Ap european Study Guide From After Black Death to Current History



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  1. The rural worker lived in a small cottage with tiny windows and little space and it was often a single room that served as a workshop, kitchen, and bedroom

  2. There were only a few pieces of furniture, the most important being the loom changed when John Kay’s invention of the flying shuttle enabled the weaver to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads with one hand

  • The cottage industry was first and foremost a family enterprise and all members of the family helped in the work—every person from seven to eighty—while women and children prepared the raw material and spun the thread, the man of the house wove the cloth and children helped wash dirt out of the raw cotton

  • The work of four or five spinners was needed to keep one weaver steadily employed and often widows and unmarried women were recruited by the wife to spin

  • There were constant disputes over the weights of materials and the quality of the cloth and rural labor was cheap, scattered, and poorly organized—it was hard to control

  • After getting paid on Saturday afternoon, the family did not work on “holy Monday”

  • Labor relations were often poor, and the merchant was unable to control the quality of the cloth or the schedule of the workers

  • Building the Atlantic Economy

    1. Introduction

      1. The expansion of Europe in the eighteenth century was characterized by the growth of world trade—Netherlands, France, and, above all, Great Britain benefited most

      2. Great Britain, formed in 1707 by the union of England and Scotland in a single kingdom, gradually became the leading maritime power (long-distance trade)

    2. Mercantilism and Colonial Wars

      1. Britain’s commercial leadership in the eighteenth century had its origins in the mercantilism of the seventeenth century—European mercantilism was a system of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of the state

      2. Practiced by Colbert under Louis XIV, mercantilism aimed at creating a favorable balance of foreign trade in order to increase a country’s stock of gold

      3. What distinguished English mercantilism was then idea that government economic regulations could and should serve the private interest of individuals and groups as well as the public needs of the state—others put needs of state ahead of individuals

      4. The result of the English desire to increase both military power and private wealth was the mercantile system of theNavigation Acts passed under Oliver Cromwell

        1. The acts required that goods imported from Europe into England and Scotland be carried on British-owned ships or on ships of the country producing the article

        2. Acts gave British merchants and shipowners monopoly on trade with the colonies

        3. The colonists were required to buy almost all of their European goods from Britain and people believed that they were be a guaranteed market for products

        4. The Navigation Acts were a form of economic warfare in that their initial target was the Dutch, who were far ahead of the English in shipping and foreign trade and three Anglo-Dutch wars between 1652 and 1674 damaged Dutch commerce

      5. Late in the seventeenth century, the Dutch and English became allies to stop the expansion of France’s Louis XIV and the Netherlands followed Spain into decline

      6. From 1701 to 1763, Britain and France were locked in a series of wars to decide, in part, which nation would become the leading maritime power (share of profits)

      7. The War of the Spanish Succession which started when Louis XIV declared his willingness to accept the Spanish crown willed to his grandson—union of France and Spain threatened to destroy the British colonies in America (coalition of states)

        1. Louis XIV was forced in the Peace of Utrecht (1713) to cede Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and the Hudson Bay territory to Britain

        2. Spain was compelled to give Britain control of the West African slave trade (asiento) and let Britain send one ship of products into Spanish colonies yearly

      8. The War of Austrian Succession, which started when Frederick the Great Prussia seized Silesia from Austria’s Maria Theresa, gradually became a world war

        1. The seizure of French territory in Canada by New England colonists in 1745 led France to sue for peace in 1748 and to accept a return to the territorial situation existing in North America at the beginning of the war

        2. France’s Bourbon ally, Spain, defended itself well and remained intact

      9. The inconclusive standoff was followed by the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) where in central Europe, Austria’s Maria Theresa sought to win back Silesia and crush Prussia re-establishing control in German affairs (she almost succeeded, skillfully winning both France, Habsburg’s long-standing enemy and Russia to her cause)

      10. The seven Years’ War was decisive between the Franco-British competition for colonial empire and led by William Pitt, the British concentrated on using sea power to destroy the French fleet and choke off French commerce around the world (British captured Quebec and strangled France’s sugar trade with its Caribbean Islands)

      11. With the Treaty of Paris, France lost all its possessions on the mainland of North America—French Canada and territory east of Mississippi River passed to Britain, and France ceded Louisiana to Spain as compensation for loss of Florida to Britain

      12. By 1763, British naval power, built on the rapid growth of British shipping industry after the passing of the Navigation Acts, triumphed decisively

    3. Land and Labor in British America

      1. The settlements along the Atlantic coast provided an outlet for surplus population

      2. The possibility of having one’s own farm was attractive to ordinary men and women from the British Isles; land in the England was concentrated in the hands of the nobility and gentry; white settles who came to colonies as free men, indentured servants (work for seven years for passage), and prisoners could obtain own land

      3. Unlike the great majority of European peasants, American farmers could keep most of what they produced; availability of land made labor expensive in the colonies

      4. Cheap land and scarce labor were critical factors in the growth of slavery in the southern colonies (Spanish introduced slavery into the Americas in the 16th century)

      5. In the 18th century, framers of New England and middle colonies produced food exporting the products to West Indies (people depend on the mainland colonies)

      6. The English could not buy cheaper sugar from Brazil, nor allowed to grow tobacco and the colonists had their place in the mercantile system of the Navigation Acts

      7. The abundance of almost free land resulted in a rapid increase in the colonial population in the 18th century (the population increased ten fold from 1700-1775)

      8. Agricultural development resulted in fairly high standards of living for colonists

    4. The Growth of Foreign Trade

      1. The rapidly growing and wealthy agricultural population of the mainland colonies provided an expanding market for English manufactured goods

      2. Rising demand for manufactured goods in North America as well as in the West Indies, Africa, and Latin America allowed English cottage industry to continue

      3. Like England earlier, European states adopted protectionist, mercantilist policies, and by 1773, England was selling only about two-thirds as much woolen cloth to northern and western Europe as its had in 1700 (wool cloth was only important product)

      4. Decline in many markets meant that the English economy needed new markets and protected colonial markets came to the rescue and from 1700-1773, manufactured products to the Atlantic economy—mainland colonies of North America and West Indian sugar islands—soared from £500,000 to £4.0 million

      5. English exports became much more balanced and diversified (to America and Africa went large quantities of metal items) and the mercantilist system formed in the seventeenth century to attack the Dutch achieved success in the 18th century

      6. The English concentrated much of the trade flowing through the Atlantic economy

    5. Revival in Colonial Latin America

      1. When the last Spanish Habsburg, Charles II, died in 1700, Spain’s vast empire lay ready for dismemberment but Spain recovered under the leadership of Louis XIV’s grandson, Philip V, who brought men and ideas from France

      2. Peace was restored after the War of Spanish Succession and a series of ministers reasserted royal authority, overhauling state finances and strengthening defense

      3. Spain received Louisiana from France in 1763 and missionaries and ranchers extended Spanish influence all the way to northern California and economy improved

      4. In 1800 Spanish America accounted for half of world silver production and silver mining encouraged food production for large mining camps and allowed Creoles—people of Spanish blood born in America—to purchase more European goods

      5. The Creole elite came to rival the top government officials dispatched to govern the colonies and estate owners believed that work in the fields was the proper occupation of the peasantry and slavery and periodic forced labor gave way todebt peonage

      6. Debt peonage—a planter or rancher would keep the estate’s Christianized Indians in perpetual debt bondage by periodically advancing food, shelter, and a little money

      7. The large middle group in Spanish colonies consisted ofmestizos, the offspring of Spanish men and Indian women and at the end of the colonial era, about 20% were white (Creoles), 30 % were mestizo, and about 50 % were of African origin

      8. In the 18th century Spanish and Portuguese colonies developed a growing commerce in silver, sugar, and slaves as well as in manufactured goods for Europeanized elite

    6. Adam Smith and Economic Liberalism

      1. Wanting bigger positions in overseas commerce, independent merchants in many countries began campaigning against “monopolies” and called for “free trade”

        1. Although mercantilist policies strengthened both the Spanish and British colonial empires, Creole merchants were annoyed by regulations imposed in Madrid

        2. Small English merchants complained about the injustice of handing over exclusive trading rights to great trading combines such as the East India Company

      2. The general idea of freedom of enterprise in foreign trade was developed by Scottish professor of philosophy Adam Smith, whose Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations founded modern economics was highly critical of mercantilism

      3. To Smith, mercantilism meant a combination of stifling government regulations and unfair privileges for state-approved monopolies and government favorites and free competition, which would best protect consumers from price gouging and give all citizens a fair and equal right to do what they did best (“system of natural liberty”)

      4. Smith argued that the government should limit itself to “only three duties”

        1. The government should provide a defense against foreign invasion

        2. The government should maintain civil order with courts and police protection

        3. The government should sponsor certain indispensable public works and institutions that could never earn an adequate profit for private investors

      5. Smith was one of the enlightenment’s most original and characteristic thinkers rely-ing on the power of reason to unlock the secrets of the secular world (spoke truth)

      6. Unlike many disgruntled merchant capitalists, Smith applauded the modest rise in real wages of British works in the 18th century saying, “No society can surely by flourish-ing and happy, of which the far great part of the members are poor and miserable.”

      7. Believing that employers as well as workers and consumers were motivated by narrow self-interest, Smith did not call for more laws and more polic power but made the pursuit of self-interest in a competitive market the source of an underlying and previously unrecognized a harmony, a harmony that would result in gradual process

      8. The “invisible hand” of free competition for one and for all disciplined the freed of selfish individuals and provided the most effective means of increasing wealth

      9. Smith’s work emerged as the classic argument for economic liberalism and capitalism

    Chapter 21: The Revolution in Politics



    1. Liberty

      1. Introduction

        1. Two ideas fueled the revolutionary period in the world: liberty and equality

        2. The call for liberty was first of all a call for individual human rights and liberals of the revolutionary era protested the way the most enlightened monarchs regulated what people wrote and believed (demanded an end to censorship, written and spoken)

          1. Called for a new government and believed that the people were sovereign and alone had the authority to make laws limiting the individual’s freedom of action

          2. Liberals believed that every nation, every ethnic group, had this right of self-determination and thus a right to form a free nation

        3. Liberals argued, in theory, all citizens should have identical rights and civil liberties and above all, the nobility had no right to special privileges based on birth

        4. Most eighteenth-century liberals were men and generally shared with other men the belief that equality between men and women was neither practical nor desirable

          1. Men of the French Revolution limited formal political rights of women, the right to vote, to run for office, to participate in government

          2. Liberals never believed that everyone should be equal economically

          3. The essential point was that everyone should legally have an equal chance

        5. The economic inequality based on artificial legal distinctions were criticized by liberals, not economic inequality itself

      2. The Roots of Liberalism

        1. The ideas of liberty and equality had deep roots in Western history; the ancient Greeks and the Judeo-Christian tradition had affirmed for hundreds of years the sanctity and value of the individual human being

        2. Classical liberalism first crystallized at the end of the seventeenth century and during the Enlightenment of the eighteenth century and reflected the stress on human dignity and human happiness on earth (faith in science, rationality, and progress)

        3. Writers of the Enlightenment preached religious toleration, freedom of press and speech, and fair and equal treatment before the law

        4. John Locke and Baron de Montesquieu were the two important thinkers responsible for joining the Enlightenment’s concern for personal freedom and legal equality to a theoretical justification of liberal self-government

          1. John Locke maintained that England’s long political tradition rested on “the rights of Englishmen” and on representative government through Parliament

          2. Montesquieu believed that powerful intermediary groups, such as the judicial nobility, offered the best defense of liberty against despotism

      3. The Attraction of Liberalism

        1. The belief that representative institutions could defend their liberty and interests appealed powerfully to well-educated, prosperous groups as well as liberal ideas about individual rights and political freedom

        2. Representative government did not mean democracy, which liberal thinkers tended to frown upon, but they envisioned voting for representatives as being restricted to those who owned property (liberalism found broad support among elites in western Europe)

        3. Liberalism lacked from the beginning because of weak popular support

          1. Liberals questioned theoretical and political ideas while common people’s questions were immediate and economic (enough to eat?)

          2. Traditional practices and institutions that they wanted to abolish were important to peasants and urban workers (enclosure of lands and regulation of food prices)

    2. The American Revolution (1775-1789)

    3. The French Revolution (1789-1791)

      1. The Breakdown of the Old Order

        1. Many French soldiers, such as Marquis de Lafayette, left to fight France’s traditional enemy, served in America and were impressed by the ideals of the Revolution

        2. The French Revolution was more radical and more complex, more influential and more controversial, more loved and more hated (opened the modern era in politics)

        3. The French Revolution origin was the financial difficulties of the government and the efforts of monarchy to raise taxes stopped by the Parlement (popular support)

        4. The government was forced to finance all its expenditures during the American war with borrowed money and the national debt and annual budget deficit soared

          1. By 1780s, 50 percent of France’s annual budget went for ever-increasing interest payments, another 25 percent when tot maintain the military, 6 percent absorbed by Versailles, and less than 20 percent left for productive functions of state

          2. One way out would have been for the government to declare partial bankruptcy, forcing its creditors to accept greatly reduced payments on the debt and France declared this after an attempt to establish a French national bank ended in 1720

          3. By the 1780s, the French debt was being held by an army of aristocratic and bour-geois creditors, and the French monarchy had become far too weak for this action

        5. King and his ministers could not print money creating inflation to cover their deficits because France had no central bank, non paper currency, and could not create credit

        6. In 1786, France had no alternative but to try increasing taxes and increased revenues were possible only through fundamental reforms (opens social and political demands)

      2. Legal Orders and Social Realities

        1. France’s twenty-five million inhabitants were still legally divided into three orders, or “estates,” the clergy, the nobility, and everyone else

        2. The first estate, the clergy, numbered about 100,000, owned about 10 percent of the land, paid little taxes to the government every five years

          1. Church levied a tax (tithe) on landowners, which averaged less than 10 percent

          2. Much of the church’s income was drained from local parishes by political appointees and worldly aristocrats at the top of the church hierarchy

        3. The second legally defined estate consisted of some 400,000 nobles, the descendents of “those who had fought” in the Middle Ages (owned about 25 percent of France)

          1. Taxed lightly, nobles enjoyed certain privileges of lordship (manorial rights) which allowed them to tax the peasantry for their won profit done by exclusive rights to hunt, fish, monopolies on baking bread and making wine, fees for justice

          2. Nobles had “honorific privileges,” such as the right to precedence on public occasions and the right to wear a sword (legal superiority and social position)

        4. Everyone else was a commoner, a member of the third estate; a few commoners were merchants or lawyers and officials (could buy manorial rights), others were urban artisans and unskilled day laborers, but the vast majority consisted of peasants and agricultural workers in the countryside (united by their shared legal status)

        5. There were growing tensions between the nobility and thebourgeoisie (middle class)

        6. Aided by general economic expansion, the middle class tripled to about 2.3 millions people (8 percent) and became exasperated by “feudal” laws restraining the economy and by the growing pretensions of reactionary nobility (closing ranks on bourgeoisie)

          1. The French bourgeoisie eventually rose up to lead the entire third estate in a great social revolution that destroyed feudal privileges and established a capitalist order based on individualism and a market economy

          2. Revisionist historians see both bourgeoisie and nobility as highly fragmented as the nobility was separated by differences in wealth, education

        7. Revisionist historians stress three development, in particular

          1. The nobility remained a fluid and relatively open order (commoners continued to obtain noble status through government service and purchase of positions)

          2. Key sections of the nobility and bourgeoisie formed together the core of the book-hungry Enlightenment public and both groups saw themselves forming part of the educated elite standing well above the common people (peasants and urban poor)

          3. The nobility and the bourgeoisie were not really at odds in the economic sphere in that both looked to investment in land and government services

          4. The ideal of the merchant capitalist was to gain wealth, to retire from trade, purchase estates, and live as a large landowner (mining, metallurgy, foreign trade)

        8. The old Regime had ceased to correspond with social reality by the 1780s and France had already moved toward a society based on wealth and education

      3. The Formation of the National Assembly

        1. The Revolution was under way by 1787 and spurred by a depressed economy and falling tax receipts, Louis XVI’s minister of finance proposed to impose a general tax on all landed property as well as provincial assemblies to help administer the tax

          1. Called an assembly of notables to gain support and the assembled notables, noblemen and clergy, were not in favor and in return for their support, demanded that control over all government spending be given to the provincial assemblies

          2. Government refused and the notables responded that tax changes required the approval of the Estates General, the representative body of all three estates (had not met since 1614); dismissed the notables and established new taxes by decrees

          3. The Parlement specified the “fundamental laws” against which no king could transgress, such as national consent to taxation and freedom for arbitrary arrest

          4. In July 1788, Louis XVI bowed to public opinion, called for the Estates General

        2. Clergy, nobles, and commoners came together in their respective orders to draft petitions for change and to elect their respective delegates to the Estates General

          1. The local assemblies of the clergy frowned upon the church hierarchy and two-thirds of the delegates were chosen from among the parish priests

          2. The nobles, split by wealth and education, remained politically divide and a majority was drawn from the poorer and numerous provincial nobility but one-third of the nobility’s representatives were liberals committed to major changes

          3. There was great popular participation in the elections for the third estate because almost all male commoners twenty-five years or older had the right to vote but most of the representatives selected were well-educated, prosperous members of the middle class (lawyers and government officials)

          4. Social status and prestige were matters of concern and no delegates were elected from the mass of laboring poor, that encouraged the peasants and urban artisans to intervene directly and dramatically at numerous points in the Revolution

        3. The petitions of change coming from the three estates showed general agreement

          1. Royal absolutism show give way to constitutional monarchy, in which laws and taxes would require the consent of the Estates General meeting regularly

          2. Individual liberties would have to be guaranteed by law and that the economic position of the parish clergy would have to be improved

          3. Thought that economic development required reforms (internal trade barriers)

        4. During the electoral campaign: How would the Estates General vote, and who would lead in the political reorganization that was generally desired?

        5. Any action had required the agreement of at least two branches, a requirement that virtually guaranteed control by the nobility and the clergy

        6. The Parlement of Paris ruled that the Estates General should once again sit separately

        7. Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes argued in 1789 in his famous pamphlet What is the Third Estate? that the third estate constituted the true strength of the French nation

        8. The government agreed that the third estate should have as many delegates as the clergy and nobility combined then negated the act by enforcing separate order

        9. In May 1789 the twelve hundred delegates of the three estates went into Versailles but the delegates of the third estate demanded that the group sit as a single body

        10. After six weeks, a few parish priests joined the third estate, which on June 17 called itself the “National Assembly” and on June 20, the third estate excluded because of “repairs” moved to a large indoor tennis court where they swore the famous Oath of the Tennis Court, pledging not to disband until they had written a new constitution

        11. On June 23, he urged the estates to meet but at the same time following advice of court nobles called an army to Versailles and dismissed his liberal ministers

        12. Facing opposition, Louis XVI resigned himself to bankruptcy and now sought to reassert his historic “Divine right” to rule (delegates disbanded at bayonet point)

      4. The Revolt of the Poor and Oppressed

        1. Grain was the basis of the diet of ordinary people in the eighteenth century and in 1788 the harvest had been poor and the price of bread began to soar (bread could cost 8 sous per pound even though the poor could barely afford to pay 2 sous per pound)

        2. Harvest failure and bread prices unleashed a classic economic depression of the pre-industrial age and the demand for manufactured goods collapsed (half needed relief)

        3. The people of Paris entered decisively onto the revolutionary stage and believed that the they should have steady work and enough bread at fair prices to survive and feared that the dismissal of the king’s moderate finance minister would put them at the mercy of aristocratic landowners and grain speculators

          1. On July 13 the people began to seize arms for the defense of the city and marched to Bastille to search for gunpowder (gunpowder was in a medieval fortress)

          2. The prison surrendered; the prison governor and the mayor of Paris were killed

          3. The next day, a committee of citizens appointed the Marquis de Lafayette commander of the city’s armed forces and the king was forced to recall the finance minister and disperse his troops (uprising saved the National Assembly)

        4. All across France, peasants began to rise in spontaneous, violent, and effective insurrection against their lords, ransacking manor houses and burning obligations

        5. Fear of vagabonds and outlaws—called the Great Fear—seized the countryside and fanned the flames of rebellion (free themselves from manorial rights and exploitation)

        6. Some liberal nobles and middleclass delegates responded to peasant demands at Versailles with a maneuver on the night of August 4, 1789 (duke of Aiguillon, one of France’s greatest nobles, urged equality in taxation and elimination of feudal dues)

        7. All the old exactions imposed on the peasants—serfdom, hunting rights, fees for justice, village monopolies, and others—were abolished (without compensation)

        8. Peasants never paid feudal dues and the French peasants now protected their triumph

      5. A Limited Monarchy

        1. On August 27, 1789, the National Assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man, which states, “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights”

          1. Maintained that mankind’s natural rights are “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression” and “everyman is innocent until proven otherwise”

          2. Law is an expression of the general will; all citizens have the right to concur personally or through their representatives in its formations”

          3. Every citizen may therefore speak, write, and publish freely (free expression)

        2. Call for the liberal revolutionary guaranteed equality before the law, representative government for a sovereign people, and individual freedom

        3. The questions of how much power the king should retain and whether he could permanently veto legislation led to another deadlock, decided by poor women of Paris

          1. Women customarily bought the food and managed the poor family’s resources and in Paris great numbers of women also worked for wages (garments)

          2. Plummeting demand for luxuries intensified the general economic crisis and increasing unemployment and hunger resulted in another popular revolt

          3. On October 5, seven thousand desperate women marched to Versailles, demanding action, invaded the Assembly, invaded the royal apartments searching for the queen, Marie Antoinette, and the intervention of Lafayette and the National Guard saved the royal family (the king was ordered to live in Paris)

        4. The next day, the royal family and the National Assembly, followed the king to Paris until September 1791, saw the consolidation of the liberal Revolution

          1. The National Assembly abolished the French nobility as a legal order and created a constitutional monarchy, which Louis XVI reluctantly agreed to in July 1790

          2. In the final constitution, the king remained the head of state, but all lawmaking power was given to the National Assembly, elected by the economic males

        5. New laws broadened women’s rights to seek divorce, to inherit property, and to obtain financial support from fathers for illegitimate children

          1. Majority of National Assembly believed that women should raise the child, complete domestic duties and leave politics and most public activities to men

          2. Delegates were convinced that political life in absolutist France had been corrupt and one way was immoral aristocratic women had used their sexual charms

        6. The National Assembly replaced the historic provinces with eighty-three departments of approximately equal size, introduced the metric system in 1793, promoted liberal concept of economic freedom and prohibited monopolies, guilds, and worker’s combinations and abolished barriers to trade within France

        7. Assembly imposed a radical reorganization on the Catholic church by nationalizing the church’s property and abolished monasteries as useless relics of a distant past

        8. The government used all former church property as collateral to guarantee a new paper currency, the assignats, then sold these properties to support the state’s finances

        9. Reorganization of France brought the new government into conflict with the Catholic church and Christians, but many delegates harbored a deep distrust of popular piety

        10. The Assembly established a national church, with priests chosen by voters then required the clergy to take a loyalty oath to the new government and this resulted in a division within both the country and the clergy on the religious question

        11. Policy toward the church was the revolutionary government’s first important failure

    4. World War and Republican France (1791-1799)

      1. Foreign Reactions and the Beginning of War

        1. France was seen as a mighty triumph of liberty over despotism and in Great Britain, people hoped that this would lead to a fundamental reordering of the political system

          1. The system consolidated in the revolution of 1688 to 1689, placed Parliament in the hands of the aristocracy and a few wealthy merchants

          2. Conservative leaders such as Edmund Burke (Reflections on the Revolution in France, 1790) defend inherited privileges of English monarchy and aristocracy, glorified the unrepresentative Parliament, and predicted that thoroughgoing reform, like in France, would lead only to chaos and tyranny

          3. Mary Wollstonecraft was incensed by Burke’s book and wrote (A Vindication of the Rights of Man) then developed for the first time the logical implications of natural-law philosophy in her masterpiece, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman

          4. Wollstonecraft set high standards for women, advocated coeducation, and marked the birth of the modern women’s movement for equal rights (give women chance)

        2. among European kings and nobility that revolution would spread resulted in the Declaration of Pillnitz (1791), which threatened the invasion of France by Austria and Prussia (expected to have a sobering effect on revolutionary France w/o causing war)

        3. When the National Assembly disbanded, it sought popular support be decreeing that none of its members be eligible for election to the new Legislative Assembly

          1. The great majority of the legislators were still middle-class men but were younger and less cautious than their predecessors (called “Jacobins,” after the name of their political club and were passionately committed to liberal revolution)

          2. The Jacobins lumped “useless aristocrats” and “despotic monarch” together and believed that if the courts o Europe were attempting to incite war of kings against France, ten million Frenchmen would be able to change the face of the world

        4. France declared war on Francis II, the Habsburg monarch but the crusade went poorly at first because Prussia joined Austria in the Austrian Netherlands and French forces broke and fled at first encounter with armies of this First Coalition

          1. It is possible that only conflict between the eastern monarchs over the division of Poland saved France from defeat (as the road to Paris lay wide open)

          2. Military reversals and Austro-Prussian threats caused a wave of patriotic fervor to sweep France and the Legislative Assembly declared the country in danger

          3. Volunteer armies from the provinces stream through Paris singing (Marseillaise)

          4. On August 10, 1792, on news of treason by the king and queen, a revolutionary crowd attacked the royal palace at the Tuileries capturing the palace, while the royal family fled to the Legislative Assembly, which suspended the king from all his functions, imprisoned him, and called for a new National Convention to be elected by universal male suffrage

      2. The Second Revolution

        1. The fall of the monarchy marked radicalization of the Revolution (second revolution)

          1. Louis’s imprisonment was followed by the September Massacres where stories seized the city that imprisoned counter-revolutionary aristocrats and priests were plotting with the allied invaders and half the men and women were slaughtered

          2. The new, popularly elected National Convention proclaimed France a republic

        2. The republic sought to create a new popular culture that glorified the new order by adopting a revolutionary calendar, addressing each other with “thou” instead of “you,” promoting democratic festivals (brought the entire population together)

        3. All the members of the National Convention were Jacobins and republicans but the convention was divided into two bitterly competitive groups—the Girondists, named after a department in the France, and the Mountain, led by Robespierre and Georges Jacques Danton (called this because members sat on uppermost benches of hall)

        4. By a single vote (361 of 720), the National Convention convicted Louis XVI of treason and sentenced him to death in January 1793 (died on guillotine)

        5. The Prussians had been stopped at the indecisive Battle of Valmy on September 20, 1792; republican armies captured Nice, the city of Frankfurt, won their first major battle at Jamappes and by November 1792, occupied the entire Austrian Netherlands

        6. French armies found support among peasants and middleclass people but lived off the land, requested food and supplies; started to look like invaders and tensions mounted

          1. In February 1793, the National Convention, already at war with Austria and Prussia, declared war on Britain, Holland, and Spain (France was now at war with almost all of Europe, a war that would last almost without interruption until 1815)

          2. Driven from the Austrian Netherlands, peasants did not want to be drafted and were supported in their resistance by devout Catholics, royalists, foreign agents

        7. The National Convention found itself locked between Girondists and the Mountain

          1. The two groups were in general agreement on questions of policy but the Girondists feared a dictatorship by the Mountain and the Mountain was convinced that the more moderate Girondists would turn to conservatives even royalists

          2. With the middle-class delegates divide, the laboring poor of Paris decided

        8. The laboring men and women had drove the Revolution forward and petty traders and laboring poor were often known as the sans-culottes (“without breeches”) because men wore trousers instead of the breeches of the aristocracy and the solid middleclass

          1. In the spring of 1793, rapid inflation, unemployment, and food shortages encouraged by so-called angry men, such as journalist Jacques Roux, sans-culottes men and women demanded political action to guarantee them daily bread

          2. The Mountain joined the Girondists in rejecting these demands but the Mountain and Robespierre became more sympathetic, joined with sans-culottes in a popular uprising forcing the Convention to arrest 31 Girondists deputies for treason on June 2 and all the power passed to the Mountain

      3. Total War and the Terror

        1. In July 1794, the Austrian Netherlands and the Rhineland were under the French and the First Coalition was falling apart and was due to the government’s success in harnessing the explosive forces of a planned economy, revolutionary terror, and modern nationalism in a total war effort

        2. Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety advanced with resolution (1793-94)

          1. Collaborated with patriotic and democratic sans-culottes, who retained the common people’s faith in fair prices and a moral economic order; established a planned economy with egalitarian social overtones

          2. The government decreed the maximum allowable prices for a host of key products, rationing was introduced, and quality was also controlled

          3. Production of arms and munitions for the war effort were controlled and craftsmen and manufacturers were told what to produce and when to deliver

          4. The second revolution and the ascendancy of the sans-culottes had produced an embryonic emergency socialism (subsequent development of socialist ideology)

        3. During the Reign of Terror (1793-1974), special revolutionary courts responsible only to Robespierre’s Committee of Public Safety tried political crimes and some 40,000 French died and another 300,000 suspects crowded the prisons

          1. Robespierre’s Reign of Terror was a political weapon directed against all who might oppose the revolutionary government (secular ideology)

          2. Strengthened belief that France had replaced a king with a bloodily dictatorship

        4. The most decisive element in the French republic’s victory over the First Coalition was its ability to continue drawing on the explosive power of patriotic dedication to a national state and a national mission (French people stirred by a common loyalty)

        5. All unmarried young men were subject to the draft; the French armed forces grew to one million men in fourteen armies and were led by generals who had risen rapidly from the ranks and personified the opportunities the Revolution offered to the people

        6. By the spring of 1794, French armies were victorious on all fronts (republic saved)

      4. The Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory, 1794-1799

        1. Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety relaxed the emergency economic controls but extended the political Reign of Terror; their goal was an ideal democratic republic where justice would reign and there would be neither rich nor poor

          1. Unrestrained despotism and the guillotine struck down on any who opposed order

          2. Robespierre’s Terror wiped out many men who had criticized him for being soft on the wealthy and who were led by the radical social democrat Jacques Hebert

          3. After March 1794, several of Robespierre’s collaborators led by Danton, marched up the steps on the guillotine when howled down Robespierre on 9 Thermidor (July 27, 1794) and the next day, Robespierre was guillotined to death

        2. France experienced a reaction to the despotism of the Reign (Thermidorian reaction)

        3. Respectable middle-class lawyers and professions who led the liberal revolution of 1789 reasserted their authority and the National Convention abolished many economic controls, printed more paper currency, and let prices rise sharply

        4. The Convention restricted local political organizations and speculators celebrated the end of the Terror with self-indulgence and ostentatious luxury (worsen working poor)

        5. The sans-culottes believed in small business, decent wages, and economic justice and finally revolted in Paris against the new order in early 1795 (used army to control)

        6. As the government began to retreat on the religious issue from 1796 to 1801, the women of rural France brought back the Catholic church and open worship of God

        7. National Convention wrote another constitution in 1795, which would guarantee their economic position and political supremacy where the mass voted for electors who elected members of a legislative assembly, who in turn chose the Directory (five men)

        8. The Directory continued to support French military expansion abroad and unprin-cipled action of Directory reinforced widespread disgust with war and starvation

        9. After the national elections of 1797 (conservative and monarchist deputies) and the Directory used the army to nullify the elections and began to govern dictatorially

        10. Napoleon Bonaparte ended the Directory in a coup d’etat and substituted a strong dictatorship; effort to establish stable representative government had failed

    5. The Napoleonic Era (1799-1815)

      1. Napoleon’s Rule of France

        1. In 1799, young General Napoleon Bonaparte was a national hero and seized power; (born in Corsica in 1769) Napoleon rose rapidly in the army and placed in command of French forces in Italy where he won brilliant victories in 1796 and 1797 (Egypt)

        2. Napoleon learned of members of the Legislative Assembly who were plotting against the Directory (weak dictatorship and firm rule had more appeal than liberty)

          1. Abbe Sieyes wrote that the nobility was over privileged and that entire people should rule the French nation; wanted a strong military ruler like Napoleon

          2. The conspirators and napoleon organized a takeover and on November 9, 1799, they ousted the Directors, and the following day soldiers disbanded the Assembly

          3. Napoleon was named first consul of the republic and a new constitution consolidating his position was approved in December 1799

        3. Essence of Napoleon’s domestic policy was to use powers to maintain order and end civil strife and did so by working out unwritten agreements with powerful groups in France where groups received favors in return for loyal service

          1. Napoleon’s bargain with the middle class was codified in the famous Civil Code of 1804, which reasserted principles of the revolution of 1789: equality of all male citizens before the law and absolute security of wealth and private property

          2. Napoleon and leading bankers of Paris established the privately owned Bank of France, which loyally served the interests of the state and the financial oligarchy

          3. Napoleon’s defense of the new economic order also appealed to the peasants, who had gained both land and status from the revolutionary changes

          4. Napoleon reconfirmed the gains of the peasantry and reassured the middle class

        4. Napoleon also accepted and strengthened the position of the French bureaucracy and building on the government from the Old Regime, he perfected a centralized state

        5. A network of prefects, subprefects, and centrally appointed mayor s depended on Napoleon and in 1800 and 1802, Napoleon granted official pardon to the nobles on the condition that they return to France and take a loyalty oath (occupied high posts)

        6. In 1800, the French clergy was divided into those who had taken the oath of allegiance to the revolutionary government and those in exile who had refused

          1. Napoleon, personally uninterested in religion, wanted a united Catholic church in France that could serve as a bulwark of order and social peace

          2. Napoleon and Pope Pius VII signed the Concordat of 1801 where the pope gained for French Catholics the right to practice religion freely, but the government now nominated bishops, paid the clergy, and exerted influence of the church of France

        7. Napoleon’s domestic initiatives gave the great majority of French people a welcome sense of order and stability and Napoleon added the glory of military victory

        8. Under Napoleon’s authoritarian rule, women lost many of the gains and could not make contracts or even have bank accounts in their name and re-established a “family monarch” where the power of the husband and father was absolute over the rest

        9. Free speech and freedom of the press, rights of the liberal revolution in the Declaration of the Rights of Man, were continually violated where number of newspapers in Paris were reduced (government propaganda), harsh penalties for politic offense, Napoleon left control of police state in France to Joseph Fouche who organized an efficient spy system and by 1814, there were 250,000 political prisoners

      2. Napoleon’s Wars and Foreign Policy

        1. After coming to power in 1799, he sent peace feelers to Austria and Great Britain, the two remaining members of the Second Coalition, which had been formed in 1798

          1. After being rejected, French armies led by Napoleon defeated the Austrians; in the Treaty of Luneville (1801) were Austria lost almost all of its Italian possessions and German territory on the west bank of the Rhine

          2. Napoleon concluded the Treaty of Amiens with Great Britain in 1802 where France remained in control of Holland, the Austrian Netherlands, the west bank of the Rhine, and most of the Italian peninsula (diplomatic triumph)

        2. Redrawing the map of Germany to weaken Austria and attract the secondary states of Germany toward France, Napoleon threatened British interests in the eastern Mediterranean and tried to restrict British trade with all of Europe

          1. Deciding to renew war with Britain in May 1803, Great Britain remained dominant on the seas and a combined French and Spanish fleet was annihilated by Lord Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar on October 21, 1805; invasion of England was impossible but renew fighting allowed to proclaim himself emperor in 1804

          2. Austria, Russia, and Sweden joined Britain to form the Third Coalition against France before the Battle of Trafalgar and assumption of the Italian crown had convinced Alexander I of Russia and Francis II of Austria of Napoleon’s threat

          3. Napoleon scored a brilliant victory over the Austrians and Russians at the Battle of Austerlitz in December 1805 and accepted territorial losses for peace

        3. Napoleon abolished many of the German states in 1806 and established by decree the German Confederation of the Rhine (minus Austria, Prussia, and Saxony) and named himself “protector” of the confederation (firmly controlled western Germany)

          1. Prussians mobilized, Napoleon attacked, and won two more brilliant victories in October 1806 at Jena and Auerstadt and after Prussia, joining with Russia, lost to Napoleon’s larger armies, Alexander I of Russia wanted peace

          2. In June 1807, the tsar and emperor negotiated and finally at the treaties of Tilsit, Prussia lost half of its population, while Russia accepted Napoleon’s reorganization of Europe and also promised to enforce the economic blockade

        4. Napoleon saw himself as the emperor of Europe (“Great Empire”), which was consisted of three parts, the expanding France as the core, a number of dependent satellites and allies that were expected to support Napoleon’s continental system after 1806, and the independent but allied states of Austria, Prussia, and Russia

        5. In the areas incorporated into France and in the satellites, Napoleon introduced many French laws, abolished feudal dues and serfdom, and put the prosperity and special interest of France first in order to safeguard his power base (conquering tyrant)

        6. The first great revolt occurred in Spain where in 1808 a coalition of Catholics, monarchists, and patriots rebelled against attempts to make Spain a French satellite

        7. In 1810, Britain remained at war with France, helping the guerrillas in Spain and Portugal, the economic blockage was a failure creating hard times for French artisans and middle class, and Napoleon turned on Alexander I of Russia (scapegoat)

        8. Napoleon’s invasion of Russia began in June 1812 with a force that had 600,000 and although planning to winter in the Russian city of Smolensk, Napoleon pressed on a

          1. Defeated the Russians at the battle of Borodino, but Alexander ordered the evacuation of Moscow, which then burned, and Alexander refused to negotiate

          2. After five weeks in the burned-out city, Napoleon ordered a retreat, one of the great military disasters in history; the Russian army and Russian winter cut Napoleon’s army to pieces and only 30,000 men returned to their homelands

        9. Prince Klemens von Metternich, offered the proposal that France get reduced to its historical size but Austria and Prussia joined Russia and Great Britain in the fourth Coalition and was cemented by the Treaty of Chaumont, intended to last twenty years

        10. On April 4, 1814, Napoleon abdicated his throne and granted him the island of Elba off the coast of Italy as his own state and allowed him to keep his imperial title

        11. The allies agreed to the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty and the new monarch, Louis XVIII tried to consolidate that support by issuing the Constitutional Charter, which accepted many of France’s revolutionary changes and guaranteed civil liberties

        12. A constitutional monarchy established in 1791 allowed few people to vote for repre-sentatives to the resurrected Chamber of Deputies and was treated leniently by allies\

        13. Louis XVIII lacked the glory and magic of Napoleon and hearing of political unrest in France, Napoleon stage an escape from Elba in February 1815, used appeals for support and French officers and soldiers who had fought for him responded but the allies were united against him at the tend of a period known as the Hundred Days, the Duke of Wellington crushed Napoleon at Waterloo on June 18, 1815

        14. Napoleon was imprisoned on the island of St. Helena and Louis XVIII returned “in the baggage of the allies” but now the allies now dealt more harshly with the apparently incorrigible French (Napoleon wrote memoirs and an era had ended)

    Chapter 22: The Revolution in Energy and Industry



    1.  The Industrial Revolution in England

      1. ​Eighteenth-Century Origins

        1. The expanding Atlantic economy of the eighteenth century served mercantilist England well and the colonial empire, helped by strong position in Latin America and in the African slave trade provided a growing market for English manufactured goods

        2. It was much cheaper to ship goods by water and no part of England was more than 20 miles from navigable water and in the 1770s, a canal-building boom enhanced this natural advantage and provided easy movement of England’s enormous deposits of iron and coal, critical raw materials in Europe’s early industrial age

        3. Agriculture played a central role in bringing about the Industrial Revolution; English farmers second only to Dutch in 1700, and continually adopted new methods

          1. The result, especially before 1760, was a period of bountiful crops and low food prices and families could spend more on manufactured goods (instead of all food)

          2. Demand for goods within Britain complemented the demand from the colonies

        4. England had other assets that gave rise to industrial leadership

          1. England had an effective central band and well-developed credit markets

          2. The monarchy and the aristocratic oligarchy, which had jointly ruled since 1688, provided stable government and let the domestic economy operate with few controls, encouraging personal initiative, technical change, and a free market

          3. English had a large class of hired agricultural laborers, rural proletarians whose numbers increased during the enclosure movement and these rural wage earners were relatively mobile and along with cottage workers formed a potential industrial labor force for capitalist entrepreneurs

        5. All the factors combined to initiate the Industrial Revolution, coined by people in the 1830s to describe the burst of major inventions and technical change; technical revolution together with an impressive quickening annual rate of industrial growth

          1. Industry had grown at only 0.7 percent between 1700 and 1760, while industry grew at the rate of 3 percent between 1801 and 1831 (industrial transformation)

          2. The decisive quickening of growth probably came in the 1780s, after the American war for independence (longer process than the political revolutions)

        6. The Industrial Revolution was not complete in England until 1850 but had no real impact on the continental countries until after 1815

      2. The First Factories

        1. The first decisive breakthrough of the I.R. was the creation of the world’s first large factories in the English cotton textile industry and technological innovations in the manufacture of cotton cloth led to a system of production and social relationships

        2. The putting-out system of merchant capitalism was expanding across Europe in the eighteenth century (most developed in England) but under the pressure of growing demand, the system’s limitations first began to outweigh its advantages (after 1760)

        3. Constant shortage of thread in the textile industry focused attention of improving spinning, as wool and flax was hard to spin with the improved machines

          1. Cotton was different and cotton textiles had first been imported into England from India and by 1760, there was a tiny domestic industry in northern England

          2. After many experiments, James Hargreaves invented his cotton-spinning jenny in about 1765 and barber-turned-manufacturer named Richard Arkwright invented (or possibly pirate) another kind of spinning machine, the water frame

          3. Hargreaves’s jenny was simply, inexpensive, and hand operate; up to 24 spindles were mounted on a sliding carriage and each spindle spun a fine thread when the woman moved the carriage back and forth and turned a wheel to supply power

          4. Arkwright’s water frame acquired a capacity of several hundred spindles and demanded water power; water frame required specialized mills, but could only spin coarse, strong thread, which was put out for respinning on cottage jennies

          5. Samuel Crompton invented another technique around 1790 that required more power than the human arm and cotton spinning was concentrated in factories

        4. Cotton goods became much cheaper and were bought by all classes and families in cottage industry could now obtain thread spun on the jenny or obtain it from a factory

        5. Wages of weavers, how hard pressed to keep up with the spinners, rose markedly until about 1792 and were among the best-paid workers in England

        6. One result of the prosperity was a large numbers of agricultural laborers became handloom weavers and was an example of how further mechanization threatened certain groups of handicraft workers, for mechanics and capitalists soon sought to invent a power loom to save on labor costs; Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom in 1785 and handloom weavers received good wages until at least 1800

        7. Working conditions in the early factories were worse than those of cottage workers

          1. Until the late 1780s, most English factories were in rural areas, where they had access to waterpower and employed small percentage of all cotton textile workers

          2. People were reluctant to work in them because they had low pay and factory owners turned to young children as a source of labor (abandoned by parents)

          3. Under care of local parishes, parish officers often “apprenticed” orphans to factory owners where the parish saved money and factory had workers

        8. Apprenticed as young as five, children were forced by law to labor for their “master” for as many as fourteen years and were housed, fed, and locked up nightly in houses

          1. The young workers received little or no pay and hours were commonly fourteen hours a day, six days a week; harsh physical punishment maintained discipline

          2. Wholesale coercion of orphans as factory apprentices constituted exploitation and attracted the conscience of reformers and reinforced humanitarian attitudes towards children and their labor in the early nineteenth century

        9. The creation of the world’s first modern factories in the English cotton textile in the 1770s and 1780s industry was a major historical development and by 1831, the cotton textile industry accounted for 22 percent of the country’s entire industrial production

      3. The Problem of Energy

        1. The growth of the cotton textile industry might have been cut short if the water from rivers and streams had remained the primary source of power for the new factories, but a solution was found to the problem of energy and power

        2. Adult humans need 2,000 to 4,000 calories daily to simply fuel their bodies, work, and survive and have constructed machines to convert on form on energy into another

          1. More efficient use of water and wind in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries enabled human to accomplish more and society in the eighteenth century continued to rely on plants, and humans and animals performed most work

          2. The land was the principal source of raw materials needed for industrial production, which was difficult to expand (needed to produce more)

        3. The shortage of energy had become sever in England by the eighteenth century

          1. Most of the forests of medieval England had been replaced by fields of grain and hay and wood was in ever-shorter supply yet still remained important

          2. Wood was the primary source of heat for all homes and industries and the key to transportation since ships and wagons were made of wood

          3. Wood and iron ore were basic raw materials of the iron industry as processed wood (charcoal) was mixed with iron ore in the blast furnace to produce pig iron

          4. The iron industry’s appetite for wood was enormous and lay bare the forests of England as well as parts of continental Europe; by 1740 the English iron industry was declining but vast forests enabled Russia to become the world’s leading producer of iron and after a few decades Russia reached the barrier of inadequate energy

      4. The Steam Engine Breakthrough

        1. England looked toward its reserves of coal as an alternative to wood

          1. First used in England in the late Middle Ages as a source of heat; by 1640 most homes in London were heated with coal and was used to make various products

          2. Coal was not used to produce mechanical energy or to power machinery

        2. One pound of good bituminous coal contains about 3,500 calories of heat energy and a hard-working miner could dig out 500 pounds of coal a day using hand tools

          1. An inefficient converter, which transforms only 1 percent of heat energy in coal into mechanical energy, produced 27 horsepower-hours of work from the 500 pounds of coal while the minder only produced about 1 horsepower-hour

          2. Early steam engines were such inefficient converters and as more coal was produced, mines were dug deeper and were constantly filling with water

          3. Mechanical pumps, powered by animals walking in circles, had to be installed

        3. Thomas Savery (1698) & Thomas Newcomen (1705) invented the first steam engines

          1. Both engines were extremely inefficient and burned coal to produce steam, which was then injected into a cylinder or reservoir; in Newcomen’s engine, the steam in the cylinder was cooled, creating a partial vacuum, which allowed the pressure of the earth’s atmosphere to push the piston in the cylinder and operate a pump

          2. In the early 1760s, a gifted young Scot named James Watt was drawn to a study of the steam engine (University of Glasgow) and saw why the Newcomen engine was so inefficient—cylinder was being heated and cooled every piston stroke

          3. Watt added a separate condenser where the steam could be condensed without cooling the cylinder and greatly increased the efficiency of the steam engine

          4. Watt partnered with a wealthy, progressive toymaker that provided a risk capital and a manufacturing plant and from manufacturers such as cannonmaker John Wilkinson (bore cylinders), Watt was able to purchase precision parts; these parts allowed Watt to create an effective vacuum and regulate a complex engine

        4. The steam engine of Watt was the Industrial Revolution’s most fundamental advance in technology and people had unlimited power at their disposal; the steam engine provide even more coal and began to replace waterpower during the 1780s

        5. The English iron industry was transformed and the use of steam-driven bellows in blast furnaces helped ironmakers switch over from limited charcoal to unlimited coke in the smelting of pig iron; Henry Cort developed the puddling furnace which allowed pig iron to be refined in turn with coke and developed steam-powered rolling mills

        6. The economic consequence of the innovations was a great boom in the English iron industry (17,000 tons in 1740, 68,000 tons in 1788, and 3,000,000 tons in 1844)

        7. Iron became the cheap, basic, indispensable building block of the economy

      5. The Coming of the Railroads

        1. The second half of the eighteenth century saw extensive construction of roads but passenger traffic benefited most and overland shipment of freight, relying on horsepower, was limited and expensive (inventors tried to use steam power solution)

        2. As early as 1800, an American ran a “steamer on wheels” and English engineers created steam cars but horses continued to reign highways and streets for the century

        3. The coal industry had been using plank roads and rails to move coal wagons in mines and the surface because rails reduced friction and allowed carry of heavier loads

        4. In 1816 a stronger rail was developed, George Stephenson built an effective loco-motive in 1825 and in 1830, his Rocketsped down the track of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway at 16 miles per hour (world’s first important railroad)

        5. The line from Liverpool to Manchester was a financial and technical success and many private companies were quickly organized to build more rail lines

          1. Companies had to get permission from Parliament and pay for the rights of way and within twenty years, they had completed the main trunk lines of Great Britain

          2. The railroad dramatically reduced the cost and uncertainty of shipping freight overland and this advance had many economic consequences

          3. Markets had tended to be small and local but as the barrier of high transportation cost were lowered, they became larger and even nationwide

          4. Larger markets encouraged larger factories in the growing number of industries and such factories could make goods cheaply and provided severe competition

        6. The construction of railroads contributed to the growth of a class of urban workers and although rural workers did not leave their jobs to go work in factories, the building of railroads created a strong demand for labor, especially unskilled labor

          1. Many farm laborers and peasants, accustomed to temporary employment, went to build railroads, life back home in the village seemed dull and many men drifted to towns in search of work—with the companies, in construction, and in factories

          2. By the time they had sent for their family, they had become urban workers

        7. The railroad changed the outlook and values of the entire society and as the last and culminating invention of the Industrial Revolution, the railroad increased the speed of the new age (by 1850, trains were traveling down the tracks at 50 miles per hour)

        8. Joseph M.W. Turner and Claude Monet succeeded in expression and leading railway engineers Isambard Kingdom Brunel and Thomas Brassey became idols of their day

      6. Industry and Population

        1. In 1851, the Great Exposition, a famous industrial fair, was held in London in the new Crystal Palace, an architectural masterpiece made of glass and iron (now abundant)

        2. Britain produced two-thirds of the world’s coal and about one-half iron and cotton cloth and in 1860, Britain produced 20% of the world’s output of industrial goods

        3. Britain became the first industrial nation and as the economy increased the produc-tion, the gross national product (GNP) rose fourfold between 1780 and 1851 and the population increased from nine million to almost twenty-one million during that time

        4. Historians believe that more people meant a more mobile labor force where there were many young workers but contemporaries were less optimistic about the growth

          1. Thomas Malthus (Essay on the Principle of Population) argued that population would tend to grow faster than the food supply and young people had to limit the growth of population by the old tried-and-true means of marrying late in life

          2. English leading economist David Ricardo argued that the pressure of population growth would cause wages to sink to subsistence level (“the dismal science”)

          3. Economist Keynes said of the Great Depression, “we are all dead in the long run.”

        5. Until the 1820s, or even the 1840s, contemporary observers concluded that the economy and total population were racing neck and neck, with the outcome unknown

        6. Another problem was that perhaps workers, farmers, and ordinary people did not get their rightful share of the new wealth while the rich got richer and poor got poorer

    2. Industrialization in Continental Europe

      1. National Variations

        1. A per capita companion of levels of industrialization is a comparison of how much average industrial product was available to each person in a country in a given year

        2. In 1750, all countries were fairly close together and that Britain was only slightly ahead of France and that Britain had opened up a noticeable lead over all continental countries by 1800; gap widened as the British Industrial Revolution accelerated

        3. Third, variations in the timing and in the extent of industrialization in the continental powers and the United States are also apparent; Belgium rich in iron and coal, led in adopting Britain’s new technology, and France consistently developed gradually

        4. By 1913, Germany was rapidly closing in while the United States had already passed

        5. Finally, All the European states (As well as the United States, Canada, and Japan) managed to raise per capita industrial levels in the nineteenth century but stood in contrasted to most non-Western countries, most notably in China and India

        6. Rates of wealth and power creating industrial development, which heightened inequality in Europe, also magnified inequities between Europe and rest of the world

      2. The Challenge of Industrialization

        1. Throughout Europe the eighteenth century was an era of agricultural improvement, population increase, expanding foreign trade, and growing cottage industry

        2. When the pace of English industry began to accelerate in the 1780s, continental businesses began to adopt new methods and at first the Continent was close behind

          1. While English industry maintained the momentum of the 1780s, on the Continent, the political and economic upheavals that bean with the French Revolution disrupted trade, created runaway inflation, and foster social anxiety

          2. War severed normal communications between England and the Continent handicapping continental efforts to use the new British machinery and technology

          3. The widening gap mad it more difficult, if not impossible, for other countries to follow the British pattern in energy and industry after peace was restored in 1815

          4. British technology had become so advanced that few engineers outside England understood it and the technology of steampower had grown much more expensive which involved investments in iron and coal (required existence of railroads)

          5. Landowners and government officials were often suspicious of the new form of industry and changes; disadvantages slowed the spread of modern industry

        3. After 1815, continental countries that faced the British challenge had few advantages

          1. Continental countries had a rich tradition of putting-out enterprise, merchant capitalists and skilled urban artisans (ability to adapt and survive in new market)

          2. Continental capitalists did not need to develop their own advanced technology and rather could borrow the new methods developed in Great Britain

          3. European countries such as France and Russia had strong independent govern-ments, which did not fall under foreign political control and could fashion economic polices to serve their own interests

      3. Agents of Industrialization

        1. The British tried to keep their secrets to themselves and until 1825, it was illegal for artisans and skilled mechanics to leave Britain and until 1843, the export of textile machinery and other equipment was forbidden; many ambitious workers left illegally

        2. William Cockerill, a Lancaster carpenter, began building cotton-spinning equipment in Belgium (1799) and in 1817 son John Cockerill, converted the palace Liege into an industrial enterprise, which produced machinery, steam engines, and locomotives

          1. Cockerill’s plants became an industrial nerve center and skilled British workers came illegally to work for Cockerill, and some went on to found their companies

          2. Newcomers brought the latest plans and secrets to Cockerill; British technicians and skilled workers were a powerful force in the spread of early industrialization

        3. A second agent were talented entrepreneurs such as Fritz Harkort (business pioneer)

          1. Serving in England as a Prussian army officer, Harkort was impressed with what he saw and set up shop in a castle in Ruhr Valley, Germany (“Watt of Germany”)

          2. Harkort looked to England for mechanics and he imported thick iron boilers that he needed from England at great (had to be dismantled and shipped separately)

          3. Despite all the problems, Harkort built and sold engines, winning fame and praise but efforts over sixteen years resulted in large financial losses and in 1832, he was forced out of his company by his financial backers, who wanted to reduce losses

          4. Continental industrialization usually brought substantial but uneven expansion of handicraft industry; rising income of middle class created foreign demand

        4. A third force was government (often helped business people in continental countries)

          1. After 1815, France was suddenly flooded with cheaper, better English goods and the government laid high tariffs on English imports to protect the French economy and the continental governments bore the cost of building roads and canals

          2. In an effort to tie the independent nation together, the Belgian government decided to construct a state-owned railroad system (stimulated heavy industry)

          3. The Prussian government guaranteed that the state treasury would pay the interest and principal on railroad bonds if the private companies where unable to do and railroad investors in Prussia ran little risk and capital was quickly raised

          4. Government helped pay for railroads, the leading sector in continental industrial-ization; Friedrich List reflected government’s role in industrialization and con-sidered the growth of modern industry of utmost importance because manufac-turing was a primary means of increasing people’s well-being (defend the nation)

          5. List (National System of Political Economy) focused on the practical policies of railroad building and the tariff; he supported the formation of a customs union (Zollverein) among the separate German states—tariff union came around in 1834 and also he supported a high protective tariff allowing infant industries to develop

        5. Banks played a larger and more creative role on the Continent than in England

          1. Previously, almost all banks in Europe had been private, organized as secretive partnerships, and all active partners were liable for all the debts of the firm and partners of private banks tended to be quite conservative and avoided risks

          2. In the 1830s two important Belgian banks received permission from the government to establish themselves as corporations enjoying limited liability; a stockholder could lose only his original investment in the bank’s common stock

          3. Publicizing the risk-reducing advantage of limited liability, Belgian banks were able to attract shareholders and became industrial banks (promoted industry)

          4. Similar corporate banks became important in France and Germany in the 1850s and 1860s and they established and developed many railroads and many companies working in heavy industry and the most famous bank was Credit Mobilier of Paris founded by Isaac and Emile Pereire, journalists from Bordeaux

        6. The combined efforts of skilled workers, entrepreneurs, governments, and industrial banks meshed successfully between 1850 and the financial crash of 1873

        7. In Belgium, Germany, and France, key indicators of industrial development—such as railway mileage, iron and coal production, and steam engine capacity—increased at average annual rates of 5 to 10 compounded

    3. Capital and Labor

      1. The New Class of Factory Owners

        1. Industrial development brought new social relations and intensified long-standing problems between capital and labor in both urban workshops and cottage industry

        2. New thinking about social relations led to the development of a new overarching interpretation—a new paradigm—regarding social relationships (class consciousness)

        3. Manufacturers waged a constant battle to cut their production costs and stay afloat as much of the profit had to go back into the business for new and better machinery

        4. Artisans and skilled workers of exceptional ability had unparalleled opportunities and the ethnic and religious groups that had been discriminated against in the traditional occupations controlled by the landed aristocracy jumped at new changes; Quakers and Scots in England, Protestants and Jews dominated banking in Catholic France

        5. As factories grew larger, opportunities declined; formal education became more important for advancement and formal education at an advanced level was expensive

        6. In England, France, and Germany, leading industrialists were likely to have inherited their well-established enterprises and had a greater sense of class consciousness, fully aware that development had widened the gap between themselves and their workers

      2. The New Factory Workers

        1. The countries that followed England were able to benefit from English experience in social and technical matters (conditions of European workers improved after 1850)

        2. The Industrial Revolution in England had critics, among the first were romantic poets

          1. William Blake (1757-1827) called the early factories “satanic mills” and protested against the hard life of London poor

          2. William Wordsworth lamented the destruction of the rural way of life and the pollution of land and water; workers (Luddites) attacked whole factories in northern England in 1812 and smashed the new machines (taking their jobs)

          3. Malthus and Ricardo concluded that workers would earn only enough to stay alive

          4. Friedrich Engels, revolutionary and colleague of Karl Marx, published The Condition of the Working Class in England, a reflection on middle classes and wrote new poverty of the industrial workers was worse (culprit—capitalism)

        3. Other observers believed that conditions were improving for the working people

          1. Andrew Ure wrote in 1835 in his study of the cotton industry that conditions in most factories were not harsh and were even quite good

          2. Edwin Chadwick, a conscientious government official, concluded that the laboring community was able to buy more of the necessities and minor luxuries

        4. If working people suffered a great economic decline, as Engels and socialists assert-ed, then the purchasing power of the working person’s wages must have declined

          1. There was little or no increase in the purchasing power of the average British worker from about 1780 to 1820 (period from 1792 to 1815 -- war with France)

          2. Only after 1820, and especially after 1840, did wages rise substantially, so that the average worker earned and consumed 50 percent more in 1850 than in 1770

          3. The hours in the average workweek increased and workers earned more

          4. The war years colored early experience of modern industrial life in somber tones

        5. A way to consider the workers’ standard of living is to look at what they purchased

          1. Workers ate food of higher nutritional quality as the Industrial Revolution progressed and diets became varied—potatoes, dairy products, fruits, vegetables

          2. Clothing improve, but housing for working people probably deteriorated

        6. Per capita use of goods supports the position that the standard of living of the working classes rose, at least moderately, after the long wars with France

      3. Conditions of Work

        1. The first factories were cotton mills in the 1770s and cottage workers accustomed to the putting-out system, were reluctant to work in factories as the work was different

          1. In the factory, workers had to keep up with the machine and follow its tempo and had to show up every day and work long, monotonous hours (factory whistle)

          2. Cottage workers set their own pace and could interrupt their work when they wanted to as long as they met the deadlines for that week

          3. Early factories resembled English poorhouses increased cottage workers’ fear

        2. The cottage worker’s reluctance to work in the factories prompted early cotton mill owners to turn to abandoned and pauper children for their labor (contracted officials)

          1. Pauper children were badly treated and overworked in mills, and in the eighteenth century, semi-forced child labor seemed necessary and was socially accepted

          2. By 1790, the use of pauper apprentices was in decline was forbidden in 1802

          3. Many factories were being built in urban areas were they could use steampower other than waterpower and attract a workforce more easily then in the countryside

          4. People came from near and far to work in the cities, both as factory workers and as laborers, builders, and domestic servants (helped modify the system)

        3. People often came to the mills and the mines as family units and the mill or mine owner bargained with the head of the family; mothers and children supported father

        4. The preservation of the family as an economic unit in the factories mad the surroundings more tolerable during the early stages of industrialization

          1. The presence of the whole family meant the children and adults worked the same, dreadful long hours; twelve-hour shifts were normal in cotton mills in 1800

          2. Some very young children were employed solely to keep the family together

          3. Jedediah Strutt believed children should be at least ten years old to work in the mills; adult workers were not interested in limiting the minimum working age or hours of their children as long as family members worked side by side

        5. Enlightened employers and social reforms argued that humane standards were necessary, used widely circulated parliamentary reports to appeal to public opinion

          1. Robert Owen, a successful manufacturer in Scotland, testified in 1816 that employing children under ten years of age as factory workers was “injurious to the children, and not beneficial to the proprietors” (slow growth and learning)

          2. Owen had raised the age of employment (twelve) in his mills and was promoting education for young children and workers also provide testimony as such hearings

        6. The Factory Act of 1833 limited the factory workday for children between nine and thirteen to eight hours and that of adolescents (fourteen to eighteen) to twelve hours, although the act made no effort to regulated hours at home or in small businesses

          1. The law also prohibited the factory employment of children under nine years old, who were to be enrolled in the elementary schools that factory owners were required to establish and the employment of children declined rapidly

          2. The Factory Act broke the pattern of whole families working together in the factory because efficiency required standardized shifts for all workers

        7. Many manufacturer and builders hired workers through subcontractors who paid them on the basis of what the subcontractors and their crew produced and in turn, the subcontractors hired and fired their own workers, many who were friends and relation

        8. The relationship between subcontractor and work crew was close and personal

        9. Ties of kinship was important for newcomers, who often traveled great distances to find work and many urban workers in Great Britain were from Ireland, forced out by population growth and deteriorating economic conditions from 1817 on

        10. Even though Irish workers were not related directly by blood, they were held together by ethnic and religious ties and like other immigrant groups, they worked together

      4. The Sexual Division of Labor

        1. By tradition, certain jobs were defined by sex but tasks might go to either sex because particular circumstances dictated family’s response in its battle for economic survival

        2. Woman found lonely limited job opportunities and were generally denied good jobs at good wages outside the house after the first child arrived (housework, child care)

          1. Married women were much less likely to work full time for wages outside the house after the first child arrived but earn small amounts in the putting-out system

          2. Married women who did work for wages usually came from the poor, desperate families, where the husbands were poorly paid, sick, unemployed, or missing

          3. The poor married women were joined by groups of young unmarried women, who worked full time but only in certain jobs; confined to low-paying, dead-end jobs

        3. Scholars stress the role of male-dominated craft unions in denying women access to good jobs and in reducing them to unpaid maids dependent on their husbands

        4. Others believe that the gender roles were result of economic and biological factors to explain why women were unwilling to halt the emergence of a division of labor

          1. The new and unfamiliar discipline of the clock and the machine was especially hard on married women; factory discipline conflicted with child care

          2. Running a household in conditions of primitive urban poverty was an extremely demanding job in its own right; everything had to be done on foot such as the shopping and feeding the family and another brutal job didn’t appeal to women

          3. The desire of males to monopolize the best opportunities and hold women down

          4. The growth of factories and mines brought unheard-of opportunities for girls and boys to mix on the job, free of familial supervision and such intimacy also led to the illegitimacy explosion that began in the eighteenth century and the segregation of jobs by gender was to help control the sexuality of the working youth

        5. The middle-class men leading the inquiry about the British coal industry failed to appreciate the physical of the girls and women but were shocked to see them without shirts and assumed the prevalence of immoral sex with male miners

          1. The Mines Act of 1842 prohibited underground work for all women as well as for boys under ten and some women protested against being excluding from coal mining, which paid higher wages than most other jobs open to women

          2. But girls and the women who had worked underground who were part of families that could manage economically, were generally pleased with the law

      5. ​​The Early Labor Movement

        1. ​Many kinds of employment changed slowly; farm and domestic labor continued to be most common, and small-scale handicraft production remained unchanged in many trades which helped eased the transition to industrial civilization (small workshops)

        2. Working class solidarity and class consciousness developed, particularly in the north of England, and many employers adopted the feeling that unions were a form of restriction on industrial growth

          1. The liberal concept of economic freedom gathered strength in the late eighteenth century and the British government attacked monopolies, guilds, and combination

          2. The Combination Act of 1799 passed by Parliament outlawed unions and strikes

          3. In 1813 to 1814, Parliament repealed the old and disregarded the law of 1563 regulating the wags of artisans and the conditions of apprenticeship

        3. Workers who continued to organize and strike disregarded the Combination Acts and Parliament repealed the Combination Acts in 1824 and unions were tolerated

        4. Robert Owen pioneered in industrial relations by combining firm discipline with concern for the health, safety, and hours of his workers 

          1. Owen tried to create a national union of workers (the GNCTU), and then after 1851 the craft unions ("new model unions") won benefits for their members 

          2. The most famous of these unions was the Amalgamated Society of Engineers

        5. Chartism was a workers' political movement that sought universal male suffrage, shorter work hours, and cheap bead; workers developed a sense of their own identity

    Chapter 23: Ideologies and Upheavals

    1. The Peace Settlement

      1. The European Balance of Power

        1. The conservative, aristocratic monarchies, with their armies and economies (Great Britain exception), appeared firmly in control once again; great challenge for political leaders in 1814 was to construct a peace settlement that would last and not start war 

        2. The allied powers were concerned with the defeated enemy, France and agreed to the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty (Peace of Paris with Louis XVIII; May 30, 1814)   

          1. The allies were lenient toward France, gave them boundaries it possessed in 1692 and France lost the territories conquered in Italy, Germany, and Low Countries

          2. France did not have to pay any war damages; when the four allies met at the Congress of Vienna, they agreed to raise a number of formidable barriers against French aggression and the Low Countries were united and Prussia received more territory on France’s eastern border to stand as a “sentinel” against France

        3. In their moderation toward France, the allies (the Great Powers) were motivated by self-interest and traditional ideas about the balance of power 

          1. To Klemens von Metternich and Castlereagh (foreignministers of Austria and Britain) as well as their French counterpart Charles Talleyrand, the balance of power meant an internal equilibrium of political and military forces that would preserve the freedom and Austria, Britain, Prussia, Russia, and France

          2. They had to arrange international relations so that none of the victors would be tempted to strive for domination in its turn 

        4. The victors used the balance of power to settle dangerous disputes at the Congress of Vienna and agreed that each of them should receive compensation in the form of territory for their successful struggle against the French

          1. Great Britain won and retained colonies and strategic outposts during the war 

          2. Austria gave up territories in Belgium and southern Germany but took in rich provinces in northern Italy as well as Polish possessions

          3. Prussia and Russia deserved to be compensated but almost led to war in 1815

        5. Alexander I of Russia had taken Finland on his northern border and Bessarabia on his southern border but wanted to restore kingdom of Poland and Prussians were willing to give up their Polish territories as long as they could take in Saxony

          1. Castlereagh and Metternich feared an unbalancing of forces in central Europe 

          2. On January 3, 1815, Great Britain, Austria, and France signed a secret alliance directed against Russia and Prussia; the outcome was compromise rather than war because threat of war caused rulers of Russia and Prussia to moderate demands

          3. They accepted Metternich’s proposal and Russia established a small Polish kingdom and Prussia received two-fifths of Saxony; France had regained its Great Power status and ended its diplomatic isolation by siding with Metternich

        6. When the peace settlement had been almost complete, Napoleon reappeared and after Napoleon was defeated, the resulting peace—the second Peace of Paris—was still relatively moderate toward France and Louis XVIII was restored to his throne

        7. France lost some territory and had to pay an indemnity of 700 million francs and had to support a large army of occupation for five years 

        8. The Quadruple Alliance agreed to meet periodically to discuss their interest and consider appropriate measures of the maintenance of peace in Europe

      2. Intervention and Repression

        1. In 1815 under Metternich’s leadership, Austria, Prussia, and Russia embarked on a crusade against the ideas of politics of the dual revolution (lasted until 1848)

        2. The Holy Alliance, formed by Austria, Prussia, and Russia in September 1815 proclaimed intention of the three eastern monarchs to rule on the basis of Christian principles and to work together to maintain peace and justice on all occasions (soon became symbol of repression of liberal and revolutionary movements across Europe)

        3. In 1820 revolutionaries succeeded in forcing the monarchs of Spain and Italian kingdom of the Two Sicilies to grant liberal constitutions against their wills

          1. Calling a conference at Troppau in Austria under the provisions of the quadruple Alliance, Metternich and Alexander I proclaimed the principle of active intervention to maintain all autocratic regimes whenever they were threatened 

          2. Austrian forces marched into Naples and restored Ferdinand I to the throne of the Two Sicilies and the French armies of Louis XVIII restored the Spanish regime

        4. Great Britain remained aloof, arguing that intervention in the domestic politics of foreign states was not an object of British diplomacy and opposed any attempts by the Spanish monarchy to reconquer its former Latin American possessions (market)

        5. Encouraged by the British position, the United States proclaimed its celebrated Monroe Doctrine in 1823, which declared that European powers were to keep their hands off the New World and in no way attempt to re-establish their political system

        6. Metternich continued to battle liberal political change but sometime she could do little as in the new Latin American republics nor the dynastic changes of 1830 and 1831 in France and Belgium; Metternich’s system proved effective until 1848

        7. Metternich’s policies dominated entire German Confederation, which was composed of thirty-eight independent German states, including Prussia and Austria and theses states met in complicated assemblies dominated by Austria, with Prussia a willing junior partner in the planning and execution of repressive measures

        8. Metternich had the infamous Carlsbad Decrees issued in 1819 and required German member states to root out subversive ideas in their universities and newspapers

      3. Metternich and Conservation

        1. Born into the middle ranks of the landed nobility of the Rhineland, Prince Klemens von Metternich was an internationally oriented aristocrat and marriage to Eleonora von Kaunitz opened the door to the highest court circles and a diplomatic career

          1. Austrian ambassador to Napoleon’s court in 1806 and Austrian foreign minister from 1809 to 1848, Metternich remained loyal to his class 

          2. Metternich defended the rights of his class with a clear conscience; the nobility was one of Europe’s most ancient institutions and regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions (monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, commoners)

        2. Metternich’s commitment to conservatism was coupled with a passionate hatred of liberalism; liberal demands for representative government and civil liberties had captured some of the middle-class lawyers, business people, and intellectuals

          1. Metternich believed these groups had been and still were engaged in a vast conspiracy to impose their beliefs on society and destroy existing order

          2. Like many other conservatives, Metternich blamed liberal revolutionaries for stirring up the lower classes, which he believed to be indifferent to liberal ideas

        3. The threat of liberalism appeared doubly dangerous to Metternich because it went with national aspirations and liberals, believed that each national group, had a right to establish its own independent government and seek to fulfill its own destiny

        4. Metternich thought national self-determination threatened the existence of the aristo-cracy and threatened to destroy the Austrian Empire and revolutionize central Europe

        5. The vast Austrian Empire of the Habsburgs were a great dynastic state 

          1. Germans had supported and profited by the long-term territorial expansion of Austria; Germans accounted for a quarter of the population

          2. The Magyars, a substantially smaller group, dominated the kingdom of Hungary

          3. The Czechs, the third major group were concentrated in Bohemia and Moravia

          4. The various Slavic peoples, together with the Italians and the Rumanians, represented a widely scattered and completely divided majority in an empire dominated by Germans and Hungarians 

          5. Different parts of provinces of the empire differed in languages, customs, and institutions but were held together by their ties to the Habsburg emperor 

        6. The multinational state Metternich served was both strong and weak

          1. Austria was strong because of its large population and vast territories

          2. Austria was weak because of its many and potentially dissatisfied nationalities 

          3. In those circumstances, Metternich had to oppose liberalism and nationalism for Austria was unable to accommodate those ideologies of the dual revolution

        7. Other conservatives supported Austria because they could imagine no better fate

    2. Radical Ideas and Early Socialism

      1. Liberalism

        1. Revived conservatism, with stress on tradition, a hereditary monarchy, a strong and privileged landowning aristocracy, and an official church, was rejected by radicals

        2. The principal ideas of liberalism—liberty and equality—were not defeated in 1815

          1. Political and social philosophy continued to challenge to revived conservatism

          2. Liberalism demanded representative government as opposed to autocratic monarchy, equality before the law as opposed to legally separate classes

          3. The idea of liberty continued to mean specific individual freedoms: freedom of      press, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom of arbitrary arrest

          4. Louis XVIII’s Constitutional Charter and Great Britain with its Parliament and historic rights of English people had realized much of the liberal program in 1815

        3. Liberalism faced more radical ideological competitors in the early nineteenth century and that liberalism resolutely opposed government intrusion in social and economic affairs even if the need for action seemed great to social critics and reformers

          1. This form of liberalism is often called “classical” liberalism in the United States in order to distinguish it sharply from modern American liberalism, which favors more government programs to meet social needs and to regulate the economy 

          2. Opponents of classical liberalism criticized its economic principles, which called for unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference (laissez faire)

        4. The idea of a free economy had first been formulated by Adam Smith (Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations) who founded modern economics

          1. Smith was highly critical of eighteenth-century mercantilism

          2. Smith argued that freely competitive private enterprise would result in greater income for everyone, no just the rich (general economic development)

        5. British economy was liberalized as old restrictions on trade and industry were relaxed or eliminated; this liberalization promoted continued economic growth in the I.R.; economic liberalism and laissez-faire economy were embraced by business groups and became a doctrine associated with business interest; labor unions outlawed

        6. Thomas Malthus, who argued that population would always grow faster than supply of food and Ricardo, who said that wages would be just high enough to keep workers from starving, helped make economic liberalism an ideology of business interests

        7. Liberal political ideals became more closely associated with narrow class interests

          1. Early-nineteenth-century liberals favored representative government, but generally wanted property qualifications attached to the right to vote

          2. Liberalism became increasingly identified with the middle class after 1815 and inspired by memories of the French Revolution and Jacksonian democracy, they called for universal voting rights, at least for males (would lead to democracy)

        8. Many people who believed in democracy also believed in the republican form of government; they detested the power of the monarchy, the privileges of the aristocracy, and the great wealth of the upper middle class (democrats and republi-cans were also more willing than most liberals to endorse violent upheaval for ideals)

      2. Nationalism

        1. Nationalism was the second radical idea that came after 1815, with three major points

          1. Nationalism has normally evolved from a real or imagined cultural unity, manifesting itself especially in a common language, history, and territory

          2. Nationalists have usually sought to turn this cultural unity into political reality so that the territory of each people coincides with its state boundaries; explosive in central and eastern Europe where there were too many states or too little states

          3. Modern nationalism’s immediate origins in French Revolution and Napoleonic wars; people used nationalism to repel foreign foes during the Reign of Terror

        2. Between 1815 and 1850, most people who believed in nationalism also believed in either liberalism or radical, democratic republicanism (love of liberty and nation)

        3. A common faith in the creativity and nobility of the people was perhaps the single most important reason for the linking of the love of liberty and the love of nation

          1. Liberals and democrats saw people as ultimate source of all government; people elected officials and governed themselves within framework of personal liberty

          2. Common loyalties rested above all on a common language; liberals and nationalists agreed that a shared language forged the basic unity of a people  

        4. Early nationalists usually believed that every nation, like every citizen, had the right to exist in freedom and to develop its character and spirit (freedom of other nations)

          1. Symphony of nations would promote the harmony and ultimate unity of peoples

          2. Jules Michelet (The People) wrote each citizen “learns to recognize his country” and Italian patriot Giuseppe Mazzini believed that “in laboring according to true principles of our country we are laboring for Humanity.”

          3. Liberty of the individual and the love of free nation overlapped greatly 

        5. Early nationalists talked of helping humanity but stressed differences among people

          1. German pastor and philosopher Johann Herder argued that every people has its own particular spirit and genius, which it expresses through culture and language

          2. Early nationalism developed a strong sense of “we” and “they” (often enemy)

        6. Leader of the Czech cultural revival, the passionate democrat Francis Palacky, praised the Czech people’s achievements, which he characterized as a long struggle against brutal German domination; to this “we-they” outlook, they added highly volatile ingredients: a sense of national mission and a sense of national superiority

        7. German and Spanish nationalists had a very different opinion of France and to them, the French seemed as oppressive as the Germans seemed to the Czechs (mission)

        8. Early nationalism was ambiguous and its main thrust was liberal and democratic; but below, ideas of national superiority and national mission lurked (aggressive crusades)

      3. French Utopian Socialism

        1. Almost all socialists were French and were aware that the political revolution in France and rise of modern industry in England had been a transformation of society

        2. Socialists believed there was an urgent need for reorganization of society to establish cooperation and a new sense of community (searched past and analyzed present)

          1. Early French socialists believed in economic planning and argued the government should organize the economy and not depend on destructive competition

          2. Socials shared an intense desire to help the poor and protect them from the rich

          3. Socialists believed private property should be regulated by the government or that it should be abolished and replaced by state or community ownership

        3. One of the most influential early socialist was Count Henri de Saint-Simon who believed the key to progress was proper social organization, which required the “parasites”—court, aristocracy, lawyers, churchmen—give way to the “doers”—leading scientists, engineers, and industrialists (improved conditions for the poor)

        4. Charles Fourier, socialists critique of capitalism, envisaged self-sufficient communities of people living on acres devoted to agriculture and industry (utopian)

        5. Fourier advocated total emancipation of women and called for the abolition of marriage, free unions based only on love, and sexual freedom (socialist program)

        6. Louis Blanc (Organization of Work) urged workers to agitate for universal voting rights and to take control of the state peacefully (right to work became sacred)

        7. Pierre Joseph Proudhon (What is Property?) believed that property was theft stolen from the worker (unlike most socialists Proudhon feared the power of the state)

        8. The message of French utopian socialists interacted with the experiences of French urban workers (opposed laissez-faire laws; socialist movement in 1830s and 1840s)

      4. The Birth of Marxian Socialism

        1. Karl Marx was an atheistic who was influenced by the French socialist thought

        2. Early French socialists often appealed to the middle class and the state to help the poor but Marx thought such appeals were naïve and argued that the interests of the middle class and those of the working class were inevitably opposed to each other

          1. In 1848, Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) published the Communist Manifesto, which became the bible of socialism

          2. In Marx’s view, one class had always exploited the other and with the advent of modern industry, society was split even more now (bourgeoisie and proletariat)

          3. Marx predicted the proletariat would conquer the bourgeoisie in a revolution as the poorer proletariat was constantly growing in size and class consciousness

          4. Communist Manifesto ends with “Working Men of All Countries, Unite!”

        3. Marx united sociology, economics, and human history in a vast and imposing edifice

        4. Marx, following Ricardo, argued that profits were really wages stolen from the workers and incorporated Engels’s charges of oppression of the new factory workers

        5. Marx’s theory of historical evolution was built on the philosophy of the German Georg Hegel who believed that history was “ideas in motion”: each age is characterized by a dominant set of ideas, which produces a synthesis 

        6. Marx retained Hegel’s view of history as a dialectic process of change but made economic relationships between classes the driving force; Marx believed it was the bourgeoisie’s turn to give way to the socialism of revolutionary workers (secular)

    3. The Romantic Movement

      1. Romanticism’s Tenets

        1. The romantic movement was in part a revolt against classicism and the Enlightenment

        2. Romanticism was characterized by belief in emotions, unrestrained imagination, and spontaneity in both art and personal life (“Storm and Stress” 1770-80s in Germany)

          1. Romantics lived lives of tremendous emotional intensity (suicides and strange illnesses common); many led bohemian lives, wearing hair long and uncombed

          2. Romantic artists rejected materialism and wanted to escape to lofty spiritual heights through their art (full development of one’s unique human potential)

          3. Romantics driven by yearning for the unattained, unknown, and unknowable

        3. Romanticism’s general conception of nature totally different of classicism

          1. Nature was portrayed by classicists as beautiful and chaste (like formal garden)

          2. The romantics were enchanted by nature, seeing it as awesome and tempestuous and others saw nature as a source of spiritual inspiration 

          3. Most romantics saw the growth of modern industry as an attack on their beloved nature and human personality and sought escape to “unspoiled” lands

        4. Some romantics found awesome moving power in the new industrial landscape

        5. Fascinated by color and diversity, the romantic imagination turned toward the study of history with a passion (history was beautiful and important in its own right)

        6. History was believed to by the art of change over time (organic and dynamic)

        7. Historical studies supported the development of national aspirations and encourage entire peoples to seek in the past their special destinies (European thought)

      2. Literature

        1. Britain was the first country where romanticism flowered fully in poetry and prose and the British romantic writers were among the most prominent in Europe 

        2. Romanticism found its distinctive voice in poetry, as the Enlightenment had in prose

        3. William Wordsworth was the leader of English romanticism and was influenced by the philosophy of Rousseau and the spirit of the early French Revolution 

          1. Wordsworth and Coleridge published Lyrical Ballads, one of the most influential literary works in the history of English language (language of ordinary speech)

          2. Wordsworth’s romantic conviction that nature has power to elevate and instruct

        4. Walter Scott personified the romantic movement’s fascination with history; he was influenced by German romanticism, particularly by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

        5. The strength of classicism in France inhibited the growth of romanticism there at first but between 1820 and 1850 the romantic impulse broke through in poetry and prose

        6. Victor Hugo was the greatest in both poetry and prose in France

        7. Hugo achieved an amazing range of rhythm, language, and image in his lyric poetry

          1. Powerful novels exemplified the romantic fascination with fantastic characters

          2. In his play Hernani, Hugo renounced his early conservatism and equated freedom in literature with liberty in politics and society (broke all the old rules)

        8. Amandine Dupin, known as George Sand, defied the narrow conventions of her time in an unending search for self-fulfillment (romantic love of nature, moral idealism)

        9. In central and eastern Europe, literary romanticism and early nationalism often reinforced each other and romantics plumbed their own histories and cultures

      3. Art and Music

        1. The greatest and most moving romantic painter in France was Eugene Delacroix who was a master of dramatic, colorful scenes that stirred the emotions (Liberty Leading the People celebrated the nobility of popular revolution in general and revolution)

        2. The most notable romantic painters in England was Joseph M. W. Turner and John Constable and both were fascinated by nature; while Turner depicted nature’s power and terror, Constable painted landscapes in which humans were with environment

        3. Great romantics transformed the classical orchestra and gave range and intensity to music (achieved the most ecstatic effect and realized endless yearning of the soul)

        4. The composer Franz Liszt vowed to do for the piano what Nicolo Paganini

        5. Ludwig can Beethoven used contrasting themes and tones to produce dramatic conflict and inspiring resolutions and his range was tremendous (richness and beauty)

    4. Reforms and Revolutions

      1. National Liberation in Greece

        1. National, liberal revolution succeeded in Greece after 1815 (had been under control by the Ottoman Turks since the fifteenth century; united under language and religion)

        2. The rising national movement led to the formation of secret societies and then to revolt in 1821, led by Alexander Ypsilanti, Greek patriot and general in Russian army

        3. The Great Powers were opposed to all revolution and refused to back Ypsilanti 

          1. Educated Europeans were in love with the culture of classical Greece

          2. Russians were stirred by the piety of the Greek Orthodox brethren

          3. Writers and artists, moved by romantic impulse, responded to the Greek struggle

        4. In 1827 Great Britain, France, and Russia responded to popular demands and directed Turkey to accept an armistice but when Turkey refused, navies defeated the Turkish fleet and Russia established a protectorate over land that had been under Turkish rule

        5. Russia finally declared Greece independent in 1830 and installed a German prince as king of the new country in 1832 (nation had gained independence against empire)

      2. Liberal Reform in Great Britain  

        1. Eighteenth-century British society was dominated by the landowning aristocracy

        2. The Tory party, controlled by landed aristocracy, was fearful of radical movements and the same intense conservatism motivated the Tory government (balance)

        3. After 1815 the aristocracy defended its ruling position by repressing popular protest

          1. In 1815, they began with the Corn Laws, which had regulated the foreign grain trade before (shortages of grain had occurred and agricultural prices skyrocketed but peace meant that grain could be imported again and prices went down)

          2. The new regulation prohibited the importation of foreign grain unless the price at home rose above 80 shillings per quarter (class-based interpretation)

          3. The Corn Laws led to protests and demonstrations by urban laborers and were supported by radical thinkers who campaigned for a reformed House of Commons

          4. In 1817, government responded by temporarily suspending the rights of peaceable assembly and habeas corpus; two years later, Parliament passed the Six Acts controlling heavily taxed press and practically eliminated all mass meetings

          5. These acts followed an orderly protest at Saint Peter’s Fields (‘Battle of Peterloo’)

        4. Ongoing industrial development strengthened the upper middle class

        5. In the 1820s the Tory government moved in the direction of better urban direction, greater economic liberalism, and civil equality of Catholics (heavy tariff)

          1. The Whig party introduced an act to amend the representation of people 

          2. The Reform Bill of 1832 allowed the House of Commons to emerge as the all-important legislative body and new industrial areas of the country gained representation in the Commons and electoral districts were eliminated

          3. As a result, the number of voters increased by about 50 percent, giving about 12 percent of the total population the right to vote

        6. The principal radical program was embodied in the “People’s Charter” of 1838 and Chartist movement (core demand was universal male suffrage, not female suffrage)

          1. Parliament rejected petitions for male suffrage and many working-class people joined with middle-class manufacturers in the Anti-Corn Law League (1839)

          2. The climax of the movement came in 1845, the year of the Ireland’s famine and to avert catastrophe Robert Peel and the Whigs repealed the Corn Laws in 1846 

        7. In 1847, the Tories passed the Ten Hours Act of 1847, which limited the workday for women and young people in factories to ten hours and healthy competition between the aristocracy and strong middle class was a factor in the peaceful evolution 

        8. Exploited and growing in numbers, Irish peasants had come to depend on the potato crop and its economy was a subsistence economy, which lacked network of trade

        9. Potato crop failure in 1846, 1848, and 1851 caused the Great Famine and widespread starvation and mass fever epidemics followed (many immigrants died or fled)

      3. The Revolution of 1830 in France

        1. Louis XVIII’s Constitutional Charter of 1814 was basically a liberal constitution

          1. Louis appointed moderate royalists his ministers who sought to obtain the support of a majority of the representations elected to the lower Chamber of Deputies 

          2. Louis’s charter allowed only about 100,000 of the wealthiest people to vote for deputies, who with the king and his ministers, made the laws of the nation

        2. Charles X, Louis’s successor, wanted to re-establish the old order in France

          1. Charles repudiated the Constitutional Charter in 1830, issued decrees stripping much of the wealthy middle class of its voting rights and censored the press

          2. The immediate reaction was an insurrection in capital by printers and in “three glorious days,” the government collapsed and the upper middle class skillfully seated Charles’s cousin, Louis Philippe, duke of Orleans on the vacant throne

        3. Louis Philippe accepted the Constitutional Charter of 1814 and was merely “king”

        4. The wealthy notable elite actually tightened its control as the old aristocracy retreated

        5. For the upper middle class, there had been a change in dynasty in order to protect the status quo and narrowly liberal institutions of 1815

    5. The Revolutions of 1848

      1. A Democratic Republic in France

        1. Pre-Revolutionary” outbreaks occurred all across Europe (revolution in Paris)

        2. Louis Philippe’s “bourgeois monarchy” was characterized by stubborn inaction

          1. Lack of social, legislation, and politics was dominated by corruption 

          2. The king’s chief minister in the 1840s, Francois Guizot, was personified and satisfied with the electoral system were only rich could vote for deputies

        3. Barricades went up on the night of February 22, 1848 and by February 24, Louis Philippe had abdicated in favor of his grandson but refusal led to the proclamation of a provisional republic, headed by a ten-man executive committee supported by public

        4. A generation of writers had praised the First French Republic and revolutionaries were firmly committed to a republic as opposed to any form of constitutional monarchy and they immediately set about drafting a constitution for France’s Second

          1. Government truly wanted the forces of the common people (could reform society)

          2. Revolutionary compassion and sympathy for freedom were expressed in the freeing of all slaves in French colonies, the abolition of the death penalty, and the establishment of a ten-hour workday for workers in Paris

        5. The revolutionary coalition were the moderate, liberal republicans of the middle class

          1. They viewed universal male suffrage as the ultimate concession; but they opposed any further radical social measures but on the other hand, were radical republicans

          2. The radical republicans were committed to socialism (various degrees)

        6. Worsening depression and rising unemployment raised issues

        7. Louis Blanc represented the republican socialists in the provincial government

          1. Blanc argued for permanent government-sponsored cooperative workshops 

          2. Moderate republicans were willing to provide only temporary relief and the resulting compromise set up national workshops and established a special commission under Blanc to “study the question” (nobody satisfied)

        8. French masses went to election polls and the people elected to the new Constituent Assembly 500 moderate republics, 300 monarchists, and 100 radicals—socialists

        9. This socialist revolution was a violent reaction among the peasants and according to Alex de Tocqueville (Democracy in America) the peasants were bond with land

        10. The clash of ideologies of liberal capitalism and socialism became a clash of classes

          1. The government’s executive committee dropped Blanc and included no representative of the Parisian working class (workers invaded Constituent Assembly on May 15 and tried to proclaim a new revolutionary state)

          2. On June 22, the government dissolved the national workshops in Paris, giving the workers the choice of joining the army or going to workshops in the provinces

          3. The result was a spontaneous and violent uprising and barricades sprang up

          4. Class war had begun and working people fought with the courage of utter desperation but the government had the army and the support of peasant France

          5. After three terrible “June Days” and the republican army stood triumphant

          6. In place of a generous democratic republic, the Constituent Assembly completed a constitution featuring a strong executive; allowed Louis Napoleon to win election

      2. The Austrian Empire in 1848

        1. News of the upheaval in France evoked liberals to demand written constitutions, representative government, and greater civil liberties from authoritarian regimes; monarchs collapsed after popular revolts but traditional forces recovered and reasserted their authority and reaction was everywhere victorious

        2. The revolution in the Austrian Empire began in Hungary and in 1848, under the leadership of Louis Kossuth, the Hungarians demanded national autonomy, full civil liberties, and universal suffrage but the monarchy in Vienna hesitated

          1. Viennese students and workers took to the streets on March 13 and added their own demands and the Habsburg emperor Ferdinand I capitulated and promised reforms and a liberal constitution (Metternich fled to London)

          2. On March 20, the monarchy abolished serfdom and newly free men and women of the land then lost interest in the political and social questions in the urban areas

        3. The Hungarian revolutionaries were also nationalists and wanted the ancient Crown of Saint Stephen transformed into a unified, centralized, Hungarian nation; the Habsburg monarchy exploited the fears of the minority groups and locked in combat

        4. Czech nationalists based in Bohemia, led by Czech historian Palacky, came into conflict with German nationalists and saw their struggle for autonomy as a struggle against a dominant group and peoples of the empire came into sharp conflict

        5. Throughout Austrian and the German states the middle class wanted liberal reform complete with constitutional monarchy limited voting rights, and social measures

        6. When the urban poor rose in arms presenting their own demands for socialist workshops and universal male suffrage, the middle classes recoiled in alarm

        7. Conservative aristocratic forces gathered around Emperor Ferdinand I, who was encouraged by the archduchess Sophia to abdicate in favor of her son Francis Joseph

          1. Prince Alfred Windischgratz bombarded Prague and crushed a working class revolt in Prague on June 17; Austrian armies reconquered Austria’s possessions

          2. At the end of October, the Austrian army attacked the student and working-class radicals in Vienna and retook the city (Austrian aristocracy and loyalty of army)

        8. Francis Joseph was crowned emperor of Austria in December 1848 and Nicolas I of Russia let 130,000 Russian troops; on June 6, 1849, the army subdued the country

      3. Prussia and the Frankfurt Assembly

        1. Prior to 1848, the goal of middle-class Prussian liberals had been to transform absolutist Prussia into a liberal constitution  (then merging German states into nation)

        2. After the fall of Louis Philippe, Prussian liberals pressed for the creation of liberal constitutional monarchy and the artisans and factory workers exploded

        3. Frederick William IV hesitated and on March 21, he promised to grant Prussia a liberal constitution and to merge it into a new national German state to be created

        4. Urban workers wanted a more radical revolution and the Prussian aristocracy wanted no revolution at all and joined the conservative group to urge a counter-reformation

        5. A self-appointed group of liberals from various states met for the first time on May 18 in Frankfurt to write a federal constitution for a unified German state 

        6. The Frankfurt National Assembly was absorbed with the issue of the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein (provinces in Germany but ruled by the king of Denmark)

        7. When Frederick VII, the new king of Denmark tried to integrate both of these provinces, the Germans there revolted (called on Prussian army to help)

        8. In March 1849 the National Assembly completed its draft constitution and elected Frederick William of Prussia the new emperor of the German national state

        9. Frederick William rejected the National Assembly and retook control of the state

    Chapter 24: Life in Changing Urban Society


    1. Taming the City

      1. Industry and the Growth of Cities

        1. European cities had been centers of government, culture, and large-scale commerce and people were packed together almost as tightly as possible within the city limits

          1. People were always more likely to die in the city than in the country more people died each year than were born and urban populations were able to maintain their numbers only because newcomers were continually arriving from rural places

          2. As industry grew, already overcrowded and unhealthy cities rapidly expanded 

        2. The number of people living in cities of 20,000 or more in England and Wales jumped from 1.5 million (17%) in 1801 to 6.3 million (35%) in 1851 and reached 15.6 million (54%) in 1891 (other countries duplicated the English pattern)

        3. In the 1820s and 1830s, people in Britain and France began to worry about conditions and the number of British cities were increasing by 40 to 70 percent each decade

        4. Buildings were erected on the smallest possible lots in order to pack the people

          1. Many people lived in small, often overcrowded cellars or attics

          2. Highly concentrated urban populations lived in unsanitary and unhealthy conditions

        5. Open drains and sewers flowed alongside or down unpaved streets and because of poor construction and an absence of running water, the sewers often filled

        6. Toilet facilities were primitive in the extreme and as many as two hundred people shared a single outhouse, which filled up rapidly and since they were infrequently emptied, sewage often overflowed and seeped into cellar dwellings

      2. The awful conditions were caused by tremendous pressure of more people and the total absence of public transportation and another factor was that government in England, both local and national, was slow to provide sanitary facilities and establish adequate building codes - caused by need to explore and identify what should be done

        1. Legacy or rural housing conditions in preindustrial society combined with appalling ignorance was most responsible for the awful conditions (housing was not propriety)

      3. The Public Health Movement

        1. Edwin Chadwick was a commissioner charged with administration relief to paupers under the revised Poor Law of 1834 (Benthamite, follower of radical philosopher Jeremy Bentham, taught that problems ought to be dealt on a rational, scientific basis

          1. He saw that problems of poverty and welfare budget was caused by disease and death because a sick worker was an unemployed worker (clean up environment)

          2. Chadwick collected reports from local Poor Law officials on the sanitary conditions of the laboring population and reports published in 1842

          3. The key to the energetic action Chadwick proposed was an adequate supply of clean piped water was essential for hygiene, bathhouses, cleaning, and industry

          4. Chadwick correctly believed that the excrement of communal outhouse could be dependably carried off by water through sewers as less than one-twentieth the cost of removing it by hand (iron pipes and tile drains would provide running water)

        2. In 1848, with the cause strengthened by the cholera epidemic of 1846, Chadwick’s report became the basis of Great Britain’s first public health law, which created a national health board and gave cities authority to build modern sanitary systems

        3. The public health movement won support in the United States, France and Germany

        4. In Great Britain, governments accepted at least limited responsibility for the health of all citizens and they adopted programs of action that broke the high morality rates

      4. The Bacterial Revolution

        1. In the nineteenth century, reformers were handicapped by the prevailing miasmatic theory of disease—the theory that smells cause disease (empirical observations)

        2. Observation by doctors and public health officials in the 1840s and 1850s suggested that contagion was spread through filth and not caused by filth

        3. The breakthrough was development of the germ theory of disease by Louis Pasteur

          1. People used fermentation to make break and wine that would spoil mysteriously

          2. Pasteur, a French chemist began studying fermentation in 1854 and found that fermentation depended on the growth of living organisms and that the activity of these organisms could be suppressed by heating the beverage (“pasteurizing” it)

          3. The implication was that specific diseases were caused by specific living organisms—germs—and that host organisms could be controlled in people

        4. In the middle of the 1870s, German country doctor Robert Koch developed pure cul-tures of harmful bacteria, described their life cycles and over twenty years, researchers—mainly Germans—identified the organisms responsible for disease after disease, led to a number of effective vaccines and emergence of modern immunology

        5. English surgeon Joseph Lister noticed that patients with simple factures were much less likely to die than those with compound fractures, in which the skin was broken and internal tissues were exposed to the air and after Pasteur in 1865 showed the air was full of bacteria, applied a chemical disinfectant to a wound dressing (sterilizing)

        6. In the 1880s, German surgeons sterilized everything that entered the operating room

        7. Mortality rates began to decline dramatically in the European countries by 1910, the death rates for people in urban areas were generally no greater than in the rural areas

      5. Urban Planning and Public Transportation

        1. Important transformations significantly improved the quality of urban life

          1. Urban planning after 1850 was revived and extended and France took the lead during the rule of Napoleon III, who sought to stand above class conflict and promote welfare of all his subjects through government action (Second Empire)

          2. Napoleon III believed that rebuilding much of Paris would provide employment, improve living conditions, and testify the power and glory of his empire

          3. Napoleon placed baron Georges Haussmann, an aggressive, impatient Alsatian in charge of Paris who was an authoritarian planner capable of facing opposition

        2. Haussmann and his fellow planners razed old buildings in order to cut broad, straight, boulevards through the center of the city, which allowed for traffic to flow freely

          1. New streets stimulated the construction of better housing and small neighborhood parks and open spaces were created throughout the city; the city also improved its sewers and a system of aqueducts doubled the city’s supply of good fresh water

          2. In city after city, public authorities mounted an attack on many of the related problems of the urban environment (better water supply and waste disposal)

        3. Zoning expropriation laws allowed a majority of owners of land in given quarter of the city to impose major street or sanitation improvements on a reluctant minority

        4. The development of mass public transportation improved urban living conditions

          1. In the 1870s, many European cities authorized private companies to operate horse-drawn streetcars to carry the riders, developed in the United States

          2. Then in the 1890s, European countries adopted another American transit innovation, the electric streetcar, which were cheaper, faster, and dependable

          3. Each person used public transportation four times as often in 1910 as in 1886

        5. The new boulevards and transportation gave people access to new, improved housing and still-crowded cities were able to expand and become less congested

        6. On the Continent, many city governments in the early twentieth century were building electric streetcar systems that provided transportation to new public and private housing developments in outlying areas of the city for the working classes

    2. Rich and Poor and Those in Between

      1. Social Structure

        1. A great change was an increase in the standard of living for the average person

          1. The wages of British workers almost doubled between 1850 and 1906 and similar increases occurred in continental countries as industrial development quickened

          2. Greater economic rewards for the average person did not eliminate hardship and poverty, nor was the income of the rich and the poor significantly more equal

          3. The poorest 80 percent—the working classes, including peasants and agricultural laborers—received less altogether than the two richest classes

        2. ​The great gap between rich and poor endured, in part, because industrial and urban development made society more diverse and less unified but did not split into two

        3. Rather, economic specialization enabled society to produce more effectively and in the process created more new social groups than it destroyed

        4. In an atmosphere of competition and hierarchy, neither the middle classes nor the working classes acted as a unified force (economic inequality remained intact)

      2. The Middle Classes

        1. At the top stood the upper middle class, composed mainly of the must successful business families from banking, industry, and commerce (beneficiaries)

          1. People of the upper middle class were drawn to aristocratic lifestyle; genuine hereditary aristocracy retained wealth, prestige, and political influence, especially in central and eastern Europe where the monarch continued to hold power

          2. The number of servants was an important indicator of wealth and standing

          3. The topmost reaches of the upper middle class tended to shad off into the old aristocracy to form a new upper class (5% of the population with 33% of wealth)

          4. Wealthy aristocrats tended increasingly to exploit their agricultural and mineral resources as if they were business people (marriages to American heiresses)

        2. Below the wealthy upper middle class were much large, much less wealthy, and increasingly diversified middle-class groups (industrialists, merchants, professionals)

        3. Below them were shopkeepers, small traders, and manufacturers (lower middle class)

        4. The traditional middle class was gaining two particularly important additions

          1. The expansion of industry, technology created growing demand for experts with specialized knowledge and most valuable became solid middle-class professions

          2. Architects, chemists, accountants, and surveyors first achieved professional standing in this period and established criteria for advanced training and certifi-cation and banded together in organizations to promote and defend their interests

          3. Management of large public and private institutions also emerged as a kind of profession as governments provided more services and corporations came about

        5. Industrialization also expanded and diversified the lower middle class

          1. The number of independent, property-owning shopkeepers and small business people grew and white collar employees, who did not own land and earned no more than skilled workers, were committed to the ideal of moving up in society

          2. Many white-collar groups aimed at achieving professional standing and the accompanying middle-class status (school teachers, nurses, dentistry)

        6. The middle classes were loosely united by a certain style of life and food was the largest item in the household budget, for middle-class people liked to eat very well

          1. The English were equally attached to substantial meals, which they ate three times a day and consumed meat in abundance (25% of income was spent on meals)

          2. Spending on food was big because the dinner party was this class’s favored social occasion and dinners were served in the “French manner” (8-9 separate courses)

        7. The middle-class wife could cope with this endless procession of meals, courses, and dishes because she had both servants and money at her disposal; the employment of at least one helpful full-time maid to cook and clean was the single best sign that a family had crossed the vague line between working classes from the middle class

        8. A prosperous English family, with 10,000 dollars a year, in 1900 spend fully 25 percent of its income on a hierarchy of ten servants (second largest item on budget)

        9. The middle classes were also well housed by 1800 and many quite prosperous families rented, rather than owned, their homes (apartment living)

        10. By 1900 the middle class was also quite clothes conscious and the factory, the sewing machine, and department store helped reduce the cost of the variety of clothing

        11. Education was another growing expense as the middle-class parents tried to provide their children with education (keystones of culture were books, music, and travel)

        12. The middle classes were loosely united by a shared code of expected behavior and morality and laid great stress on hard work, self-discipline, and personal achievement; middle class people were supposed to know right from wrong and act accordingly

      3. The Working Classes

        1. About four out of five people belonged to working classes at the turn of the century, people whose livelihoods depended on physical labor and who did not employ domestic servants were still small landowning peasants and hired farm hands (east)

          1. In Great Britain, less than 8 percent of the people worked in agriculture in 1900

          2. While in Germany only 25% and less than 50 % in France depended on the land

        2. The urban working classes were less unified than the middle classes

          1. Economic development and increased specialization expanded the traditional range of working-class skills, earnings, and experiences (semiskilled groups)

          2. Skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled workers developed widely divergent lifestyles and cultural values, and their differences contributed to a keen sense of social status and hierarchy within the working classes (variety but limited class unity)

        3. Highly skilled workers (15%) became a real “labor aristocracy,” earning about 2 pounds per week in Great Britain, about twice the earnings of unskilled workers

          1. The most “aristocratic” of the highly skilled workers were construction bosses and factory foremen; the class also included highly skilled handicraftsmen makers of scientific and musical instruments, cabinetmakers, potters, jewelers, bookbinders, engravers and printers (under pressure as factory methods expanded)

          2. The labor aristocracy was enlarged by growing need for highly skilled workers such as shipbuilders, machine-too makers, railways locomotives and spinners; labor elite remained in a state of flux as crafts and individuals moved in and out

          3. To maintain standing, the upper working class adopted puritanical values and was strongly committed to the family and to economic improvement

          4. Families in the upper working class saved money regularly, but viewed them-selves as the natural leaders of the working classes (self-discipline and morality)

          5. The upper working class frowned on heavy drinking and sexual permissiveness

        4. Below the labor aristocracy stood semiskilled and unskilled urban workers

          1. Workers in established crafts, carpenters, bricklayers, pipefitters, stood near the top and a large number of the semiskilled were factory workers with good wages

          2. The unskilled workers included day laborers, people who had skills and performed valuable services, but were unorganized and divided

        5. One of the largest components of the unskilled group was domestic servants and in Great Britain, one of every seven employed persons was a domestic servant in 1911

          1. A great majority were women and domestic service was still hard work at low pay with limited personal independence (babysitting, shopping, cooking and cleaning)

          2. In great households, the girl was at the bottom of a rigid hierarchy (servant above)

        6. Domestic service had real attractions for country girls with hands and skills

          1. Marriage prospects were better in the city and wages were higher

          2. Many young domestics made transition to working-class wife and mother but such a woman often had to join the working women in the “sweated industries”

          3. Some women did hand-decorating but the majority made clothing (sewing machine) and these women accounted for inexpensive “ready-made” clothes

        7. The urban working classes sought fun and recreation and turned to drinking, the favorite leisure-time activity of working people (curse of the modern age)

        8. The heavy problem drinking declined in the late nineteenth century and this decline reflected in part the moral leadership of the upper working class; social drinking in public places by couples became accepted and this participation of women helped civilize the world of drink and hard liquor

        9. Two other leisure-time passions of the working classes were sports and music halls

          1. Cruel sports declined throughout Europe by the late nineteenth century and their place was filled by modern spectator sports (soccer and racing most popular)

          2. Music halls and vaudeville theaters, the working-class counterparts of opera and classical theater, were enormously popular throughout Europe

          3. Drunkenness, sexual intercourse and pregnancy before marriage, marital difficulties, and problems with mothers-in-law were favorite themes and songs

        10. Religion and Christian churches continued to provide working people with solace and meaning and German Pietism and English Methodism carried over into the century

        11. In the last two or three decades of the nineteenth century saw a decline in both church attendance and church donations; it appears urban working classes in Europe did become more secular in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries



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