Ap european Study Guide From After Black Death to Current History


Part of the reason for the change was the construction of churches failed to keep up with the rapid growth of urban population



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Part of the reason for the change was the construction of churches failed to keep up with the rapid growth of urban population

  • Throughout the nineteenth century, Catholic and Protestant churches were normally seen as conservative institutions defending social order and custom and working classes saw “territorial church” as defending what they wished to change

  • The pattern was different in the United States as most churches also preached social conservatism but church and state had always been separate and people identified churches much less with political and social status quo

  • Churches thrived in the United States as means of asserting ethnic identity

  • The Changing Family

    1. Premarital Sex and Marriage

      1. By 1850, the preindustrial pattern of courtship and marriage was gone among the working classes and in its place, the ideal of romantic love had triumphed

      2. Economic considerations in marriage remained important to the middle classes after 1850 and in France, dowries and elaborate legal marriage contracts were common

        1. Marriage was for many families one of life’s most crucial financial transactions

        2. The preoccupation with money led many middle-class men in France and else- where to marry late and chose women younger and less experienced (tension)

        3. The romantic life of a young woman of the middle class was supervised by her mother who schemed for marriage and guarded her daughter’s virginity like credit

        4. Middle-class boys were watched but by the time they reached late adolescence, they had usually attained considerable sexual experience with maids or prostitutes

      3. There was an “illegitimacy explosion” between in 1750 and 1850 and by the 1840s, as many as one birth in three was occurring outside of wedlock in many large cities

      4. The pattern of romantic ideals, premarital sexual activity, and widespread illegitimacy was firmly established by mid-century among the urban working classes

      5. In the second half of the century, the pattern of illegitimacy was reversed and more babies were born to married mothers (growth of puritanism is unconvincing)

      6. The percentage of brides who were pregnant continued to be high and showed almost no decline after 1850 and unmarried people almost certainly used cheap condoms and diaphragms the industrial age had made available to prevent pregnancy (protestant)

      7. Unmarried young people were engaging in just as much sexual activity but pregnancy for a young single women led increasingly to marriage and the establishment of a two-parent household; this reflected growing respectability of the working classes

    2. Prostitution

      1. In Paris alone, 155,00 women were registered as prostitutes between 1871 and 1903, and 750,000 others were suspected of prostitution in the same years

      2. Men of all classes visited prostitutes, but the middle and upper classes supplied most; though many middle-class men abided by the code of puritanical morality, others indulged their appetites for prostitutes and sexual promiscuity

      3. My Secret Life, an autobiography written by an English sexual adventurer from the servant-keeping classes, revels the dark side of sex and class in urban society

      4. Men of the comfortable classes often purchased sex and even affection from poor girls both before and after marriage; brutal sexist behavior that women detested

      5. For many poor women, prostitution, was a stage of life and not a permanent employ-ment and they usually went on to marry men of their own class and establish families

    3. Kinship Ties

      1. Within working-class homes, ties to relatives after marriage (kinship ties) were strong

        1. For many married couples after 1850, ties to mothers and fathers, uncles and aunts, were more important than ties to nonrelated acquaintances

        2. People turned to their families for help in coping with sickness, unemployment, death and old age; although governments generally provided more welfare service by 1900, unexpected death or desertion could leave people in need of financial aid

      2. If a couple was very poor, an aged relation often moved in to cook and mind the children so that the wife could earn badly needed income outside the house

      3. Often the members of a large family group all lived in the same neighborhood

    4. Sex Roles and Family Life

      1. After 1850 the work of most wives became more distinct and separate from that of their husbands while husbands became wage earners, wives tended to stay home and manage households and car for children (hiring entire families in factories declined)

      2. As economic conditions improved, married women tended to work outside the home only in poor families and strict division of labor by sex appeared (see above)

        1. The division of labor meant that married women faced great injustice if they tried to move into the man’s world of employment outside the home

        2. Married women were subordinated to their husbands by law and lacked many basic legal rights; wives in England had no legal identity, didn’t own property and the Napoleonic Code enshrined female subordination (property, divorce, custody)

      3. Some women rebelled because the lack of legal rights proceeding on two main fronts

        1. Following in the steps of women such as Mary Wollstonecraft. Organizations founded by middle-class feminists campaigned for equal legal rights for women as well as access to higher education and professional employment (suffrage)

        2. Women inspired by utopian and Marxism socialism argued that the liberation of working-class women would come only with the liberation of the entire working class through revolution (won some practical improvements in Germany)

      4. As home and children became the typical wife’s main concerns, her control and influence became increasingly strong throughout Europe and began to manage money; all major domestic decisions were the women’s decision

        1. Women ruled at home partly because running the urban household was a complicated, demanding, and valuable task (full-time occupation)

        2. The wife also guided the home because a good deal of her effort was directed toward pampering her husband as he expected and the women’s guidance of the household corresponded with the increased emotional importance of family

      5. By 1900 home and family were what life was all about for people of all classes

      6. Married couples also developed stronger emotional ties to each other and marriages in the later nineteenth century were based on sentiment and sexual attraction

      7. Affection and eroticism became more central to the couple after marriage; Gustave Droz saw love within marriage as the key to human happiness and urged women to follow their hearts and marry a man more nearly their age

      8. Many French marriage manuals of the late 1800s stressed that women had legitimate sexual needs and the rise of public socializing by couples in cafes and music halls as well as franker affection suggests a more pleasurable intimate life for women

    5. Child Rearing

      1. Emotional ties deepened within the family with the growing love to their tiny infants

        1. In preindustrial Western society, indifference, unwillingness to make sacrifices for the welfare of the infant, began to give way among comfortable classes

        2. Mothers increasingly breast-fed their infants, involved sacrifice, and this surge of maternal feeling gave rise to specialized books on child rearing and hygiene

        3. Gustave Droz urged fathers to get into the act and pitied those who could not

        4. Another sign from France of increased infection was that fewer illegitimate babies were abandoned as foundlings after 1850 and the practice of swaddling disappeared—instead, mothers allowed their babies freedom of movement

      2. There was a greater concern for old children and adolescents

        1. European women began to limit the number of children they bore in order to care adequately for hose they had and birthrate continued to decline until after WW II

        2. The most important reason for this reduction in family size (well-educated classes took the lead) was parents’ desire to improve their economic and social position

        3. The growing tendency of couples in the late nineteenth century to use a variety of contraceptive methods reflected increased concern for children

      3. Many parents, especially in the middle classes, became too concerned about their children many of who came to feel trapped and in need of greater independence

      4. Prevailing biological and medical theories led parents to believe in the possibility that their own emotional characteristics were passed on to their offspring; moment the child was conceived was thought to be of enormous importance

      5. Another area of excessive parental concern was the sexual behavior of the child

        1. Masturbation was viewed with horror and viewed as an act of independence and defiance and diet, clothing, games, and sleeping were carefully regulated

        2. Attempts to repress the child’s sexuality were a source of unhealthy tension, often made worse by the rigid divisions of sexual roles within the family; usually mother and child loved each other easily but relations between father and child were difficult as his world of business were far removed for the maternal world

        3. Fathers were also demanding, often expecting the child to succeed where he himself had failed and making his love conditional on achievement

        4. Russian Feodor Dostoevski’s The Brothers Karamazovepitomizes idealism

      6. Sigmund Freud, the Viennese founder of psychoanalysis, formulated the most striking analysis of the explosive dynamics of a family in the late nineteenth century

        1. Freud noted that the hysteria of his patients appeared to originate in bitter early childhood experiences wherein the child had obliged to repress strong feelings

        2. One of Freud’s most influential ideas concerned the Oedipal tensions resulting from the son’s instinctive competition with the father for the mother’s affection

        3. Freud postulated that much of human behavior is motivated by unconscious emotional need where nature and origins are kept from conscious awareness by carious mental devices he called “defense mechanisms” (sexual energy)

      7. Working classes probably had more avenues of escape from such tensions than did the middle classes, working-class boys and girls went to work when they reached adolescence and could bargain for greater independence within the household

  • Science and Thought

    1. The Triumph of Science

      1. Breakthroughs in industrial technology stimulated scientific inquiry as researchers sough to explain theoretically how such things as steam engines actually worked and the result was an huge growth of fundamental scientific discoveries after the 1830s

      2. The translation of better scientific knowledge into practical human benefits was the development of the branch of physics known as thermodynamics

        1. Thermodynamics investigated relationships between heat and mechanical energy

        2. The law of conservation of energy held that different forms of energy could be converted but neither created nor destroyed (physical world governed by laws)

      3. Chemistry and electricity were two other fields characterized by scientific progress

        1. In 1869, Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev codified the rules of chemistry in the periodic law and the periodic table (chemistry subdivided into many branches)

        2. Researchers in large German chemical companies discovered ways of transforming useless coal tar into beautiful, expensive synthetic dyes for fashion

        3. The basic discoveries of Michael Faraday on electromagnetism in the 1830s and 1840s resulted in the first dynamo (generator) and opened the way for subsequent development of electric motors, electric lights, and electric streetcars (1880-1913)

      4. The triumph of science and technology had at least three significant consequences

        1. Though ordinary citizens continued to lack scientific knowledge, everyday experience and popularizers impressed the importance of science on popular mind

        2. As science became more prominent, the philosophical implications of science formulated in the Enlightenment spread to broad sections of the population

        3. Methods of science acquired unrivaled prestige after 1850 and for many, the union of careful experiment and abstract theory was the only reliable rout to truth and objective reality (“unscientific” intuitions of poets and saints seemed inferior)

    2. Social Science and Evolution

      1. After the 1830s, many thinkers tried to apply the objective methods of science to the study of society—efforts simply perpetuated the critical thinking of the philosophes

      2. The new “social scientists” had access to massive sets of numerical data that govern-ments had begun to collect and developed new statistical methods to analyze these facts and supposedly to test their theories (systems of social scientists unified—Marx)

      3. Another influential system builder was French philosopher Auguste Comte, disciple of the utopian socialist Saint Simon, Comte wrote System of Positive Philosophy

        1. Comte postulated that all intellectual activity progresses through predictable stages; the Theological (fictitious), the Metaphysical (abstract), and the Scientific

        2. Comte noted that the prevailing explanation of cosmic patterns had shifted from the well of God to the will of an orderly nature to the rule of unchanging laws

        3. By applying the scientific or positivist method, Comte believed sociology would discover the eternal laws of human relations (chief priest of religion of science)

      4. In geology, Charles Lyell discredited the view that earth surface had been formed by sort-lived cataclysms and instead according to Lyell’s principle of uniformitarianism, the same geological processes that existed slowly formed the earth’s surface long ago

      5. Jean Baptiste Lamarck asserted that all forms of life had arisen through continuous adjustment to the environment but his work was flawed in that he believed in the principle of acquired characteristics; he prepared the way for Charles Darwin

      6. Charles Darwin was most influential of all nineteenth-century evolutionary thinkers

        1. Darwin came to doubt the general belief in a special divine creation of each species of animals and concluded that all life had gradually evolved from a common ancestral origin in an unending “struggle for survival”

        2. He summarized his theory in his work On the Origin of Species by the Means of Natural Selection in which Darwin argued that variations that prove useful in the struggle for survival are selected naturally and spread through reproduction

        3. Darwin was hailed as the “Newton of biology” and his findings reinforced the teachings of secularists such as Comte and Marx, who dismissed religious belief

      7. Many writers applied the theory of biological evolution to human affairs, such as Herbert Spencer, English disciple of Comte, who saw the human race driven forward by specialization and progress by the economic struggle (popular with upper class)

    3. Realism in Literature

      1. In 1868 Emile Zola, the giant of the realist movement in literature, defended his criticized first novel against charges of pornography and corruption of morals

        1. Zola’s literary manifesto articulated the key themes of realism which had emerged in the 1840s and continued to dominate Western culture and style until the 1890s

        2. Realist writers believed that literature should depict life exactly as it was; they deserted poetry for prose and emotional viewpoint for scientific objectivity

      2. The major realist writers focused their power of observation on contemporary everyday life and began with a dissection of the middle classes from which, many realists eventually focused on the working classes (urban working classes)

      3. Unlike the romantics, realists were strict determinists and believed that heredity and environment determined human behavior; good and evil were just social conventions

      4. The realist movement began in France, where romanticism had never been dominant and three of its greatest practitioners, Balzac, Flaubert, and Zola were French

        1. Honore de Balzac wrote The Human Comedy, portraying more than two thousand characters from all sectors of French society struggling for wealth and power; in Le Pere Goriot, a poor student surrenders his idealistic integrity to greed

        2. Madame Bovary, the work of Gustave Flaubert, tells the ordinary story of a frustrated middle-class housewife who has an adulterous love affair and is betrayed by her lover; Flaubert portrays middle class as petty and hypocritical

        3. Zola is most famous for his seamy, animalistic view of working-class life and like many later realists, Zola sympathized with socialism, evident in Germinal

      5. Realism spread quickly beyond France

        1. In England, Mary Ann Evans, under the pen name George Eliot, wrote Middle-march: A study of Provincial Life that examines the ways in which people are shaped by their social medium as well as their own inner conflicts and morals

        2. Thomas Hardy was more in the Zola tradition and his novels, “Tess of the D’Urbervilles and Return of the Native, depict men and women frustrated by fate

        3. The greatest Russian realist, Count Leo Tolstoy combined realism in description and character development with an atypical moralizing; his greatest work was War and Peace, a novel set against Napoleon’s invasion of Russia, and Tolstoy probed deeply into the lives of a multitude of unforgettable characters

        4. Tolstoy developed his fatalistic theory of history and his central message was one of human love, trust, and everyday family ties are life’s enduring values

      6. Thoroughgoing realism (“naturalism”) arrived late in the United States and appeared in the work of Theodore Dreiser and his work, Sister Carrie, a story of an ordinary farm girl who does well going wrong in Chicago

      7. The United States became a bastion of literary realism in the twentieth century after the movement had faded away in Europe

    Chapter 25: The Age of Nationalism



    1. Napoleon III in France

      1. The Second Republic and Louis Napoleon

        1. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte’s victory in the December 1848 elections against General Cavaignac of June Days fame was probably due to the Napoleonic legend; another explanation stressed the fears of middle-class and peasant property owners in the face of the socialist challenge of urban workers (classes wanted protection)

        2. In 1848 Louis Napoleon had a positive “program” for France, which guided him throughout most of his long reign (Napoleonic Ideas and The Elimination of Poverty)

          1. Louis Napoleon believed government should represent the people (economically)

          2. When politicians ran a parliamentary government, they stirred up class hatred because they were not interested in helping the poor and Louis believed that the answer was a strong, authoritarian, national leader, who would serve the people

          3. The leader would be linked by direct democracy and universal male suffrage

          4. These ideas accompanied his vision of national unity and social progress

        3. Elected to a four-year term, President Louis Napoleon had to share power with a conservative National Assembly; Louis also signed a bill to increase greatly the role of the Catholic church in primary and secondary education

        4. Louis also signed another law depriving many poor people of the right to vote because he wanted the Assembly to vote funds to pay his personal debts and he wanted it to change the constitution so he could run for a second term

        5. In 1851 Louis Napoleon began to organize a conspiracy and on December 2, 1851, he illegally dismissed the Assembly and seized power in a coup d’etat

        6. Restoring universal male suffrage Louis Napoleon called on the French people to legalize his actions (92 %) and a year later, 97 % agreed in a national plebiscite to make him hereditary emperor and Louis Napoleon was elected to lead France

      2. Napoleon III’s Second Empire

        1. Emperor Napoleon III experienced both success and failure between 1852 and 1870

        2. His greatest success was with the economy, particularly in the 1850s

          1. His government encouraged the new investment banks and massive railroad construction that were at the heart of the Industrial Revolution on the Continent

          2. The government fostered general economic expansion through a program of public works, which included the rebuilding of Paris to improve the environment

        3. Napoleon III’s regulation of pawnshops and his support ofcredit unions and better housing for the working class showed why he had support and in the 1860s, he granted workers the right to form unions and the right to strike (denied earlier)

        4. Political power remained in the hands of the emperor; Napoleon III chose his ministers and restricted but did not abolish the Assembly and members were elected by universal male suffrage every six years (parliamentary elections handled seriously)

        5. Government used its officials and appointed mayors to spread the word that the election of the government’s candidates was the key to roads, schools, and tax rebates

        6. In 1857 and in 1863, Louis Napoleon’s system worked brilliantly; he won electoral victories but in the 1860s, France’s problems in Italy and the rising power of Prussia led to increasing criticism from Catholic and nationalist supporters back home

        7. The middle-class liberals wanted a less authoritarian regime (denounced his rule)

        8. In the 1860s, he progressively liberalized his empire by giving the Assembly greater powers and the opposition candidates greater freedom and in 1870, Louis Napoleon granted France a new constitution, which combined a basically parliamentary regime with a hereditary emperor as chief of state

        9. In a final plebiscite on the eve of a disastrous war with Prussia, 7.5 million Frenchmen voted in favor of the new constitution and only 1.5 million opposed it

    2. Nation Building in Italy and Germany

      1. Italy to 1850

        1. The Italian peninsula was divided in the Middle Ages into competing city-state, which led the commercial and cultural revival of the West with amazing creativity

        2. Sought after 1494, Italy was reorganized in the 1815 at the Congress of Vienna

        3. Between 1815 and 1848, the goal of a unified Italian nation captured the imaginations of increasing numbers of Italians and there were three approaches

          1. The radical program of the idealistic Guiseepe Mazzini stated that Italy become a centralized democratic republic based on universal suffrage and will of the people

          2. Vincenzo Gioberti, a Catholic priest, called for a federation of existing states under the presidency of a progressive pope

          3. The third was the program of those who looked for leadership toward the autocratic kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont, as Germans looked toward Prussia

        4. The third alternative was strengthened by the failures of 1848, when Austria smashed and discredited Mazzini’s republicanism and Sardinia’s monarch, Victor Emmanuel, retained the liberal constitution granted under duress in March 1848

        5. The constitution provided for a fair degree of civil liberties and real parliamentary government complete with elections and parliamentary control of taxes

        6. To the Italian middle classes, Sardinia appeared to be a liberal progressive state ideally suited to achieve the goal of national unification but Mazzini seemed quixotic

        7. As for the papacy, the initial support by Pius IX for unification had given way to fear and hostility after he was driven from Rome during the upheavals of 1848

        8. The papacy opposed socialism, separation of church and state, and religious liberty

      2. Cavour and Garibaldi in Italy

        1. Cavour was the dominant figure in the Sardinian government (1850-1861)

          1. Cavour’s personal development was an early sign of coming tacit alliance between the aristocracy and the middle class under a strong nation-state

          2. Cavour turned toward industry and entered the world of politics after 1848 and became chief minister in the liberalized Sardinian monarchy in 1852

          3. Cavour’s national goals were limited and realistic and until 1859, he sough unity only for the states of northern Italy (moderate nationalist and aristocratic liberal)

        2. Cavour in the 1850s wishing to consolidate Sardinia as a liberal constitutional state introduced a program of highways and railroads, of civil liberties and opposition to clerical privilege, increasing support for Sardinia throughout northern Italy

        3. Cavour worked for a secret diplomatic alliance with Napoleon III against Austria and in July 1858, he succeeded and provoked Austria into attacking Sardinia

          1. Napoleon III came to Sardinia’s defense and after the victory of the combined Franco-Sardinian forces, Napoleon III did a complete turn around

          2. Criticized by French Catholics for supporting the pope’s declared enemy, Napoleon III abandoned Cavour and made a compromise peace with the Austrians at Villafranca in July 1859 (Sardinia received Lombardy, around Milan)

        4. Cavour’s plans were salvaged by popular revolts and Italian nationalism; while war against Austria had raged in the north, nationalists in central Italy and driven out their rulers and nationalist fervor seized the urban masses (called for fusion of Sardinia)

        5. The other Great Powers opposed this but the nationalists held firm and Cavour returned to power when the people of central Italy voted to join Sardinia

        6. For patriots such as Garibaldi, the job of unification was only half done

          1. Garibaldi personified the romantic, revolutionary nationalism of Mazzini (1848)

          2. Sentenced to death in 1834 for his part in an uprising in Genoa, Garibaldi escaped to South American where he led a guerrilla band in Uruguay’s independence

          3. Returning to Italy to find fight in 1848, he led a corps of volunteer against Austria and in 1860, Garibaldi had emerged as a powerful force in Italian politics

        7. Cavour secretly supported Garibaldi’s bold plan to liberate the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (to use him and to get rid of him) and in May 1860, Garibaldi’s band of thousand “Red Shirts” outwitted the twenty-thousand royal army of Austria

        8. Garibaldi then prepared to attack Rome and the pope but Cavour sent Sardinian forces to occupy most of the Papal Sates (to intercept Garibaldi)

        9. Cavour realized that an attack on Rome would bring about war with France and immediately organized a plebiscite in the conquered territories; Garibaldi did not oppose Cavour and the people of the south voted to join Sardinia

        10. When Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel rode through Naples, they sealed the union of the north and south, of the monarch and the people of Italy

        11. Cavour had controlled Garibaldi and turned popular nationalism into conservatism; the parliamentary monarchy under Victor Emmanuel with the liberal Sardinian constitution of 1848, only a small minority of Italian males had the right to vote (gap)

      3. Germany Before Bismarck

        1. The German states were locked in a political stalemate

          1. With Russian diplomatic support, Austria had blocked the attempt of Frederick William IV of Prussia to unify Germany “from above” (German Confederation)

          2. This action contributed to a growing tension between Austria and Prussia

        2. Modern industry growth within the German customs union (Zollverein); developed under Prussian lead, the exclusion of Austria contributed to Austro-Prussian rivalry

          1. Tariff duties were reduced so that Austria’s high, protected industry couldn’t join

          2. Austria tried to destroy the Zollverein by inducing the southern German states to leave the union, but without success (by 1853, only Austria had not joined)

          3. William I of Prussia, replacing Frederick William IV as regent in 1858, becoming king himself in 1861, wanted to double the size of the highly disciplined army; he also wanted to reduce the importance of the reserve militia (need defense budget)

        3. Prussia emerged from 1848 with a parliament, which was in the hands of the liberal middle class by 1859; but the landed aristocracy, greatly represented in the Prussia electoral system, wanted society to be less, nor more, militaristic

        4. The Parliament rejected the military budget in 1862 and King William considered abdicating in favor of his more liberal son but in the end, William called on Count Otto von Bismarck to head a new ministry and defy the parliament

      4. Bismarck Takes Command

        1. Otto von Bismarck was one of the most important figures in German history; he was born a Junker, Bismarck had a strong personality and unbounded desire for power

        2. Bismarck became a diplomat and acquiring a reputation as an ultraconservative in the Prussian assembly, he fought against Austria as the Prussian ambassador to the German Confederation from 1851 to 1859 (wanted to build up Prussia’s strength)

        3. Bismarck was convinced that Prussia had to control completely the northern part of the German Confederation and saw three possible paths open before him

          1. He could work with Austria to divide up the smaller German states

          2. He might combine with foreign powers (France, Italy, or even Russia)

          3. He might ally with forces of German nationalism to defeat and expel Austria

          4. He explored each possibility but ultimately choose the last option

        4. Bismarck would join with the forces of German nationalism to increase Prussia’s power seemed unlikely when he took chief minister in 1862; he declared that the government would rule with parliament consent and lashed at middle-class opposition

        5. Bismarck had the Prussian bureaucracy go right on collecting taxes without parliament consent, reorganized the army, and from 1862 to 1866 voters continued to express their opposition be sending large liberal majorities to the parliament

      5. The Austro-Prussian War, 1866

        1. When the Danish king tried to incorporate Schleswig-Holstein, Prussia joined Austria in a short and successful war against Denmark in 1864

        2. Both agreed to joint administration of the German land; now Bismarck could force Austria into peacefully accepting Prussian domination in the north or starting a war

        3. Bismarck had to be certain the Prussian expansion would not provoke a mighty armed coalition and Bismarck had already gained Alexander II’s gratitude by supporting Russia’s repression of a Polish uprising in 1863

        4. Considering Napoleon III, Bismarck had charmed Napoleon into neutrality with vague promises of territory along the Rhine and he was in position to declare war

        5. The Austro-Prussian War of 1866 lasted only seven weeks

          1. Using railroads to mass troops and the need gun to achieve maximum firepower, the reorganized Prussian army overran northern Germany

          2. The Prussians defeated Austria decisively at the Battle of Sadowa in Bohemia

          3. Bismarck offered Austria realistic, generous, peace terms in which Austria paid no reparations, lost no territory to Prussia, although Venice was given to Italy

        6. The German Confederation dissolved; Austria agreed to leave from German affairs

        7. The new North German Confederation was led by an expanded Prussia

      6. The Taming of the Parliament

        1. Bismarck believed that because of the event so f1848, the German middle class could be led to prefer the reality of national unity under conservative leadership

        2. After the victory, Bismarck fashioned a federal constitution for the new North German Confederation where each state retained its local government, but the king of Prussia became president of the confederation and the chancellor was under president

        3. The federal government (William I, Bismarck) controlled the army and foreign affairs and there was a legislature consisting of two houses that shared equally in the making of laws; delegates to the upper house were appointed by the different states, but members of the lower house were elected by universal, single category, male suffrage

        4. Bismarck had opened the door to popular participation (right over middle class)

        5. After the victory, the landed nobility and the ultraconservatives expected Bismarck to suspend the Prussian constitution and asked the parliament to pass a special indemnity bill to approve after the fact all of the government’s spending (1862-1866)

          1. For four long years, liberals opposed and criticized Bismarck’s “illegal” measures

          2. At the end, Bismarck, the king, and the army with its aristocratic leadership had persevered and these conservative forces had succeeded above the middle class

        6. In 1866, German unity was in sight and many liberals repented their “sins” and none repented more ardently or more typically than Hermann Baumgarten, a member of the liberal opposition, repented in his essay, “A Self-Criticism of German Liberalism”

        7. The German middle class was bowing respectfully before Bismarck and the monarchial authority and aristocratic superiority he represented

      7. The Franco-Prussian War, 1870-1871

        1. Four south German states were added into the Zollverein (customs parliament) 1867

        2. Bismarck realized that a war with France would drive the south German states into his arms; the pretext was diplomatic involving whether a distant relative of Prussia’s William I (and France’s Napoleon II) might become king of Spain

        3. By 1870 the French leaders of the Second Empire decided on war to teach Prussia and as soon as war began in 1870, Bismarck had the support of German states

        4. With the other governments standing still, German forces under Prussian leadership defeated Louis Napoleon’s armies at Sedan on September 1, 1870 and three days later, French patriots proclaimed another French republic but after five months, Paris surrendered and France accepted Bismarck’s harsh peace terms

        5. By this time, the south German estates agreed to join a new German empire and William was proclaimed the emperor of Germany in Versailles

        6. The Franco-Prussian War released a surge of patriotic feeling in Germany

        7. The weakest of the Great Powers in 1862, Prussia with fortification by the other German states became the most powerful state in Europe

        8. Semi-authoritarian nationalism and a “new conservatism” based on an alliance of the propertied classes and sought the active support of the working classes triumphed

    3. The Modernization of Russia

      1. The “Great Reforms”

        1. In the 1850s Russia was an agrarian society, industry was little developed, and almost 90 percent of the population lived on the land (ancient open-field system existed)

        2. Serfdom was still the basic social institution; serfs were bound to the lord on a hereditary basis, serfs were sold, serfs were obliged to furnish labor services or money payments and the lord could choose for army recruits (serve for 25 years)

        3. The Crimean War of 1853 to 1856 caused reforms by the government

          1. Began over a dispute with France over who should protect certain Christian shrines in the Ottoman Empire (fighting concentrated in Crimean peninsula)

          2. Russia’s transportation network failed to supply the Russian armies and France and Great Britain, aided by Sardinia and the Ottoman Empire, defeated Russia

          3. The Russian state had been built on the military and Russia had not lost a major war for 150 years and showed Russia it had fallen behind industrialized nations

        4. Russia needed railroads, better armaments, and reorganization of the army; but war had caused hardship and raised the specter of massive peasant rebellion

        5. Alexander II (1855-1881) was forced along the path of rapid social change

          1. Human bondage was abolished forever in 1861 and the emancipated peasants received, on average, about half of the land (villages responsible for payments)

          2. In 1864, government established a new institution of local government (zemstvo) where members of the local assembly were elected by a three-class system of towns, peasant villages, and noble landowners (dealt with local problems)

          3. The establishment of zemstvos marked a step toward popular participation but the local zemstvo remained subordinated to the traditional bureaucracy and the local nobility, which were heavily favored by the property-based voting system

          4. Reform of the legal system, which established independent courts and equality before the law; education was also liberalized and censorship was relaxed

      2. The Industrialization of Russia

        1. Russia’s industry and transport were transformed in two industrial surges

          1. After 1860, the government encouraged and subsidized private railway companies

          2. The resulting railroads enabled agricultural Russia to export grain and earn money for further industrialization; domestic manufacturing was stimulated, and by the end of the 1870s, Russia had a well-developed railway-equipment industry

        2. Industrial development strengthened Russia’s military forces and gave rise to territorial expansion to the south and east (nationalists supported the government)

        3. In 1881, Alexander II was assassinated by a small group of terrorists and the new tsar, Alexander III was a reactionary; Russia experience hard times economically in 1880s

        4. Political modernization remained frozen until 1905, but economic modernization sped forward in the massive industrial surge of the 1890s

        5. Nationalism under leader, Sergei Witte, minister of finance from 1892-1903

          1. Witte, having read the writings of Friedrich List, believed that the railroads were a powerful weapon for the direction of economic development of the country

          2. Following List’s advice, Witte established high protective tariffs to build Russian industry and the country on gold standard in order to strengthen Russian finances

          3. Witte used the West to catch up with the Test and encouraged foreigners to use their capital and advanced technology to build great factories in backward Russia

          4. The policy was successful, especially in southern Russia where foreign capitalists built steal and coal industry and Russia’s steel and petroleum industry boomed

          5. Witte, once approached by a leading foreign businessman demanding that the Russian government fulfill a contract it had signed and pay certain debts; Witte asked to see the contract then tore it to pieces and trashed it without explanation

      3. The Revolution of 1905

        1. By 1903, Russia had established a sphere of influence in Chinese Manchuria and cast their eyes on northern Korea; imperialistic Japan launched a surprise attack in 1905 and Asian Japan scored repeated victories, forcing Russia to accept defeat (Feb-Aug)

        2. Military disaster abroad brought political upheaval at home

          1. Business and professional classes wanted to turn the last of Europe’s absolutist monarchies into a liberal, representative regime (political modernization)

          2. Factory workers were organized into a radical and still illegal labor movement

          3. Peasants had gained little from the era of reforms and suffered from poverty

          4. Nationalist sentiment was emerging among the empire’s minorities

          5. Separatist nationalism was strongest among the Poles and Ukrainians

        3. The beginning of the revolution of 1905 pointed up incompetence of the government

        4. In a Sunday in January 1905, a massive crowd of workers and families converged peacefully on the Sinter Palace in St. Petersburg to present a petition to the tsar

          1. Led by a trade-unionist priest named Father Gapon, who had been supported by the police, as a preferable alternative to more radical unions

          2. Nicholas II had fled the city and suddenly troops opened fire, killing and wound-ing hundreds; the “Bloody Sunday” massacre turned workers against the tsar

        5. Outlawed political parties came out into the open, and by the summer of 1905 strikes, peasant uprisings, revolts among minority nationalities, and troop mutinies appeared

        6. The revolutionary surge culminated in October 1905 in a paralyzing general strike, which forced the government to surrender and the tsar issued the October Manifesto

          1. The manifesto granted full civil rights and promised a popularly elected dum (parliament) with real legislative power; the manifesto split the opposition

          2. It satisfied most moderate and liberal demands, but Social Democrats rejected it and led a bloody worker’s uprising in Moscow in December 1905; frightened middle-class leaders helped the government survive as a constitutional monarchy

        7. On the eve of the opening of the first Duma in May 1906, the government issued the new constitution, the Fundamental Laws in which the tsar retained great powers but the Duma, elected indirectly by universal male suffrage, and a large upper house could debate and pass laws, but the tsar had an absolute veto (minister system)

        8. The disappointed, predominately middle-class liberals, the largest group in the newly elected Duma, saw the Fundamental Laws as a step backward

        9. The tsar dismissed the Duma only to find a more hostile and radical opposition elected in 1907 in the second Duma, which was dismissed after three months

        10. The tsar and his reactionary advisers rewrote the electoral law to increase greatly the weight of the propertied classes at the expense of workers, peasants, and minorities

        11. The government secured a loyal majority in 1907 and again in 1912

        12. The armed, tough chief minister, Peter Stolypin, pushed through important agrarian reforms designed to break down collective village ownership of land and to encourage the more enterprising peasants -- “wager on the strong”

    4. The Responsive National State, 1871-1914

      1. The German Empire

        1. European politics after 1871 had a common framework of a established national state; the emergence of mass politics and growing mass loyalty toward the national state

        2. The new German Empire was a federal union of Prussia and 24 smaller states

          1. Everyday business of government was conducted by separate states but there was a national government (chancellor) and popularly elected parliament (Reichstag)

          2. Bismarck refused to be bound by a parliamentary majority and gave the political parties opportunities (Bismarck relied mainly on the National Liberals, who supported legislation useful for further economic and legal unification until 1878)

        3. The National Liberals Bismarck’s attack on the Catholic church (Kulturkampf, or “struggle for civilization”) – Pius IX’s declaration of papal infallibility in 1870; the dogma seemed to ask German Catholics to put loyalty to church above their nation

        4. Catholics throughout the country generally voted for the Catholic Center party and finally in 1878 Bismarck abandoned his attack and entered an alliance (economic)

        5. After a worldwide financial bust in 1873, European agriculture was in a difficult position as wheat prices plummeted as cheap grain poured in from North America

          1. Many peasants, especially in western/southern Germany, could not compete and the Catholic Center party relied on higher tariffs to protect the economic interests

          2. The Protestant Junkers embraced the cause of higher tariffs and Bismarck went along with protective tariff in 1879, winning supports in the Reichstag, the Center part of the Catholics and the Conservative party of the Prussian landowners

        6. The 1880s and 1890s saw a widespread return to protectionism (led to trade wars)

        7. Bismarck tried to stop socialism growth in Germany because he feared its revolutionary language and allegiance to a movement transcending the nation-state

        8. Bismarck used a national outcry to introduce and pass a law that controlled socialist meetings and publications and outlawed the Social Democratic party

        9. Bismarck’s nation-state pioneered with social measures to win support of workers

          1. The laws of 1883 and 1884 established national sickness and accident insurance

          2. The law of 1889 established old-age pensions and retirement benefits

          3. The national social security system, paid for through compulsory contributions by wage earners and employers as well as grants from the state was a first of its kind

          4. The system gave workers a small stake in the system and protected them from the urban industrial world; this development was a produce of competition

        10. The great issues in German domestic politics were socialism and the Marxian Social Democratic party; William II opposed Bismarck’s attempt to renew the law outlawing the Social Democratic party and eager to please, forced Bismarck to resign in 1890

        11. Socialist ideas spread rapidly and more and more Social Democrats were elected to the Reichstag in the 1890s; after a colonial war in Southwest Africa in 1907 that led to important losses in the general elections of 1907, the party broadened its base

        12. After the elections of 1912, the party became the single largest party in the Reichstag shocking aristocrats and middle-class (revolutionary socials lessened before WW I)

      2. Republican France

        1. In 1871, the patriotic republicans who proclaimed the Third Republic in Paris after the military disaster at Sedan, refused to admit defeat, defended Paris for weeks but were eventually starved into submission by the German armies in January 1871

        2. When national elections send a majority of conservatives and monarchies to the National Assembly, the Parisians exploded and proclaimed the Paris Commune

          1. In March 1871, the leaders wanted to govern without the conservative peasants

          2. The National Assembly led by Adolphe Thiers ordered the French army into Paris and crushed the Commune; twenty thousand people died in the fighting

        3. The monarchists could not agree who should be king and the compromise Bourbon candidate refused to rule except under the white flag of his ancestors (unacceptable)

        4. President Thiers showed the Third Republic might be moderate/socially conservative

        5. Another stabilizing factor was the skill and determination of the moderate republicans

          1. The most famous was Leon Gambetta who preached a republic of truly equal opportunity; Gambetta was instrumental in establishing absolute parliamentary supremacy between 1877 and 1879, when deputies forced MacMahon to resign

          2. By 1879, the majority of members of both the upper and lower houses of the National Assembly were republics, the Third Republic had firm foundations

        6. Trade unions were fully legalized and France acquired a colonial empire; under the leadership of Jules Ferry, the moderate republicans passed a series of laws between 1879-1886 establishing free compulsory elementary education for children

        7. The government expanded the state system of public tax-supported schools; free compulsory elementary education in France became secular republican education

        8. Unlike most western countries, the Third Republic encouraged young teachers to marry and guaranteed that both partners would teach in the same location

          1. Married female and male teachers with their own children provide a vivid contrast to celibate nuns and priests, who had taught generations primary education

          2. Republican leaders believed that married women and men would better cope with the potential loneliness and social isolation of unfamiliar towns and villages

          3. French politicians worried continually about France’s low birthrate after 1870

        9. French Catholics rallied to the republic in the 1890s after the educational reforms

        10. Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish captain in the French army, was falsely convicted of treason

          1. His family fought to reopen the case and the case was split in 1898 into two sides of which was the army, joined by anti-Semites, and the other side which stood the civil libertarians and most of the more radical republicans

          2. After Dreyfus was declared innocent, it revived republican feeling against the church and between 1901 and 1905, the government severed all ties between the state and the Catholic church (Catholic schools lost a third of their students)

      3. Great Britain and Ireland

        1. Great Britain was under an effective two-party parliament that skillfully guided the country from classical liberalism to full-fledged democracy

          1. The right to vote was granted to males of the solid middle class in 1832 but people, like John Stuart Mill (On Liberty), were uncertain about future extension

          2. In 1867, Disraeli and the Conservatives extended the vote to all middle-class males and best-paid workers in order to gain new supporters

          3. Third Reform Bill of 1884 gave the vote to almost every adult male

        2. While the House of Commons drifted toward democracy, the House of Lords, between 1901-1910 ruled against labor unions in two important decisions

          1. After the Liberal party came to power in 1906, the Lords vetoed several measures passed by the Commons, including the People’s Budget (Lords finally gave in)

        3. Extensive social welfare measures were passed in a rush between 1906 and 1914

        4. The Liberal party between those years, inspired by David Lloyd George, raised taxes on the rich as part of the People’s Budget and this income helped the government pay for national health insurance, unemployment benefits, and old-age pensions

        5. On the eve of World War One, the question of Ireland brought Great Britain to the brink of civil war; after the Great Famine, English slowly granted concessions

        6. Liberal prime minister William Gladstone introduced bills to give Ireland self-government in 1886 and 1893 but both failed to pass

        7. Irish nationalists saw their change and supported the Liberals in their battle of the People’s Budget and received a home-rule bill for Ireland in return for their support

        8. Irish achieved self-government but Ireland was composed of two people

          1. The Irish Catholic majority in the southern counties wanted home rule as much as the Irish Protestants of the northern counties of Ulster came to oppose it

          2. The Ulsterites vowed to resist home rule in northern Ireland and by December 1913, they had raised 100,000 armed volunteers (supported by English public)

          3. In 1914, the Liberals in the House of Lords introduced a compromise home-rule bill that did not apply to the northern counties but was rejected and in September the original home-rule bill was passed but simultaneously suspended for hostility

        9. The momentous Irish question had been overtaken by world war in August 1914

      4. The Austro-Hungarian Empire

        1. In 1849 Magyar nationalism had driven Hungarian patriots to declare an independent Hungarian republic which was savagely crushed by Russian and Austrian armies

        2. Throughout the 1850s, Hungary was ruled as a conquered territory and Emperor Francis Joseph and his bureaucracy tried hard to centralize the state

        3. In wake of defeat by Prussia in 1866, Austria was forced to strike a compromise and establish the dual monarchy in which the empire was divided in two and the nationalistic Magyars gained virtual independence for Hungary (shared monarch)

        4. In Austria ethnic Germans were only one-third of the population and by 1895, many Germans saw their traditional dominance threatened by Czechs, Poles, and Slavs

        5. From 1900 to 1914, the parliament ruled instead by decree and endeavors that led to the introduction of universal male suffrage in 1907 proved to be largely unsuccessful

        6. Conservatives and socialists tried to defuse national antagonisms with issues


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