soviet Union and the United States began to quarrel as soon as the threat of Germany disappeared and hostility between the Eastern and Western superpowers was a logical outgrowth of military developments, wartime agreements, and long-standing differences

        2. The Americans and British had made military victory their highest priority and avoided discussion of Stalin’s war aims and shape of the eventual peace settlement

          1. The United States and Britain did not try to take advantage of the Soviet Union’s position in 1942, because they feared that bargaining would encourage Stalin to consider making separate peace with Hitler (focused on unconditional surrender)

          2. The conference that Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill held in the Iranian capital of Teheran in November 1943 proved of crucial importance in determining events; the Big Three had reaffirmed determination to crush Germany and searched for military strategy

          3. Churchill fearing military dangers of a direct attack, argued that American and British forces should follow up their Italian campaign with an indirect attack on Germany through the Balkans but Roosevelt agreed with Stalin that an American-British frontal assault through France would be better (Roosevelt decides to appease Stalin)

          4. This meant that the Soviet and the American-British armies would come together in defeated Germany along a north-south line and that only Soviet troops would liberate eastern Europe (basic shape of postwar Europe was emerging already)

        3. When the Big Three met again in February 1945 at Yalta on the Black Sea in southern Russia, the Red Army had occupied Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, part of Yugoslavia, and much of Czechoslovakia while the American-British forces had yet to cross the Rhine into Germany; on the other hand, United States was far from defeating Japan

          1. After Yalta Germany was to be divided into zones of occupation and pay big reparations to Soviet Union and at American insistence, Stalin agreed to declare war on Japan

          2. Eastern European governments were to be freely elected but pro-Russian

          3. The Yalta compromise over eastern Europe broke down almost immediately and before the Yalta Conference, Bulgaria and Poland were controlled by communists

          4. Elsewhere, pro-Soviet “coalition” governments of several parties were formed, but the key ministerial posts were reserved for Moscow-trained communists

        4. At the postwar Potsdam Conference of July 1945, the differences over eastern Europe finally appeared; Roosevelt had died and been succeeded by the more determined President Truman, who demanded free elections throughout eastern Europe; but Stalin refused point-blank

        5. The key to the much-debated origins of the cold war was this conflict between countries

          1. American ideals, after uniting against Hitler, and American politics, influenced by millions of votes from eastern Europe, demanded free elections in the East

          2. Stalin wanted absolute military security from Germany & potential Eastern allies

          3. Stalin believed that only communists states could be truly dependable allies and realized elections would result in independent governments on his western border

      2. West Versus East

        1. The American response to Stalin’s conception of security was the “get tough”

          1. In May 1945, Truman cut off all aid to the U.S.S.R. and in October he declared that the United States would not recognize any government established by force

          2. In March 1946, former British prime minister Churchill ominously informed an American audience that an “iron curtain” had fallen across the continent

        2. Emotional, moralistic denunciations of Stalin and communist Russia emerged as part of American political life yet the United States also responded to the popular desire to “bring the boys home” and demobilized its troops with great speed

        3. Stalin’s agents reheated the “ideological struggle against capitalist imperialism”

        4. The large, well-organized Communist parties of France and Italy started to uncover “American plots” to take over Europe and challenged own governments

          1. The Soviet Union put pressure on Iran, Turkey, and Greece, while civil war raged in China; by 1947, Stalin appeared to be exporting communism by subversion

          2. The United States responded to this challenge with the Truman Doctrine, which was aimed at “containing” communism to areas already occupied by the Red Army; to begin, Truman asked Congress for military aid to Greece and Turkey, countries that Britain could not protect

          3. In June, Secretary of State George Marshall offered Europe economic aid—the Marshall Plan—to help much of Europe rebuild from the war to protect themselves from the U.S.S.R.

        5. Stalin refused Marshall Plan assistance for all of eastern Europe and purged the last remaining noncommunist elements from the coalition governments of eastern Europe

          1. The seizure of power in Czechoslovakia in February of 1948 was antidemocratic and it greatly strengthened Western fears of limitless communist expansion

          2. When Stalin blocked all traffic through the Soviet zone of Germany to Berlin, the former capital, divided into sectors at the end of the war, the Western allies acted firmly Hundreds of planes began flying over the Soviet roadblocks supplying provisions to the people of West Berlin and thwarting Soviet efforts to swallow up the people

          3. After 324 days, the Soviets backed down and in 1949, the United States formed an anti-Soviet military alliance of Western governments: the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) while Stalin united his hold on satellites in the Warsaw Pact

        6. In 1949, the communists triumphed in China and frightened and angered many Americans, who saw new evidence of a powerful worldwide communist conspiracy

          1. When the Russian-backed communist army of North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, President Truman acted swiftly and American-led United Nations forces under General Douglas MacArthur intervened and saved the South Koreans

          2. China suddenly entered the war and bitter, bloody contest seesawed and President Truman rejected General MacArthur’s call to attack China and fired him

          3. In 1953 a fragile truce was negotiated, and the fighting stopped and thus the U.S. extended its policy of containment to Asia but drew back from attack on China

        7. The rapid descent from victorious Grand Alliance to bitter cold war was directly connected to the tragic fate of eastern Europe (Started in 1933 under the Nazis)

          1. When the eastern European power invited Nazi racist imperialism, the appeasing Western democracies did nothing but still asked themselves could they united with Stalin to stop Hitler without giving Stalin great gains on his western borders (global confrontation)

          2. After Hitler’s invasion of Soviet Union, the Western powers preferred ignorance

        8. But later when Stalin began to claim the spoils of victory, the US began to protest and professed outrage; opposition possibly encouraged more aggressive measures by Stalin

        9. The Soviet-American confrontation became institutionalized and formed bedrock of the long cold war era, which lasted until the mid-1980s despite periods of relaxation

    2. The Western Renaissance, 1945-1968

      1. The Postwar Challenge

        1. After the war, economic conditions in western Europe were terrible as runaway inflation and black markets testified to sever shortages and hardships

        2. Suffering was most intense in defeated Germany and a major territorial change occurred as Poland was compensated for this loss to the Soviets with land taken

          1. 13 million Germans were driven from their homes and forced to resettle in a greatly reduced Germany; Russians were also seizing factories and equipment as reparations in their zone, even tearing up railroad tracks and sending the rails back

          2. Conditions in 1945 and 1946 in the Western zones were not much better as the Western allies also treated the German population with severity at first

          3. By spring of 1947, refugee-clogged, hungry, prostrate Germany was on the verge of total collapse and threatening to drag down the rest of Europe; all over Europe many people were willing to change and experiment with the German issue

        3. Progressive Catholics and revitalized Catholic political parties—the Christian Democrats—were particularly influential (emerged as party after the war in 1946)

          1. In Italy the Christian Democrats emerged as the leading party in the first postwar elections in 1946, and in early 1948 won an absolute majority in the parliament; their first leader was Alcide De Gasperi, an antifascist firmly committed to political democracy, economic reconstruction, and moderate social reform

          2. In France, the Catholic part also provided some of the best postwar leaders after January 1946, when General Charles de Gaulle, (wartime leader of the Free French) resigned after having re-established free and democratic Fourth Republic

          3. The purified Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) found new and able leadership among its Catholics and in 1949, Konrad Adenauer, the former mayor of Cologne and anti-Nazi, began his long, highly successful democratic rule

          4. The Christian Democrats were inspired and united by a common Christian and European heritage and rejected authoritarianism and narrow nationalism

        4. The socialists and the communists, active in resistance against Hitler, also emerged from the war with increased power and prestige, especially in France and Italy

          1. They provided fresh leadership and pushed for social change and economic reform; welfare measures such as family allowances, health insurance, and increased public housing were enacted throughout continental Europe

          2. Britain followed the same trend, as the newly elected socialist Labour party established a “welfare state” (industries were nationalized and government provided free medical service; social reform accompanied political transformation

        5. The United States supplied strong and creative leadership, proving western Europe with both massive economic aid and ongoing military protection; economic aid was channeled through Marshall Plan and military security was provided through NATO, which featured American troops stationed in Europe and American nuclear umbrella

        6. As Marshall Plan aid poured in, the battered economies of western Europe began to turn the corner in 1948 (period of rapid economic progress lasting until late 1960s)

          1. American aid helped the process of economic performance off to a fast start

          2. Economic growth became a basic objective of all western European governments, for leaders and voters were determined to avoid a return to the Great Depression

          3. In postwar West Germany, Minister of Economy Ludwig Erhard broke decisively with the straitjacketed Nazi economy and bet on the free-market economy while maintaining the extensive social welfare network inherited from the Hitler era

          4. Erhard’s first step was to reform the currency and abolish rationing and price controls in 1948; country’s success renewed respect for free-market capitalism

        7. The French innovation was a new kind of planning and under the guidance of Jean Monnet, an economic pragmatist and apostle of European unity, a planning commission set ambitious but flexible goals for the French economy and used the nationalized banks to funnel money into key industries (private economy)

        8. In most countries, there were many people ready to work hard for low wages and the hope of a better future; many consumer products had been invented or perfected; finally, European nations abandoned protectionism and gradually created a large unified market known as the “Common Market” (stimulated economy)

      2. Toward European Unity

        1. Western Europe’s political recovery was spectacular in the generation after 1945

          1. Republics were re-established in France, West Germany, and Italy; constitutional monarchs were restored in Belgium, Holland, and Norway

          2. Democratic governments, often within the framework of multiparty politics and shifting parliamentary coalitions, took root again and thrived; national self-determination was accompanied by civil liberties and individual freedoms

        2. A similarly extraordinary achievement was the march toward a united Europe

          1. The Christian Democrats, with their shared Catholic heritage, were particularly committed to “building Europe,” and other groups shared their dedication

          2. Many Europeans believed that only unity in a new “European nation” could reassert western Europe’s influence in world affairs

        3. The close cooperation among European states required by the Americans for Marshall Plan aid led to the creation of both the Organization of European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) and the Council of Europe in 1948; Britain consistently opposed giving any real sovereignty to the council and as well as nationalists and communists

        4. European federalists turned toward economics as a way of working toward unity

          1. Two French statesmen, the planner Jean Monnet and Foreign Minister Robert Schuman, took the lead in 1950 and called for a special international organization to control and integrate all European steel and coal production

          2. West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg accepted the French idea in 1952 but the British would have no part of the organization

          3. The immediate economic goal—a single steel and coal market without national tariffs or quotas—was rapidly realized and the political goal was to bind the six member nations so closely together economically that war among them would eventually become impossible

        5. In 1957 the six nations of the Coal and Steel Community signed the Treaty of Rome, which created the European Economic Community, known as the Common Market

          1. The first goal of the treaty was gradual reduction of all tariffs among the six in order to create a single market almost as large as that of the United States

          2. Other goals included the free movement of capital and labor and common economic policies and institutions (encouraged companies/regions to specialize)

        6. The development of the Common Market fired imaginations and encouraged hopes of rapid progress toward political as well as economic union but in the 1960s, these hopes were frustrated by a resurgence of more traditional nationalism

          1. Mired in a bitter colonial war in Algeria, the French turned in 1958 to General de Gaulle, who established the Fifth Republic and ruled as its president until 1969

          2. De Gaulle viewed the United States as the main threat to genuine French and European independence; he withdrew all French military forces from the “American-controlled” NATO, developed France’s own nuclear weapons, and vetoed the scheduled advent of majority rule within the Common Market

      3. Decolonization

        1. In the postwar era, Europe’s long-standing overseas expansion was radically reversed

          1. The most basic cause of imperial collapse, decolonization, was the rising demand of Asian and African peoples for national self-determination, racial equality, and personal dignity (demand spread from the intellectuals after the First World War)

          2. Colonial empires had already been shaken by 1939, and the way was prepared for the eventual triumph of independence movements

        2. European empires had been based on an enormous power differential between the rulers and the ruled, a difference that had greatly declined by 1945

          1. Imperial rulers had been driven from large parts of South Asia by the Japanese and in those areas Europeans now faced strong nationalist movements

          2. Empire had rested on self-confidence and self-righteousness; Europeans had believed their superiority to be not only technical and military but also morally

          3. The horrors of the Second World War gave opponents of imperialism much greater influence in Europe and many Europeans in 1945 had little taste for bloody colonial wars and wanted to concentrate on rebuilding at home

        3. India, Britain’s oldest, largest, and most lucrative nonwhite possession, played a key role in decolonization; Nationalists opposition to British rule united after WW I

          1. Under the leadership of British-educated lawyer Mohandas “Mahatma” Gandhi (1869-1948) one of the twentieth century’s most influential figures

          2. By the 1920s and 1930s Gandhi built a mass movement preaching nonviolent “noncooperation” with the British and in 1935, Gandhi wrested from the frustrated British a new constitution that was almost an independence

          3. When the Labour party came to power in Great Britain in 1945, it was ready to relinquish sovereignty as India had become a large financial burden to Britain

          4. The obstacle to India’s independence posed by conflict between India’s Hindu and Muslim populations were resolved in 1947 through the creation of two states, predominately Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan

        4. Chinese nationalism developed and triumphed in the framework of Marxist-Leninist ideology and in early 1920s, a broad alliance of nationalist forces within the Soviet-supported Kuomintang (National People’s party) was dedicated to unifying China

          1. In 1927 Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975), successor to Sun Yat-sen and leader of the Kuomintang, broke with his more radically communist allies headed by Mao Zedong and tried to destroy them and in 1931, to escape Kuomintang armies, Mao led his followers on an incredible 5000-mile march to remote northern China

          2. War could not force Mao and Chiang to cooperate and by late 1945, it had erupted into civil war; Stalin gave Mao some aid, and the Americans gave Chiang much more aid

          3. Winning the support of the peasantry by promising to expropriate the big landowners, better-organized communists forced the Nationalists to withdraw to Taiwan in 1949

          4. Mao and the communists united China’s 550 million inhabitants in a strong centralized state, expelled foreigners, and began building a new society along Soviet lines, with mass arrests, forced-labor camps, and ceaseless propaganda

          5. The peasantry was collectivized, and the inevitable five-year plans concentrated successfully on the expansion of heavy industry

        5. Most Asian countries followed the pattern of either India or China; in 1946 the Philippines achieved independence peacefully from the United States, Britain quickly granted Sri Lanka and Burma independence in 1948, but Indonesian nationalists had to beat attempts by Dutch to reconquer Dutch East Indies (sovereign state in 1949)

          1. The French tried their best to re-establish colonial rule in Indochina, but despite American aid, they were defeated in 1954 by forces under the communist and nationalist guerrilla leader Ho Chi Minh, supported by Soviet Union and China

          2. But Indochina was not unified and two independent Vietnamese states came into being, which led to civil war and subsequent intervention by the United States

        6. In Middle East, the movement toward political independence continued after WW II

          1. In 1944 the French gave up League of Nations mandates in Syria and Lebanon

          2. In the British-mandated Palestine, where after 1918 the British government established a Jewish homeland alongside the Arab population, violence and terrorism mounted on both sides (British decided to leave Palestine in 1947)

          3. Then United Nations voted in a nonbonding resolution to divide Palestine into two states—one Arab and on Jewish, which became Israel; the Jews accepted but Arabs did not and in 1948, they attacked the Jewish state after it was proclaimed

          4. The Israelis drove off the invaders and conquered more territory, as roughly 900,00 Arabs fled or were expelled; Holocaust survivors from Europe streamed into Israel, as Theodor Herzl’s Zionist dream came true (four more wars)

        7. The Arab defeat in 1948 triggered a powerful nationalist revolution in Egypt in 1952, where an army officer named Gamal Abdel Nasser drove out the pro-Western king

          1. In 1956 Nasser abruptly nationalized the foreign-owned Suez Canal Company, the last symbol and substance of Western power in the Middle East and infuriated, the British and the French along with the Israelis, invaded Egypt

          2. Americans joined with the Soviets in Egypt’s triumph (anti-Western nationalism)

          3. The failure of Britain and France to unseat Nasser in 1956 encouraged Arab nationalists in Algeria; the country’s large French population considered Algeria an integral part of France and continued to stay dominating the Arab majority

          4. In the end, General de Gaulle accepted the principle of Algerian self deter-mination and in 1962, after more than a century of French rule, Algeria was freed

        8. In much of Africa sough of the Sahara, decolonization proceeded much more smoothly and beginning in 1957, Britain’s colonies achieved independence with little or no bloodshed and then entered the association (British Commonwealth of Nations)

        9. In 1958 the clever de Gaulle offered the leaders of French black Africa the choice of a total break with France or immediate independence with a kind of French commonwealth (identified with French culture and wanted aid from France); many leaders saw Africa untapped markets for their industrial goods, raw materials for their factories, outlets for profitable investment, and good temporary jobs for people

        10. Western European countries actually managed to increase their economic and cultural ties with their former African colonies in the 1960s and 1970s (situation led many to charge that western Europe had imposed a system of neocolonialism, a system designed to perpetuate Western economic domination and undermine promise of political independence, thereby extending to Africa the economic subordination)

      4. America’s Civil Rights Revolution

        1. The Second World War cured the depression in the United States and brought about an economic boom and postwar America did experience a genuine social revolution

          1. After a long struggle, African Americans (and their white supporters) threw off a deeply entrenched system of segregation, discrimination, and repression

          2. Lawyers challenged school segregation and in 1954 won a landmark decision in the Supreme Court, which ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal”

          3. Blacks effectively challenged institutionalized inequality with bus boycotts, sit-ins, and demonstrations (civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr.)

        2. In key northern states, African Americans used their growing political power to gain the support of the liberal wing of the Democratic part and a liberal landslide victory in 1964 elected Lyndon Johnson president in 1964

        3. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination in public services and on job

        4. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 guaranteed all blacks the right to vote

        5. By the 1970s, substantial numbers of blacks had been elected to public and private office throughout southern states, proof positive that dramatic changes had occurred

        6. President Johnson also declared “unconditional war on poverty,” and Congress and the administration created a host of antipoverty programs intended to aid all poor Americans and bring great economic equality to America (welfare state)

    3. Soviet Eastern Europe, 1945-1968

      1. Stalin’s Last Years, 1945-1953

        1. Americans were not the only ones who felt betrayed by Stalin’s postwar actions; The “Great Patriotic War of the Fatherland” had fostered Russian nationalism and a relaxation of dictatorial terror (rare unity between Soviet rulers and Russian people)

        2. Having made a heroic war effort, the vast majority of the Soviet people hoped in 1945 that the government would grant greater freedom and democracy; hopes were crushed

          1. Even before the war ended, Stalin was moving his country back toward rigid dictatorship and by early 1946, Stalin was publicly singing the old tune that war was inevitable as long as capitalism (enemy in West provided excuse for control)

          2. Many returning soldiers and ordinary citizens were purged in 1945 and 1946, as Stalin revived the terrible forced-labor camps of the 1930s

          3. Culture and art were also purged in violent campaigns that reimposed rigid anti-Western ideological conformity; many artists were denounced and in 1949, Stalin launched a verbal attack on Soviet Jews accusing them of being pro-Western

        3. In the political realm, Stalin reasserted the Communist party’s complete control of the government and his absolute mastery of the party; five-year plans were reintroduced to cope with enormous task of economic reconstruction (heavy industry and military were given top priority, and consumer goods, housing, and agriculture neglected)

        4. Stalin’s prime postwar innovation was to export Stalinist system to countries of East Europe as the Communist parties ruled because of help from Red Army/secret police

        5. Rigid ideological indoctrination, attacks on religion, and a lack of civil liberties were soon facts of life; industry was nationalized, the middle class stripped of possessions

        6. Industrialization lurched forward without regard for human costs (collectivization)

        7. Only Josip Broz Tito, the resistance leader and Communist chief of Yugoslavia, was able to resist Soviet domination successfully (Tito stood up to Stalin in 1948)

        8. Yugoslavia prospered as a multiethnic state until it began to break apart in the 1980s and Tito’s proclamation of independence infuriated Stalin; popular Communists leaders who had led the resistance against Germany were purged as Stalin sought to create absolutely obedient instruments of domination in eastern Europe

      2. Reform and De-Stalinization, 1953-1964

        1. In 1953 Stalin finally died, and the dictatorship that he had built began to change

          1. Even as Stalin’s heirs struggled for power, they realized that reforms were necessary because of the widespread fear and hatred of Stalin’s political terrorism

          2. The power of the secret police was curbed, and many of the forced-labor camps were gradually closed; change was also necessary for economic reasons

          3. Moreover, Stalin’s belligerent foreign policy had directly led to a strong Western alliance, which isolated the Soviet Union from the rest of Western Europe

        2. On the question of just how much change should be permitted in order to preserve the system, the Communists leadership was badly split by these views on this problem

          1. Conservatives wanted to make as few changes as possible to the government

          2. Reformers, led by Nikita Khrushchev, argued for major innovations; Khrushchev had joined the party as a coal miner in 1918 and emerged as the new ruled in 1955

        3. To strengthen his position, Khrushchev launched an all-out attack on Stalin and his crimes at a closed session of the Twentieth Party Congress in 1956; Khrushchev’s “secret speech” was read at Communist party meetings throughout the country

        4. The liberalization—or de-Stalinization, called in the West—of Soviet Union was true

          1. The Communist party maintained its monopoly on political power, but Khrushchev shook up the party and brought in new members

          2. Some resources were shifted from the heavy industries and the military toward consumer goods and agriculture, and Stalinist controls over workers was relaxed

          3. The Soviet Union’s very low standard of living finally began to improve and continued to rise substantially throughout the booming 1960s

        5. De-Stalinization created writers and intellectuals who hungered for cultural freedom

          1. The poet Boris Pasternak finished Doctor Zhivago in 1956 which was a master-piece and a powerful challenge to communism; a pre-Revolutionary intellectual who triumphs in Stalinist years because of his humanity and Christian spirit

          2. Other talented writers followed Pasternak’s lead and editors let sparks fly

          3. The writer Aleksnadr Solzhenitsyn created a sensation when his One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich was published in the Soviet Union in 1962; his novel portrays in detail life in a Stalinist concentration camp (indictment of the past)

        6. Khrushchev also de-Stalinized foreign policy (peaceful coexistence with capitalism)

          1. Khrushchev made concessions agreeing in 1955 to real independence for a neutral Austria after ten long years of Allied occupation of cold war tensions

          2. Khrushchev began wooing the new nations of Asia and Africa (communist or not)

          3. De-Stalinization stimulated rebelliousness in the eastern European satellites and communist reformers and the masses were quickly emboldened to seek much great liberty and national independence (Poland took the lead in 1956)

        7. Hungary experienced a real and tragic revolution, led by students and workers, the people of Budapest installed a liberal communist reformer as their new chief in 1956; Soviet troops were forced to leave the country but after the new governments promised free elections and renounced Hungary’s military alliance with Moscow, the Russian leaders ordered an invasion and crushed the national/democratic revolution

        8. The Hungarians hoped that the United States would come to their aid but when this did nor occur, most people in eastern Europe concluded that their only hope was to strive for small domestic gains while following Russia obediently in foreign affairs

      3. The End of Reform

        1. By late 1962, opposition in party circles to Khrushchev’s policies was strong and in 1964, Khrushchev fell in a bloodless palace revolution; Under Leonid Brezhnev, the Soviet Union began a period of stagnation and limited “re-Stalinization”

        2. The basic reason for this development was the Khrushchev’s Communist colleagues saw de-Stalinization as a dangerous, two-sided threat (dead dictator’s henchmen?)

          1. The widening campaign of de-Stalinization posed a clear threat to the dictatorial authority of the party (party had to tighten up considerable in time)

          2. Another reason for conservative opposition was that Khrushchev’s policy toward the West was erratic and ultimately unsuccessful; in 1958 he ordered the Western allies to evacuate West Berlin within six months, the allies reaffirmed their unity in West Berlin, and Khrushchev eventually backed down

          3. In 1961, as relations with communist China deteriorated dramatically, Khrushchev ordered the East Germans to build a wall between East and West Berlin, thereby sealing off West Berlin in violation of existing access agreements

          4. The U.S. president, John F. Kennedy, agreed to the construction of the Berlin wall

          5. Khrushchev ordered missiles with nuclear warheads installed in Fidel Castro’s communist Cuba in 1962; President Kennedy countered with a naval blockage against Cuba and Khrushchev removed the missiles to protect Castro’s regime

        3. Following the Cuban fiasco, Khrushchev’s influence declined rapidly

        4. After Brezhnev and his supporters took over in 1964, they started talking quietly of Stalin’s “good points” and ignoring his crimes (liberalization could not be expected)

          1. Soviet leaders also launched a massive arms buildup yet Brezhnev and company proceed cautiously in the mid-1960s and avoided direct confrontation with the US

          2. The 1960s brought modest liberalization and more consumer goods to eastern Europe, as well as somewhat greater national autonomy (Poland and Romania)

        5. In January 1968, the reform elements in the Czechoslovak Communist party gained a majority and voted out the long-time Stalinist leader in favor of Alexander Dubcek

          1. Dubcek and his allies believed that they could reconcile genuine socialism with personal freedom and internal party democracy and thus local decision making by trade unions, managers, and consumers replaced rigid bureaucratic planning, and censorship was relaxed; reform program proved enormously popular

          2. Although he proclaimed his loyalty to the Warsaw Pact, the determination of the Czechoslovak reforms to build what they called “socialism with a human face” frightened hard-line Communists (strong in Poland and East Germany)

          3. The Soviet Union feared that a liberalized Czechoslovakia would eventually be drawn

        6. The Eastern bloc countries launched a concerted campaign of intimidation against he Czechoslovak leaders, and in August 1968, 500,000 Russian and allied eastern European troops suddenly occupied Czechoslovakia; the Czechoslovaks made no attempt to resist militarily and the arrested leaders surrendered to Soviet demands

        7. The reform program was abandoned and shortly after the invasion, Brezhnev declared the Brezhnev Doctrine, which according to which the Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need

        8. The 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia was the crucial even of the Brezhnev era which really lasted until the emergence in 1985 of Mikhail Gorbachev; the invasion demonstrated the determination of the ruling elite to maintain the status quo in the Soviet bloc; in the U.S.S.R that determination resulted in further repression

    4. Postwar Social Transformations

      1. Science and Technology

        1. Science and technology proved so productive and influential after about 1940 because “pure theoretical” science and “practical” technology were joined together on a massive scale

        2. With the Second World War, pure science lost its impractical innocence and most leading university scientists went to work on top-secret projects to help their governments with war

          1. The development by British scientists of radar to detect enemy aircraft was a particularly important outcome of this new kind of sharply focused research; a radically improved radar system played a key role in Britain’s victory in the battle for air supremacy in 1940

          2. The air war stimulated the development of jet aircraft and spurred research on electronic computers, which calculated complex mathematical relationships involving accuracy

          3. The most spectacular result of directed scientific research during the war was the atomic bomb and a letter from Einstein to President FDR and ongoing experiments by nuclear physicists led to the top-secret Manhattan Project, which ballooned into a crash program

          4. After three years of effort, the first atomic bomb was successfully tested in July 1945 and in August 1945, two bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ending the war

        3. The spectacular results of directed research during World War II inspired a new model for science—Big Science; by combining theoretical work with sophisticated engineering in a large organization, Big Science could attack extremely difficult problems, from better products for consumers to new and improved weapons for the military

          1. Big Science was very expensive, requiring financing from governments/corporations

          2. Populous, victorious, and wealthy, the United States took the lead in Big Science after World War II; between 1945 and 1965, spending on scientific research and development in the U.S. grew five times as fast as the national income, and by 1965 (3% of income)

          3. It was generally accepted that government should finance science in both the “capitalist” United States and the “socialist” Soviet Union (science was not demobilized after war)

          4. Scientists remained a critical part of every major military establishment and a large portion of all postwar scientific research went for “defense”

          5. After 1945 roughly one-quarter of all men and women trained in science and engineering in the West were employed full-time in the production of weapons to kill other humans

        4. Sophisticated science, lavish government spending, and military needs all came together in the space race of the 1960s (Started by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s)

          1. In 1957 the Soviets used long-range rockets developed in their nuclear weapons program to put a satellite in orbit; in 1961 they sent the world’s first cosmonaut circling the globe

          2. President Kennedy made an all-out U.S. commitment to catch up with the Soviets and land a crewed spacecraft on the moon “before the decade was out”: using pure science, applied technology, and up to $5 billion a year, the Apollo Program achieved its ambitious objective in 1969 and four more moon landings followed by 1972

          3. Thoughtful Europeans lamented this “brain drain” and feared that Europe was falling hopelessly behind the United States in science and technology but Europe was already responding with such Big Science projects as the Concorde supersonic passenger airliner

        5. The rise of Big Science and of close ties between science and technology greatly altered the lives of scientists; there were four times as many scientists in the West in 1975 as in 1945

        6. One consequence of the growth of science was its high degree of specialization, for no one could possibly master a broad field (specializations rates of knowledge and applications)

        7. Highly specialized modern scientists and technologists normally had to work as members of a team, which completely changed the work and lifestyle of modern scientists

          1. Much of work went on in large bureaucratic organizations and growth of large scientific bureaucracies in government/private enterprise suggested how they permeated society

          2. Modern science became highly, even brutally, competitive

          3. This competitiveness is well depicted in Nobel Prize winner James Watson’s book The Double Helix, which tells how in 1953 Watson and an Englishman Francis Crick, discovered the structure of DNA, the molecule of heredity

          4. With so many thousands of linked-minded researchers in the wealthy countries of the world, scientific and technical knowledge rushed forward in the postwar era

      2. The Changing Class Structure

        1. Rapid economic growth went a long way toward creating a new society in Europe after WW II and European society became more mobile and more democratic (class distinctions)

          1. Changes in the structure of the middle class were influential in the general drift toward a less rigid class structure (ownership of property and strong family ties had meant wealth)

          2. After 1945 a new breed of managers and experts replaced traditional property owners as the leaders of the middle class; ability to serve the needs of a big organization largely replaced inherited property and family connections in determining an individual’s social position in the middle and upper middle classes (middle class grew massively)

          3. Rapid industrial and technological expansion created in large corporations and government agencies a powerful demand for technologists and managers

          4. The old properties middle class lost control of many family-owned businesses and many small businesses simply passed out of existence as owners joined the salaried employees

        2. Top managers and ranking civil servants therefore represented the model for a new middle class or salaried specialists; they were well paid and highly trained (engineering, accounting)

        3. Managers and technocrats, of whom a small but growing number were women, could pass on the opportunity for all-important advanced education to their children (positions not passed); the new middle class was based largely on specialized skills and high levels of education

        4. The structure of the lower classes also became more flexible and open as the industrial working class ceased to expand and job opportunities for white-collar and service employees grew rapidly; such employees bore resemblance to new middle class of salaried specialists

        5. European governments were reducing class tensions with a series of social security reforms; other programs were new, like comprehensive national health system directed by the state and most countries introduced family allowances (grants to parents to help raise children)

        6. Reforms promoted greater equality because they were expensive and were paid for in part by higher taxes on the rich; rising standard of living and spread of standardized consumer goods also worked to level Western society, as the percent of income spent on food/drink declined

        7. Europeans took great pleasure in the products of the “gadget revolution” as well

          1. Like Americans, Europeans filled their homes with washing machines, vacuum cleaners, refrigerators, dishwashers, radios, TVs, and stereos; the purchase of consumer goods was greatly facilitated by installment purchasing, which allowed people to buy on credit

          2. The expansion of social security reduced the need to accumulate savings for hard times and ordinary people were increasingly willing to take on debt (growth of consumerism)

        8. Leisure and recreation occupied an important place in consumer societies and the most astonishing leisure-time development was the blossoming of mass travel and tourism

      3. New Roles for Women

        1. A growing emancipation of women in the West was one of the most significant trans-formations of the cold war era and development grew out of long-term changes in patterns of motherhood and paid work outside the home (altered women’s experiences and expectations)

        2. This historic development prepared the way for the success of a new generation of feminist thinkers and a militant women’s movement in the 1970s and 1980s

        3. With the growth of industry, people began to marry earlier, death rates fell, and population grew rapidly; by the late 19thcentury, improved diet, higher incomes, and the use of contraception within marriage were producing a transition to low birthrates and death rates

          1. In the 1950s and 1960s, the typical woman in the West married early and bore her children quickly; postwar baby boom did make for a fairly rapid population growth

          2. In the1960s the long-term decline in birthrates resumed, and from the mid-1970s on in many European countries, the total population stopped growing from natural increase

          3. The postwar culmination of the trends toward early marriage, early childbearing, and small family size in wealthy urban societies had revolutionary implications for women

          4. Pregnancy and child care occupied a much smaller portion of a woman’s life than in earlier times; by the early 1970s, many Western women were having their last baby by 27

        4. In the postwar years, motherhood no longer absorbed the energies of a lifetime, and more and more married women looked for new roles in the world of work outside the family

        5. With the growth of modern industry and much more rigid gender roles, few middle-class women worked outside the home for wages (young unmarried women were wage earners)

        6. In the time especially after WW II, the complexity of the modern economy meant that almost all women had to go outside the home to find cash income; three forces helped women

          1. The economy boom from about 1950 to 1973 and created a strong demand for labor

          2. The economy continued its gradual shift away from heavy industries to the “white-collar” service industries, such as government, education, trade, and health care

          3. Young Western women shared fully in the postwar education revolution and could take advantage of the growing need for office-workers and well-trained professionals

          4. The trend went the furthest in communist eastern Europe, where women were one half of all employed persons; in noncommunist countries, the married women workforce rose

        7. Rising employment for married women went hand in hand with the decline of the birthrate; women who worked outside the home had significantly fewer children than other women

          1. Married women entering the labor force faced widespread, long-established discrimination in pay, advancement, and occupational choice in comparison to men

          2. As the divorce rate rose in the 1960s, part-time work meant poverty for some families

          3. Married working women still carried most of the child-raising and housekeeping responsibilities – a reason for many to accept part-time employment

        8. The injustices that married women encountered as wage earners contributed greatly to the subsequent movement for women’s equality and emancipation (employment as condition)

      4. Youth and the Counterculture

        1. Economic prosperity and democratic class structure had an impact on the youth throughout the Western world as they became a “counter-culture” that rebelled against the status quo

          1. Young people in the United States took the lead; American college students in the 1950s were called the “Silent Generation” but by the late 1950s the “beat” movement was stoking fires of revolt in selected urban enclaves, such as the Near North side of Chicago

          2. The young fashioned a highly publicized subculture that blended radical politics, unbridled personal experimentation and new artistic styles (spread to western Europe)

          3. The young Bob Dylan summed up the radical political and cultural aspirations of the younger generation in lyrics that became a rallying cry, “the times are a’ changing”

        2. The sexual behavior of young people appeared to change dramatically in 1960s and 1970s

          1. More young people engaged in sexual intercourse, and they did so at an earlier age, in part because of safe and effective contraceptive pills could eliminate risk of pregnancy

          2. Even more significant was the growing tendency of young unmarried people to live together in a separate household on a semi-permanent basis, with little thought of getting married or having children (the young defied social customs of legitimate sexual unions)

        3. Several factors contributed to the emergence of the international youth culture in the 1960s

          1. Mass communications and youth travel linked countries and continents together

          2. The postwar baby boom mean that young people became an unusually large part of the population and could therefore exercise exception influence on society as a whole

          3. Postwar prosperity and greater equality gave young people more purchasing power which enabled them to set their own trends and patterns of consumption (generational loyalty)

          4. Prosperity meant that goods jobs were readily available (did not fear punishment)

        4. The youth culture fused with the counterculture in opposition to the order in the late 1960s

          1. Student protesters embraced romanticism and revolutionary idealism, dreaming of complete freedom and simpler, purer societies; many young radicals looked to newly independent countries of Asia and Africa and their better societies that were being built

          2. About the Vietnam War, many politically active students believed that the older generation was fighting an immoral and imperialistic war against small and heroic people

          3. Student protests in western Europe highlighted more general problems of youth, education, and a society of specialists (education limited to a small elite in Europe)

          4. By 1960, at least three times as many students were going to some kind of university as had attended before the war, and the number continued to rise until the 1970s

          5. Reflecting the development of a more democratic class structure and a growing awareness that higher education was the key to success, European universities gave more scholarships and opened doors to more students from the lower middle and lower classes

        5. The rapid expansion of higher education meant that classes were badly overcrowded and competition for grades became intense; many students felt the education was inadequate

        6. The many tensions within the exploding university population came to a head in the late 1960s and early 1970s and European university students rose to challenge their university administrations and even their governments just as they had in the United States

          1. The most far-reaching of these revolts occurred in France in 1968; students occupied buildings and took over the University of Paris, which led to violent clashes with police

          2. Most students demanded both changes in the curriculum and a real voice in running the university; rank-and-file workers ignored the advice of their cautious union officials, and a more or less spontaneous general strike spread across France in May 1968

        7. Declaring that he was in favor of university reforms and higher minimum wages, he moved troops toward Paris and called for new elections; the masses of France voted overwhelmingly for de Gaulle’s part and a return to law and order (shaken, within a year, de Gaulle resigned)

    5. Conflict and Challenge in the Late Cold War, 1968-1985

      1. The United States and Vietnam

        1. Although student radicals believed that imperialism was the main cause, American involve-ment in the Vietnam was more clearly a product of the cold war and policy of containment

          1. From the late 1940s on, most Americans and their leaders viewed the world in terms of a constant struggled to stop the spread of communism; as western European began to revive and China established a communist government in 1949, focus shifted to Asia

          2. The bloody Korean War ended in stalemate but the United States did succeed in preventing a communist victory in South Korea; after the defeat of the French in Vietnam in 1954, the Eisenhower administration refused to sign Geneva Accords that temporarily divided the country into two zones pending national unification by means of free election

          3. President Eisenhower then agreed in the refusal of the anticommunist South Vietnamese government to accept the verdict of elections and provided it with military aid

          4. President Kennedy increased the number of American “military advisers” to 16,000

        2. After winning the 1964 election on a peace platform, President Johnson greatly expanded the American role in the Vietnam conflict; American strategy was to “escalate” the war sufficiently to break the will of the North Vietnamese and their southern allies without resorting to “overkill,” which might risk war with the entire Communist bloc

        3. American forces in the South gradually grew to half a million men, and the United States bombed North Vietnam with ever-greater intensity but there was no invasion of the North or naval blockade (American people grew weary and the American leadership cracked)

        4. The undeclared war in Vietnam fought nightly on American television, divided the nation

          1. Initial support was strong as the politicians, the media, and the population saw the war as part of a legitimate defense against communist totalitarianism in all poor countries

          2. An antiwar movement quickly emerged on college campuses (prospect of being drafted) and in October 1965 student protesters joined forces with socialists, New Left intellectuals, and pacifists in antiwar demonstrations in fifty American cities

          3. By 1967 a growing number of critics denounced the war as a criminal intrusion into a complex and distant civil war (criticism heightened after Vietcong Tet Offensive in 1968)

        5. The Vietcong Tet Offensive was the communists’ first comprehensive attack with conventional weapons on major cities in South Vietnam but failed militarily

          1. The Vietcong suffered heavy losses and the attack did not spark a mass uprising but Washington had claimed that victory in South Vietnam was in sight but the critics interpreted the bloody combat as a decisive American defeat; American leaders lost heart

          2. In 1968, after a narrow victory in the N.H. primary, President Johnson called for negotiations with North Vietnam and announced that he would not stand for re-election

        6. Elected by a slim margin in 1968, President Richard Nixon sought to gradually disengage America from Vietnam and the accompanying national crisis in North and South Vietnam

          1. Intensifying the continuous bombardment of the enemy while simultaneously pursuing peace talks with the North Vietnamese, Nixon suspended the draft, so hated on college campuses, and cut American forces in Vietnam from 550,000 to 24,000 in four years

          2. President Nixon launched a flank attack in diplomacy as he journeyed to China in 1972 and reached a spectacular if limited reconciliation with the People’s Republic of China; Nixon took advantage of China’s fears of the Soviet Union and undermined North Korea

          3. President Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger finally reached a peace agree-ment with North Vietnam which allowed remaining American forces to complete with-drawal and the United States reserved right to resume bombing if accords were broken

        7. While the storm of crisis in the United States seemed to have passed, Watergate appeared

          1. Nixon authorized spying activities that went beyond the law; he allowed special unites to use carious illegal means to stop the leaking of government documents to the press

          2. One such group broke into the Democratic party headquarters in Washington’s Watergate complex in June 1972 and was promptly arrested (media and machinery of congressional investigation eventually exposed the administration’s web of lies and lawbreaking)

        8. The consequences of political crisis flowing from the Watergate affair were profound

          1. Watergate resulted in a major shift of power away from presidency toward Congress, especially in foreign affairs; American aid to South Vietnam diminished in 1973, North Vietnam launched an invasion in early 1974 but Congress refused to permit response

          2. A second consequence of the US crisis was after more than thirty-five years of battle, the Vietnamese communists unified their country in 1975 as a harsh dictatorial state

          3. The belated fall of South Vietnam in the wake of Watergate shook America’s postwar confidence and left the US divided and uncertain about its proper role in world affairs

      2. Détente or Cold War?

        1. On alternative to the badly damaged policy of containing communism was the policy of détente, or the progressive piecemeal relaxation of cold war tensions (West Germany)

        2. West German chancellor Willy Brandt took the lead when in December 1970 he flew to Poland for the singing of a historic treaty of reconciliation (dramatic moment)

          1. Brandt laid a wreath at the tomb of the Polish unknown soldier and another at the monument commemorating the armed uprising of Warsaw’s Jewish ghetto against occupying Nazi armies; somber Brandt fell to his knees and knelt as if in prayer

          2. Brandt aimed at nothing less than a comprehensive peace settlement for central Europe and the two German states established after 1945 (reconciliation with eastern Europe)

          3. The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) had claimed that the communist German Democratic Republic lacked free elections and hence any legal or moral basis

          4. West Germany refused to accept loss of German territory taken by Poland and the Soviet Union after 1945 but when the Berlin was built in 1961, Brandt believed that the wall showed the painful limitations of West Germany’s official hard line (new foreign policy)

        3. Winning the chancellorship in 1969, Brandt negotiated treaties with Soviet Union, Poland, and Czechoslovakia that formally accepted existing state boundaries in return for a mutual renunciation of force or the threat of force; Brandt’s government entered into direct relations with East Germany aiming for modest practical improvements rather than reunification

        4. The policy of détente reached its high point when all European nations (except Albania), the United States, and Canada signed the Final Act of the Helsinki Conference in 1975

          1. The 35 nations agreed that Europe’s political frontiers could not be changed by force

          2. They also accepted numerous provisions guaranteeing the human rights and political freedoms of their citizens (hopes of détente in international relations faded in later 1970s)

        5. Brezhnev’s Soviet Union ignored the human rights provisions of the Helsinki agreement and East-West political competition remained very much alive outside Europe

          1. Many Americans became convinced that the Soviet Union was taking advantage of détente, steadily building up its military might and pushing for political gains and revolutions in Africa, Asia, and Latin America (no détente in international relations)

          2. The soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979, which was designed to save an increasingly unpopular Marxist regime, was especially alarming

          3. Many Americans feared that oil-rich states of the Persian Gulf would be next, and again they looked to the Atlantic alliance and military might to thwart communist expansion

        6. President Jimmy Carter elected in 1976, tried to lead the Atlantic alliance beyond verbal condemnation and urged economic sanctions against Soviet Union (only Britain supported)

          1. The alliance showed the same lack of concerted action when the Solidarity movement rose in Poland (some observers concluded the alliance had lost the will to think and act)

          2. The US military buildup launched by Carter in his years in office was greatly accelerated by President Ronald Reagan, who swept into office in 1980 by wave of patriotism

          3. The new American leadership acted as if the military balance had tipped in the favor of the Soviet Union and increasing defense spending enormously, the Regan administration concentrated on nuclear arms and an expanded navy as keys to American power

        7. A swing toward conservatism in the 1980s gave Reagan invaluable allies in western Europe

          1. In Great Britain Margaret Thatcher was an advocate for a revitalized Atlantic alliance

          2. After a pro-American Helmut Kohl came to power with the conservative Christian Democrats in 1982, West Germany and the US once again coordinated military and political policy toward the Soviet bloc (in maintaining the alliance, the Western nations gave indirect support to liberalize authoritarian communist eastern Europe and probably helped convince the Soviet Union’s Mikhail Gorbachev that cold war conflict was foolish

      3. The Women’s Movement

        1. The 1970s marked the birth of a board-based feminist movement devoted to securing genuine gender equality and promoting the general interests of women -- three basic reasons

          1. Changes in patterns of motherhood and paid work created new conditions/new demands

          2. A precursor of feminist intellectuals articulated a powerful critique of gender relations, which stimulated many women to rethink their assumptions and challenge the status quo

          3. Taking a lesion from the civil rights movement in the US and worldwide student protest against the Vietnam War, dissatisfied individuals recognized that they had to band together if they were to influence politics and secure fundamental reforms

        2. One of the most influential works produced by this new feminist wave was The Second Sex (1949) by French philosopher Simone de Beauvoir; she came to see her pious and submissive mother as renouncing any self-expression outside of home and marriage and showing Beauvoir the dangers of a life she did not want (Beauvoir relationship with Jean Paul Sartre)

          1. Beauvoir analyzed the position of women within the framework of existential thought

          2. She argued that women—like all human beings—were in essence free but that they had almost always been trapped by particularly inflexible and limiting conditions

          3. Only by the means of courageous action and self-assertive creativity could a woman become a completely free person and escape the role that men had constructed for women

        3. One such woman in a generation of women intellectuals was Betty Friedan, who played a key role in reopening a serious discussion of women’s issues in the United States

          1. Friedan reflected the American faith in group action and political solutions; Friedan became acutely away of the conflicting pressures of career and family and concluded after research that many well-educated women shared her growing dissatisfaction

          2. According to Friedan in The Feminine Mystique, the cause was a crisis of identity; women were not permitted to become mature adults and genuine human beings but were instead expected to conform to a false pattern of femininity and live for family (sexism)

        4. When long-standing proposals to treat sex discrimination as seriously as race discrimination fell again on deaf ears, Friedan took the lead in 1966 in founding the National Organization of Women (NOW) to press for women’s rights (forty thousand members in 1974)

          1. Throughout the 1970s, a proliferation of publications, conferences, and institutions devoted to women’s issues reinforced the emerging international movement

          2. This movement generally shared the common strategy of entering the political arena and changing laws regarding women; advocates of women’s rights pushed for new statutes in the workplace (equal pay for equal work) and measures such as maternal leave + day care

          3. The movement concentrated on gender and family questions including right of divorce, legalized abortion, the needs of single mothers, and protection from rape and violence

          4. The effort to decriminalize abortion served as a catalyst in mobilizing an effective, self-conscious women’s movement (and in creating an opposition to it, as in the US)

        5. In the countries that had long placed women in subordinate positions, the legal changes were revolutionary; for example, in Italy, new laws abolished restrictions on divorce and abortion, which had been supported by Mussolini and defended energetically by the Catholic church; by 1988 divorce and abortion were common in Italy which had the lowest birthrate in Europe

        6. More generally, the sharply focused women’s movement of the 1970s won new rights for women and the movement became more diffuse, a victim of both its successes and the resurgence of antifeminist opposition (movement encouraged mobilization of other groups)

        7. Many subordinate groups challenged the dominant majorities, and the expansion and redefinition of human liberty—a great theme of modern Western history—continued

      4. The Troubled Economy

        1. For twenty years after 1945, most Europeans were preoccupied with the possibilities of economic progress and consumerism (more democratic class structure helped reduce social tension, and ideological conflict went out of style; passing of postwar stability)

        2. The reappearance of economic crisis in the early 1970s that brought the most serious conflict

          1. The postwar international monetary system was based on the American dollar, valued in gold at $35 an ounce; giving foreign aid and fighting foreign wars, the US sent billions

          2. By early 1971 it had only $11 billion in gold left and Europe had accumulated $50 billion and so foreigners than panicked and raced to exchange their dollars for gold

          3. President Richard Nixon responded by stopping the sale of American gold, value of the dollar fell sharply, and inflation sped worldwide (fixed rates of exchange were abandoned and great uncertainty replaced postwar predictability in international trade and finance)

        3. Even more damaging was the dramatic reversal in the price and availability of energy

          1. The great postwar boom was fueled by cheap oil from the Middle East, which permitted energy-intensive industries to expand rapidly and lead other sectors of the economy

          2. By 1971 the Arab-led Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had watched the price of crude oil decline consistently compared with the rising price of manufactured goods and decided to reverse the trend by presenting a united front

          3. In the fourth Arab-Israeli war in October 1973, when Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack on Israel. OPEC declared an embargo on oil shipments to the United States, Israel’s ally, and within a year crude oil prices quadrupled (oil shock to countries)

        4. Following the upheaval in the international monetary system, the revolution in energy prices plunged the world into its worst economic decline since the 1930s (unemployment rose)

          1. By 1976 a modest recovery was in progress when a fundamentalist Islamic revolution struck Iran and oil production collapsed in that country, the price of crude oil doubled in 1979 and the world economy succumbed to its second oil shock

          2. Unemployment and inflation rose before another recovery began in 1982 and in 1985 the unemployment rate in western Europe rose to its highest level since the Great Depression

        5. One telling measure of the troubled economy was the misery index, which combined rates of inflation and unemployment in a single, powerfully emotional number; “misery” increased in the West but the increase was substantially greater in western Europe (called “the crisis”); Japan did better than both Europe and the United States during this time of crisis

        6. Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, anxious observers worried that the common Market would disintegrate in the face of severe economic dislocation and that economic nationalism would halt steps toward European (now known as the European Economic Community)

        7. In 1973, Denmark, Iceland and Britain joined, Greece joined in 1981, and Portugal and Spain entered in 1986; nations cooperated more closely in international undertakings and unity

      5. Society in a Time of Economic Uncertainty

        1. Optimism gave way to pessimism and romantic utopianism yielded to sober realism; this drastic change in mood affected states, institutions, and individuals in countless ways

        2. The welfare system fashioned in the postwar era prevented mass suffering and degradation through extended benefits from the unemployed, pensions for the aged, free medical care and special allowances for the needy, and a host of lesser supports (responsive, socially concerned national state contributed to the preservation of political stability and democracy)

        3. The energetic response of governments to social needs helps explain the sharp increase in total government spending in most countries during the 1970s and early 1980s

          1. The imbalance with governments increase spending than raised taxes contributed to the rapid growth of budget deficits, national debts, and inflation

          2. By the late 1970s a powerful reaction against government’s every-increasing role had set in, however, and Western governments were gradually forced to introduce severe measures to slow the growth of public spending and the welfare state

          3. Part of a broad cultural shift toward greater conservatism, growing voter dissatisfaction with government and government spending helped bring Margaret Thatcher to power in Britain in 1979 (slowed government spending and “privatized” industry)

          4. Thatcher’s Conservative government also encouraged low- and moderate-income renters to state-owned housing projects to buy their apartments at rock-bottom prices; this privatization initiative created a whole new class of property owners (private investors)

        4. President Ronald Reagan’s success in the United State was more limited and in 1981 he pushed through major cuts in income taxes but Reagan and Congress failed to cut government spending, which increased as a percentage of national income during presidency

          1. The massive military buildup was responsible but spending on social programs grew rapidly; harsh recession required spending on welfare benefits and medical treatment

          2. Reagan’s anti-welfare rhetoric mobilized the liberal opposition and eventually turned many moderates against him (budget deficit soared and US debt tripled in a decade)

        5. The striking but temporary exception to the trend toward greater frugality was François Mitterrand of France; after his election as president in 1981, Mitterrand led his Socialist party to the left, launching a vast program of nationalization and public investment

        6. Mitterrand’s Socialist government, after this attempt had failed, was then compelled to impose a wide variety of austerity measures and to maintain those policies for the decade

        7. When governments were forced to restrain spending, large scientific projects were often signaled out for cuts (these reductions reinforced the ongoing computer revolution)

          1. This new scientific revolution thrived on the diffusion of ever-cheaper computational and informational capacity to small research groups and private businesses, which were both cause and effect of the revolution itself (big organizations lost advantage to smaller)

          2. Individuals felt the impact of austerity at an early date, for unlike governments, they could not pay their bills by printing money and going ever further into debt

          3. A growing number of experts and citizens concluded that the world was running out of resources and decried wasteful industrial practices and environmental pollution

          4. The German Green movement elected national/local representatives and similar parties developed throughout Europe as environmentalism became a leading societal concern

        8. Another consequence of austerity in Europe and North America was leaner, tougher lifestyle in the 1970s and early 1980s, featuring more attention to nutrition and a passion for exercise; there was less blind reliance on medical science for good health and a growing awareness that individuals had to accept a large portion of the responsibility for illness and disease

        9. Economic troubles also strengthened the new trends within the family; men and women were encouraged to postpone marriage until they had put their careers on a firm foundations, so the age of marriage rose sharply for both sexes; the real threat of unemployment or under-employment seemed to shape the outlook of a whole generation (more women worked)

    Chapter 31: Revolution Rebuilding, and New Challenges: 1985 to the Present

    1. The Decline of Communism in Eastern Europe

      1. The Soviet Union to 1985

        1. The 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia demonstrated the intense conservatism of the Soviet Union’s ruling elite and its determination to maintain the status quo in the Soviet bloc

        2. There was a certain 

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