Ap european Study Guide From After Black Death to Current History



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  • Jules Mazarin was appointed as the successor of Richelieu and when Louis XIII died in 1643, a regency headed by Queen Anne of Austria governed for the child-king Louis XIV and Mazarin became dominant power in the government

  • Mazarin provoked aristocratic rebellion (frondeurs -- the nobility and middle class) called the Fronde in 1648 when he proposed new methods of raising state income

  • Fronde showed the government would have to compromise with the bureaucrats and social elites, the economy would take years to rebuild, and Louis XIV decided the only alternative to anarchy was turning to absolute monarchy

  • The Absolute Monarchy of Louis XIV

    1. The reign of Louis XIV (“Sun King”) was the longest in European history and the French monarchy reached the peak of absolutist development

    2. Louis grew up with absolute sense of his royal dignity and he married Queen Maria Theresa, whom he married as a result of a diplomatic agreement with Spain

    3. Louis XIV achieved constituted collaboration with the nobility rather than absolute

    4. French government rested on the social and political structure of France and Louis XIV installed his royal court at Versailles that was used to awe subjects and visiting dignitaries (state policy) -- others constructed versions of Versailles

    5. Beginning in the reign of Louis XIV, French became the language of polite society and the vehicle of diplomatic exchange

    6. Louis XIV separated power from status and grandeur using court ceremonies, entertainment, spies, and informers to reduce the power of the nobility

    7. Councilors of state came from the recently ennobled or the upper middle class and chose bourgeois officials because he wanted people to know by the rank of men who served him that he had no intention of sharing power with them

  • Financial and Economic Management Under Louis XIV: Colbert

    1. Finance was the grave weakness of Louis XIV’s absolutism because the professional bureaucracy, the court of Versailles, and extensive military reforms cost money

    2. With the rich and prosperous classes exempt, the tax burden fell heavily on the poor peasants because tax revenues fell short of the government’s needs

    3. Louis XIV named Jean Baptiste Colbert, the controller general of finances and later came to manage the entire royal administration and became chief financial minister

      1. Mercantilism: collection of governmental policies for the regulation of economic activities, especially commercial activities, by and for the state

      2. In seventeenth- and eighteenth-century economic theory, a nation’s international power was thought o be base on its wealth, specifically its gold supply

      3. Colbert using his principle theory, insisted that the French sell abroad and buy nothing back and used subsidies for domestic industries, tariffs, and policies to attract foreign artisans in order to make France self-sufficient and to boost exports

    4. Colbert’s most important work was the creation of a powerful merchant marine to transport French goods and promoted colonization of French territories in N. A.

    5. The national economy, however, rested on agriculture (many peasants emigrated)

  • The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

    1. The absolutist state also attempted to control religion and in 1685, Louis XIV evoked the Edict of Nantes because he wanted to pursue “one king, one law, one faith”

    2. In the early years of Louis XIV’s reign, religious liberty was not a popular policy and the monarchy never intended religious toleration to be permanent

    3. While contemporaries applauded Louis XIV, scholars in the eighteenth century did not for the negative impart on the economy and foreign affairs (Huguenots left)

  • French Classicism

    1. The art and literature of the age of Louis XIV was termed the “French classicism,” which imitated the subject matter and style of classical antiquity, that their work resembled that of Renaissance Italy and that French art possessed the classical qualities of discipline, balance, and restraint

    2. After Louis’s accession to power, the principles of absolutism molded the ideals of French classicism; individualism was not allowed, and artists’ efforts were directed to the glorification of the state as personified by the king

    3. Louis XIV enjoyed music and theater using them as a backdrop for court ceremonies

      1. Nicholas Poussin is considered the finest example of French classicist painting and was deeply attached to classical antiquity believing that the highest aim of painting was to represent noble (The Rape of the Sabine Women)

      2. Jean-Baptiste Lully’s orchestral works combined lively animation with the restrained austerity typical of French classicism (also composed court ballets)

      3. Francois Courperin, whose harpsichord and organ works possessed the regal grandeur the king loved, and Marc-Antioine Charpentier (solemn religious music)

      4. Jean-Baptiste Poquelin was a playwright, stage manager, director, and actor, produced comedies that exposed the hypocrisies and follies of society; his contemporary Jean Racine analyzed the power of love with tragedies

  • Louis XIV’s Wars

    1. In 1666 Louis appointed François le Tellier (later marquis de Louvois) who created a professional army that employed the soldier but the king himself took command and directly supervised all aspects and details of military affairs

    2. Louvois used several methods in recruiting troops by dragooning (men seized off the streets), conscription, and the lottery after 1688 (regiments of foreign mercenaries)

    3. Under the strict direction of Jean Martinet, the foreign and native-born soldiers were turned into a tough, obedient, military machine (commissariat established to feed the troops, ambulance corps, uniforms and weapons standardized, and training program)

    4. Louis XIV made territorial gains in the Low Countries and Lorraine before his armies could not fight anymore (William of Orange became king of England, joined the League of Augsburg, composed of Habsburg, Spain, and Sweden, and Louis could not compete against the Bank of Amsterdam and the Bank of England after 1694

    5. Claude Le Peletier, minister of finance, resorted to devaluation of the currency, old device of selling offices, tax exemptions, and titles of nobility

    6. High taxes to support the military and bad weather from 1688-1694 led to revolts and mass starvation in some areas of France (at least one-tenth of its population lost)

    7. In 1694, the controller general of finance, Louis Pontchartrain, imposed the capitation, an annual poll tax on the theory that the poor would pay more willingly if they knew that the rich also were taxed (entire population participated in war effort)

    8. The War of the Spanish Succession involved the dynastic question of the succession to the Spanish throne; King Charles II of Spain died in 1700

      1. Charles passed the Spanish throne to Louis XIV’s grandson (Philip of Anjou); England, Holland, Austria, and Prussia united against France to preserve the European balance of power and check the French expansion in the Americas, Asia, and Africa (Louis XIV reneged on the treaty and accepted the will)

      2. The war, which ended in 1713 with the Peace of Utrecht, applied partition and Philip, remained the first Bourbon king of Spain (French and Spanish never unite)

      3. The Peace of Utecht represented the balance-of-power principle in operation, setting limits on the extent to which any one power could expand

      4. The treaty completed the decline of Spain as a great power, expanded the British Empire, and marked the end of French expansionist policy

  • The Decline of Absolutist Spain in the Seventeenth Century

    1. Spanish absolutism had preceded the French and in the sixteenth century, Spain (Kingdom of Castile) developed the standard features of absolute monarchy

    2. Gold and silver from the Americas were the basis for Spanish power but the lack of a strong middle class, expulsion of Jews and Moors, the agricultural crisis and population decline, the failure to invest in productive enterprises, the intellectual isolation and psychological malaise all combined to reduce Spain to a lower power

    3. The Spanish-Atlantic economy decreased when trading with other countries started and colonies began to develop their own local industries

    4. Thousands entered economically unproductive professions or became a priest or nun

    5. Philip IV left the management of his several kingdoms to Count-Duke of Olivares who devised new sources revenue but wanted to return to imperial tradition to solve

    6. The imperial traditions demanded the revival of war and Spain became part of the Thirty Years’ War; by the Treaty of the Pyrenees of 1659, which ended the French-Spanish wars, Spain was compelled to surrender extensive territories to France

    7. The most cherished Spanish ideals were military glory and strong Roman Catholic faith by the decadence of the Habsburg dynasty and the lack of effective royal councilors contributed to the Spanish failure (Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes)

  • Constitutionalism

    1. Introduction

      1. England and Holland evolved toward constitutionalism: the limitation of government by law -- implies balance between authority of government and rights of the subjects

      2. A nation’s constitution may be written or unwritten, but the state must govern according to the laws and people look on the laws as protectors of rights and liberties

      3. However, a constitutional government was not fully democratic in that all people have the right to participate either directly or indirectly in the government of the state and therefore, democratic government is tied up with thefranchise (the vote)

    2. The Decline of Royal Absolutism in England (1603-1649)

      1. In the seventeenth century, England executed one king, experience a bloody civil war, dictatorship, then restored son, and finally established constitutional monarchy (1690)

      2. Success of Elizabeth I rested on political flexibility, careful management of finances, selection of ministers, manipulation of Parliament, and sense of dignity and devotion

      3. Her successor, James I, lacked the common touch, was devoted to the theory of the divine right of kings, lectured the Hose of Commons, implied total royal jurisdiction over the liberties, persons, and properties, and antagonized the Parliament

      4. The House of Commons appreciated its own financial strength, intending to use that strength to acquire a greater say in the government, brought around by many changes

        1. The dissolution of the monasteries and the sale of monastic land enriched many

        2. Agricultural techniques such as the draining of wasteland and the application of fertilizers had improved the land and its yield

        3. People invested in commercial ventures at home, such as the cloth industry, and through partnerships and joint stock companies engaged in foreign enterprises

      5. The members of the House were largely members of a new wealthy and powerful capitalist class that objected against the king on the issue of religion

        1. Many English people were dissatisfied with the Church of England established by Henry VIII and reformed by Elizabeth and many Puritans wanted to “purify” the Anglican church of Roman Catholic elements

        2. Others were attracted to John Calvin’s theology, which included hard work, sobriety, thrift, competition, postponement of pleasure, and linked sin and poverty with weakness and moral corruption

        3. James I and Charles I gave the impression of being highly sympathetic to Roman Catholicism and Charles had supported the policies of William Laud, archbishop of Canterbury, who tried to impose elaborate ritual ceremonials in churches (Court of High Commission – enforced uniformity of church services)

        4. In 1637, Laud attempted to impose on the church organization in Scotland: a new prayer book, modeled on the Anglican Book of Common Prayer and bishoprics, which the Presbyterian Scots firmly rejected (Charles summoned Parliament)

      6. Long Parliament from 1640-1660 proceed to enact legislation that limited the power of the monarch and made arbitrary government impossible

      7. In 1641, the Commons passed the Triennial Act, which compelled the king to summon Parliament every three years and the Commons impeached Archbishop Laud and abolished the Court of High Commission

      8. The English Civil War (1642-1649) tested whether sovereignty in England was to reside in the king or in Parliament and the period between 1649 (after King Charles I was executed) to 1660 was called the “Interregnum” because it separated two monarchial periods, witnessed England’s solitary experience of military dictatorship

    3. Puritanical Absolutism in England: Cromwell and the Protectorate

      1. After King Charles I was beheaded on January 30, 1649, a commonwealth, or republican form of government, was proclaimed and legislative power rested on members of Parliament and executive power was lodged in a council of state

      2. Oliver Cromwell controlled the army that had defeated the royal forces and though called the “Protectorate,” rule under Cromwell constituted military dictatorship

        1. Oliver Cromwell came from the country gentry, the class that dominated the House of Commons in the seventeenth century and sat in the Long Parliament

        2. By infusing the army with his Puritan convictions, he molded the “New Model Army” and prepared a constitution, the Instrument of Government (1653) which gave executive power in a lord protector and a council of state and also provided for triennial parliaments and gave Parliament the sole power to raise taxes

        3. Cromwell tore up the Instrument but proclaimed quasi-martial law by dividing England into twelve military districts, each governed by a major general

        4. Cromwell tolerated Catholicism except Roman Catholics, crushed rebellion in Ireland, regulated the nation’s economy (mercantilism) and enforced a Navigation Act (1651) that required English goods be transported on English ships

        5. The government collapsed when Cromwell died in 1658 and restored monarchy

    4. The Restoration of the English Monarchy

      1. The Restoration of 1660 re-established the reign of Charles II, houses of Parliament, established Anglican church, the courts of law, and the system of local governments but failed to resolve attitude of Puritans, Catholics, and dissenters from the state church and what was to be the relationship between the king and the Parliament

      2. New members of the Parliament proceeded to enact a body of laws that sought to compel religious uniformity and according to the Test Act of 1673, those who refused the sacrament of the Church of England could not vote, hold public office, preach, teach, attend the universities, or even assemble for meetings (could not be enforced)

      3. The relationship between the Parliament and Charles II was due to the king’s appointment of a council of five men who served both as his major advisers and as members of Parliament, thus acting as liaison agents between the executive and the legislature (body known as the “Cabal” and was the ancestor of the cabinet system)

      4. Harmony existed on the understanding that Charles would summon frequent parliaments and that Parliament would vote him sufficient revenues

      5. But, because of insufficient revenue, Charles entered into a secret agreement with Louis XIV in 1670 in which the French king would give Charles 200,000 pounds ad in return, Charles would relax the laws against Catholics, re-Catholicizing England

      6. But details slipped out, a anti-Catholic fear swept England because Charles had no legitimate children and his brother and heir, James, duke of York, who publicly acknowledged his Catholicism, would inaugurate a Catholic dynasty

      7. James II succeeded his brother and in direct violation of the Test Act, James appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army, the universities, and local government; James issued declaration of indulgence granting religious freedom to all

      8. Revolution was brought about when seven Anglican bishops reused to read James’s proclamation, were arrested but acquitted, and when James’s wife produced a son (Catholic dynasty seemed assured) and Parliament offered the throne to James’s Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband, Prince William of Orange; in December 1688 James fled to France and William and Mary were crowned

    5. Triumph of England’s Parliament: Constitutional Monarchy and Cabinet Government

      1. The English call the events of 1688 to 1689 the “Glorious Revolution” because it replaced one king with another with a minimum of bloodshed and William and Mary accepted the English throne from Parliament recognizing supremacy of Parliament

      2. Parliament framed their intentions in the Bill of Rights, which was formulated in direct response to Stuart absolutism; law was made by parliament not by the Crown

        1. Parliament had to be called at least every three years

        2. Both elections to and debate in Parliament were not to be interpreted by Crown

        3. The Crown could no longer get judicial decisions by threats of removal

        4. There was to be no standing army in peacetime—a limitation designed to prevent the repetition of either Stuart or Cromwellian military government

        5. Granted freedom of worship to Protestant dissenters and nonconformists

      3. The Glorious Revolution found its best defense in political philosopher John Locke’s Second Treatise of Civil Government maintaining that people set up civil governments to protect life, liberty, and property

        1. Under a tyrannical government, the people have the natural right to rebellion

        2. Locke linked economic liberty and private property with political freedom and Locke served as the great spokesman for the liberal English revolution of 1688

        3. The revolution placed sovereignty in Parliament and Parliament represented the upper classes; the great majority of English people acquired no say in their government

      4. The cabinet (derived from the small private room in which English rulers consulted their chief ministers) system of government evolved and in a cabinet system, the leading ministers, formulated common policy and conducted the business of country

      5. During the administration of one royal minister, Sir Robert Walpole (1721-1742), the idea developed that the cabinet was responsible to the House of Commons (The Hanoverian king George I, normally presided at cabinet meetings throughout reign)

      6. In the English cabinet system, both legislative power and executive power are held by the leading ministers, who form the government (prime minister)

    6. The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century

      1. The seven northern provinces of the Netherlands formed the United Provinces and Philip III compromised and the Peace of Westphalia meant the Dutch independence

      2. The seventeenth century witnessed Dutch scientific, artistic, and literary achievement and is often called the “golden age of the Netherlands”

      3. The Republic of the United Provinces of the Netherlands was a constitutional state

        1. Within each province an oligarchy of wealthy merchants called “regents” handled domestic affairs in the local Estates and the provincial Estates held all power

        2. A federal assembly, or States General, handled matters of foreign affairs

        3. The States General did not possess sovereign authority since all issues had to be referred back to the local Estates, and the States General appointed a representative, the stadholder, in each province (Estates assembled at The Hague)

        4. The Dutch were republican, the government was controlled by wealthy merchants and financiers, and was a weak union of strong provinces

      4. The political success of the Dutch rested on the phenomenal commercial prosperity of the Netherlands and moral and ethical bases of that commercial wealth were thrift, frugality, and religious toleration (allowed people to practice religions in private)

        1. Toleration attracted a great deal of foreign capital and investment

        2. The Calvinist province of Holland under its highest official, Jan van Oldenbarne-veldt, allowed Catholics to practice their faith

      5. The fishing industry was the cornerstone of the Dutch economy and the Dutch merchant marine was the largest in Europe (sixteen thousand merchant ships)

      6. In 1602, a group of regents of Holland formed the Dutch East India Company, a joint stock company (seized the Cape of Good Hope and established trading posts)

      7. Trade and commerce brought the Dutch prodigious wealth and low prices

      8. Although the initial purpose of the Dutch East and West India companies was commercial—import of spices and silks to Europe—the Dutch found themselves involved in the imperialist exploitations of parts of East Asia and Latin America

      9. War with France and England in the 1670s hurt the United Provinces, the long War of the Spanish Succession drained Dutch labor and financial resources and the peace signed in 1715 to end the war marked the beginning of Dutch economic decline

    Chapter 17: Absolutism in Eastern Europe in 1740



    1.  Lord and Peasants in Eastern Europe

      1. Introduction

        1. Absolute monarchy was built on social and economicfoundations (1400-1650)

        2. Princes and nobility of eastern Europe reimposed a harsh serfdom on the peasants

      2. The Medieval Background

        1. The period of time from 1050-1300 (“High Middle Ages”) was a period of general economic expansion characterized by the growth or trade, towns, and population

        2. After 1300, Europe’s population and economy dived because of the Black Death, and both east and west sought to solve their economic problems by exploiting peasantry

        3. East of the Elbe, lords used political and police power to exploit the peasantry

          1. Kings and princes issued laws that restricted/eliminated the peasant’s right of free movement and a peasant could no longer leave without the lord’s permission (In Prussian territories by 1500, runaway peasants were hunted down and returned)

          2. Lords took more and more of their peasants’ land and imposed heavier and heavier lab obligations (gradual erosion of the peasantry’s economic position was bound up with manipulation of the legal system)

      3. The Consolidation of Serfdom

        1. All the old privileges of the lords reappeared and peasants were also assumed to be in “hereditary subjugation” to their lords unless they could prove the contrary

        2. All this occurred in Poland, Prussia, and Russia and law cod set no limits on the lord

        3. The consolidation of serfdom accompanied the growth of estate agriculture (influx)

        4. Political, rather than economic, factors resulted in rise of serfdom in the east

          1. Eastern lords enjoyed much greater political power than the western counterparts

          2. The noble landlord class increased its political power at the expense of monarchy (weak kings were forced to grant political favors to win support of the nobility)

          3. The political power of the peasants were weaker in the eastern Europe and landlords systematically undermined the medieval privileges of the towns

    2. The Rise of Austria and Prussia

      1. Introduction

        1. Strong kings began to emerge in many lands and war and the threat of war aided rulers greatly in their attempts to build absolute monarchies

        2. The would-be absolutist monarchs of Eastern Europe monopolized political power

          1. By imposing and collecting permanent taxes without consent

          2. By maintaining permanent standing armies that policed the country

          3. By conducting relations with other states as they pleased

      2. ​​Austria and the Ottoman Turks

        1. ​Czech nobility, largely Protestant, dominated the Bohemian Estates, the represent-ative body of the different legal orders in Bohemia but at Battle of the White Mountain, Habsburg defeated Protestants and new nobility “enslaved” local peasants

        2. After the Thirty Years’ War, Ferdinand III, centralized the government in the hereditary German-speaking provinces (Austria, Styria, and Tyrol -- permanent army)

        3. Ottomans, from Anatolia (Turkey), reached their peak in the middle of the sixteenth century under Suleiman the Magnificent and their possessions stretched from western Persia across North Africa and up into the heart of central Europe

        4. Apostles of Islam, the Ottoman Turks were foes of the Catholic Habsburgs

        5. The Ottoman Empire was built on the conception of state and society where all the agricultural land of the empire was the personal hereditary property of the sultan

        6. The top ranks of the bureaucracy were staffed by the sultan’s slave corps (slave tax)

        7. Ottomans were more tolerant of other religions than the Europeans were

        8. Weak sultans failed to keep up with European military advances and finally with an alliance with Louis XIV of France, surrounded Vienna and laid siege to it in 1683, but the Habsburg defeated them, expanding into Hungary and Transylvania

        9. In 1713, Charles VI proclaimed the so-called Pragmatic Sanction, which state that the Habsburg possessions were never to be divided and passed to single heir intact

        10. The Hungarian nobility, despite its reduced strength, thwarted the full development of Habsburg absolutism as most of them being Protestants continued to insist on their traditional rights and rebelled under Prince Francis Rakoczy in 1703 (compromise)

      3. Prussia in the Seventeenth Century

        1. While local princes lost political power and influence, a revitalized landed nobility became the ruling class; the Hohenzollern family ruled the electorate of Brandenburg and Prussia (largest landowners in a landlord society)

          1. Brandenburg was completely cut off from the sea and the territory of the elector’s cousin, the duke of Prussia, was totally separated from Brandenburg

          2. In 1618 the junior branch of the Hohenzollern family died and Prussia reverted to the elector of Brandenburg who was a helpless spectator in the 30 Years’ War

        2. Devastation of Brandenburg and Prussia prepared the way for Hohenzollern absolutism because foreign armies weakened the political power of the Estates

        3. The weakening of the representative assemblies of the realm, allowed elector Frederick William (“Great Elector”) to take step towards royal absolutism

        4. The Great Elector was determined to unify Brandenburg (area around Berlin), Prussia (part of Poland), and scattered holdings along the Rhine in western Germany

        5. Taxes could be charged with their consent and the Estates of Brandenburg and Prussia were dominated by the nobility and landowning classes, known as “Junkers”

        6. To pay for the permanent standing army (1660) Frederick William forced the Estates to accept the introduction of permanent taxation without consent and the soldiers became the core of the rapidly expanding state bureaucracy (In 1688, the army contained thirty thousand, many French Huguenots welcomed as citizens)

        7. Two factors that appear central are war (invasion by the wild Tartars of southern Russia softened Estates and strengthen the urgency for more soldiers) and nobility having long dominated the government through the Estates for narrow self-interest

        8. The Great Elector reduced the political power of the Estates but accepted a compromise whereby the bulk of the new taxes fell on towns and royal authority stopped at the landlords’ gates (Konisberg leader arrested and imprisoned)

      4. The Consolidation of Prussian Absolutism

        1. The Great Elector’s successor Elector Frederick III (“the Ostentatious”), was focused on imitating the style of Louis XIV (crowned King Frederick I for aiding the Holy Roman emperor in the War of the Spanish Succession)

        2. Frederick William I, “the Soldiers’ King,” part of the Hohenzollern family, established Prussian absolutism creating the best army in Europe (size)

        3. Frederick William loved tall soldiers and his love of the army was based on a conception of the struggle for power and a dog-eat-dog view of international politics

        4. He created a strong centralized bureaucracy but he was always in conflict with the noble landowners, the Junkers (instead of destroying them, enlisted them in the army)

          1. A new compromise was worked out whereby the nobility imperiously commanded the peasantry in the army as well as on the estates

        5. Frederick William’s standing army reached eighty-three thousand, his bureaucracy administered the country, even trying to build economically, but the Prussian people still paid a heavy and lasting practice for the obsessions of their royal drillmaster

    3. The Development of Russia

      1. Introduction

        1. Both the conversion of the eastern Slavs to Christianity and the loose, real political unification of the eastern Slavic territories under a single ruling family were medieval (The typical feudal division of the land-based society into a boyard nobility and a commoner peasantry was also medieval)

        2. From the mid-thirteenth century to the late seventeenth century, the lands of the eastern Slavs followed a unique path of European development and when absolutism triumphed under Peter the Great, it was a different type of monarchy from anywhere

      2. The Mongol Yoke and the Rise of Moscow

        1. The eastern Slavs emerged from the Middle Ages intact because of Mongol conquest

          1. Mongols unified under Genghis Khan subdued all of China and turned westward but pulled back in 1242 because of uncertainties after the Great Khan died

          2. The Mongol army—the Golden Horde—devastated and conquered the eastern Slavs for more than two hundred years (built capital of Saray on lower Volga)

          3. Mongols forced all Slavic princes to submit to their rule and to give them tribute

        2. Although the Mongols conquered, they were willing to use local princes as obedient servants and tax collectors and beginning with Alexander Nevsky in 1252, the “great prince” loyally put down popular uprisings and collected the khan’s harsh taxes

        3. Ivan I (1328-1341) was known as Ivan the Moneybag and built up a large personal fortune enabling him to buy more property (most serious rival was prince of Tver)

          1. In 1327, the population of Tver revolted against Mongol oppression and the prince of Tver joined his people but Ivan when to the Mongol capital of Saray where he was appointed commander of a large Russian-Mongol army

          2. He laid waste to Tver and its lands and the Mongols made Ivan the general tax collector for all the Slavic lands and named him great prince

          3. Ivan I convinced the metropolitan of Kiev to settle in Moscow and thus he gained greater prestige and the church gained a powerful advocate before the khan

        4. After a hundred years of innumerable wars and intrigues, Ivan III (1462-1505) assumed the title and after purchasing Rostov, he conquered and annexed other principalities, of which Novgorod, was the most crucial (land extending to Baltic Sea)

        5. Ivan III was the absolute ruler, the tsar—the Slavic contraction for caesar—and the Muscovite idea of absolute authority was powerfully reinforced by two developments

          1. Around 1480, Ivan III stopped acknowledging the khan as supreme ruler

          2. After the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453, the tsars saw themselves as the heirs of both the caesars and Orthodox Christianity, the one true faith

      3. Tsar and People to 1689

        1. As peasants had begun losing their freedom of movement in the fifteenth century, the noble boyars begun losing power, were required to serve the leader and the rise of the new service nobility accelerated under Ivan IV, the famous Ivan the Terrible

        2. At age sixteen he suddenly pushed aside his hated boyar advisers, married Anastasia of the popular Romanov family, the tsar defeated the faltering khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan adding vast territories to Russia and waged an unsuccessful war against the large Polish-Lithuanian state, which joined Poland with much of Ukraine in the 1500s

        3. Ivan IV struck down the ancient Muscovite boyars executing in mass by secret police

        4. As service nobles demanded more from the remaining peasants, more and more fled toward the wild, recently conquered territories to the east and south, forming free groups and outlaw armies known as “Cossacks,” formed independence beyond reach

          1. In the time of Ivan the Terrible, not only were serfs bound to the land, urban traders and artisans were also bound to their jobs so that the tsar could tax them

          2. If a new commercial activity became profitable, it was often taken over by the tsar and made a royal monopoly and the tsar’s service obligations checked the growth

        5. The death of Ivan the Terrible in 1584 ushered in an era of confusion and violent struggles for power and when Ivan’s son, Theodore died in 1598 without an heir, event got worse (years between 1598 and 1613 were called the “Time of Troubles”)

        6. Cossack bands marched northward, rallying peasants and slaughtering nobles, calling for the “true tsar” who would restore their freedom of movement and in 1613, nobles elected Ivan’s sixteen-year-old grandnephew, Michael Romanov, the hereditary tsar

          1. Michael was kinder to supportive nobility than toward the sullen peasants and in the long reign of Michael’s successor, the pious Alexis, the nobility gained more exemptions from military service, while the peasants were further ground down

          2. The result was a second round of mass protest and later the unity of the Russian Orthodox church was torn apart by a great split started by Nikon, a dogmatic purist who wished to correct Russian practices towards the Greek Orthodox line

          3. Great numbers left eh church and formed illegal communities of “Old Believers”

        7. The Cossacks revolted against the state and under Stenka Razin, moved up the Volga River in 1670 but this rebellion to overthrow the established order was defeated

      4. The Reforms of Peter the Great

        1. Peter the Great, under his kind of monarchial absolutism, was interested primarily in military power and after gaining a large mass of Ukraine from Poland and completing the conquest of the tribes of all Siberia, Muscovy was three times larger than Europe

        2. Peter sought personal gain overturning the regency in 1689 and assumed personal rule

        3. To keep up with the professional standing armies in Europe, Peter required every nobleman was once again required to serve in the army or in the civil administration for life (required five years of compulsory education from home for every nobleman)

        4. Peter greatly increased the service requirements of the commoners by assigning serfs to work in the growing number of factories and mines

        5. He established a regular standing army of more than 200,000 soldiers, made up mainly of peasants commanded by officers from the nobility and constant warfare of Peter’s reign consumed 80 to 85 percent of all revenues

        6. Great Northern War with Sweden, lasting from 1700 to 1721 crowned Russia the victor and Peter’s army crushed the smaller army of Sweden’s Charles XII in Ukraine at Poltava in 1709, one of the most significant battles in Russian history; Sweden never regained the offensive and Russia annexed Estonia and much of Latvia

        7. For the first time, under Peter, a Russian tsar attached explanations to his decrees in an attempt to gain the confidence and enthusiastic support of the populace

    4. Absolutism and Baroque Architecture

      1. Introduction

        1. Royal absolutism interacted with baroque culture, art, baroque music and literature

        2. Inspired by Louis XIV of France, the great and not-so-great rulers called on the artistic talent of the age to glorify their power and magnificence

      2. Palaces and Power

        1. Dramatic baroque palaces symbolized the age of absolutist and baroque palaces were intended to overawe the people with monarch’s strength (modeled after Versailles)

        2. Emperor Leopold ordered the building of Schonbrunn, an enormous Viennese Versailles to celebrate Habsburg might, Charles XI of Sweden ordered construction of his Royal Palace in Stockholm, and Frederick I of Prussia built palace in Berlin

        3. Prince Eugene, under the service of Emperor Leopold I, led the Austrian army, and called architects J.B. Fischer (Winger Palace in Vienna) and Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt (Summer Palace on the city’s outskirts)

        4. Palaces expressed the baroque delight in bold, sweeping statements, and to create this experience, masters dissolved the traditional artistic frontiers: the architect permitted the painter and the artisan to cover a building’s undulating surfaces with wildly colorful paintings, graceful sculptures, and fanciful carvings

      3. Royal Cities

        1. Broad, straight avenues radiated out from the palace (all roads were focused on ruler)

        2. The distinctive features of new additions were their broad avenues, their imposing government buildings, and their rigorous mathematical layout (speeding carriages)

      4. The Growth of St. Petersburg

        1. St. Petersburg demonstrates the close ties among politics, architecture, and urban development (small Swedish fortress on an island at the mouth of the Neva River)

        2. From a new city, his “window on Europe,” Peter believed it would be easier to reform the country militarily and administratively

        3. Peter wanted modernity, otherwise broad, straight, stone-paved avenues; houses built in a uniform line and not haphazardly set back from the street,; large parks; canals for drainage; stone bridges; and street lighting

          1. All building had to conform strictly to detailed architectural regulations set down by the government and each social group was to live in a certain part of the town

          2. To create St. Petersburg, the government drafted twenty-five to forty thousand men each summer to labor in St. Petersburg from three months without pay

        4. The building of St. Petersburg was an enormous direct tax levied on the wealthy, which in turn forced the peasantry to do most of the work

        5. The only immediate beneficiaries were the foreign architects and urban planners

    Chapter 19: The Expansion of Europe in the 18 Century



    1.  Agriculture and the Land

      1. ​Introduction

        1. With the exception of Holland, at least 80 percent of the people of all western European countries drew their livelihoods from agriculture (Eastern higher percent)

        2. In 1700 European agriculture was much more ancient and medieval with an average of only five or six bushels of grain for every bushel of wheat sown

        3. In crisis years, when crops were ruined by drought or flood, starvation forced people to use substitutes—the “famine foods” of a desperate population

          1. People gathered chestnuts and stripped bark in the forests, they cut dandelions and grass, and they ate these substitutes to escape starvation

          2. Such unbalanced, inadequate food in famine years made people weak and susceptible to epidemics—dysentery, intestinal problems, influenza, smallpox    

        4. In preindustrial Europe, the harvest was the real king, which was often cruel

      2. The Open-Field System

        1. The greatest accomplishment of medieval agriculture was the open-field system of village agriculture developed by European peasants

          1. Open-field system was divided the land to be cultivated by the peasants of a given village into several large fields, which were in turn cut up into long, narrow strips that were not enclosed into small plots by fences or hedges

          2. The land of those who owned land were nobility, clergy, and wealthy

        2. The ever-present problem was exhaustion of the soil and when the community planted wheat year after ear, the nitrogen in the soil was soon depleted—crop failure

          1. In the early Middle Ages, the only way for the land to recover its fertility was for a field to lie fallow for a period of time (alternating crop and idle)

          2. Three-year rotations were introduced that permitted a year of wheat or rye to be followed by a year of oats or beans and then by a year of fallow (still plowed)

        3. Traditional village rights reinforced the traditional pattern of farming and in addition to rotating, villages maintained open meadows for hay and natural pasture set aside for draft horses, oxen, cows, and pigs of the village community

        4. Poor women would go through the fields picking up the few single grains that had fallen to the ground in course of harvest (The Gleaners by Jean François Millet)

        5. In the age of absolutism and nobility, state and landlord continued to levy heavy taxes and high rents that stripped the peasants of much of their meager earnings

        6. In eastern Europe, peasants were worst off because of serfdom and social conditions were better in the west where they could own land and pass it on to their children

        7. Peasants of a region of France had to pay heavy royal taxes, the church’s tithe, and dues to the lord as well as set aside seed for the next season (half of their crop left)

      3. The Agricultural Revolution

        1. European peasants could improve their position by taking land from those who owned buy did not labor but powerful forces stood ready to crush any protest

        2. If peasants could replace the idle fallow with crops they could increase their land under cultivation by 50 percent and an agricultural revolution followed that occurred slowly throughout Europe but progressively eliminated the use of the fallow

        3. Because grain crops exhaust the soil and make fallowing necessary, the secret to eliminating fallow lies in the alternating grain with certain nitrogen-storing crops such as land reviving crops such as peas and beans, root crops such as turnips and potatoes, and clovers and grasses (turnips, potatoes, and clover were new-comers)

        4. New patterns of organization allowed some farmers to develop increasingly sophisticated patterns of rotation to suit different kinds of soils

        5. Improvements in farming had multiple effects

          1. The new crops made ideal feed for animals and peasants had more fodder, hay and root crops for the winter, they could build up herds of cattle and sheep

          2. More animals meant more meat and better diets for the people and also meant more manure for fertilizer and therefore more grain for bread and porridge

        6. Advocates of the new rotations included an emerging group of experimental scientists, some government officials, and landowners, believed that new methods were scarcely possible within the traditional system of open fields and common rights

        7. A farmer who wanted to experiment had to get all landholders in a village to agree so they argued that farmers should enclose and consolidate their scattered holdings into compact, fenced-in fields in order to farm more effectively

        8. But with land distributed unequally all across Europe by 1700, common rights were precious to there poor peasants and when small land holders and the village poor could effectively oppose the enclosure of the open fields and common pasture, they did so—only powerful social and political pressure could overcome such opposition

        9. The promise of the new system was only realized in the Low Countries and England

      4. The Leadership of the Low Countries and England

        1. The new methods of the agricultural revolution originated in the Low Countries and Holland was most advanced in many areas of human endeavor including shipbuilding navigation, commerce, banking, drainage and agriculture—provided model

          1. Enclosed fields, continuous rotation, heavy manuring, and a wide variety of crops

          2. The reasons for early Dutch leadership were the dense populated areas in the Low Countries and the pressure of population was connected with the second cause, the growth of towns and cities in the Low Countries (allowed specialization)

          3. The English were the best students and they received instruction in drainage and water control, draining the extensive marshes, or fens, of wet and rainy England

        2. The most famous of Dutch engineers, Cornelius Vermuyden, directed large drainage projects in Yorkshire and Cambridge—converting the land into one of the most fertile

        3. Viscount Charles Townsend, one of the pioneers of English agricultural improvement, learned about turnips and clover while serving as English ambassador to Holland and when he returned to Norfolk spoke of turnips (“Turnip Townsend”)

        4. Jethro Tull, was another important English innovator, using horses rather than slower moving oxen for plowing and advocated sowing seed with drilling equipment

        5. There were also improvements in livestock—selective breeding of ordinary livestock was a marked pattern over the old pattern (breeding faster horse for races and hunts)

        6. The great surge of agricultural production provided for England’s urban population

      5. The Cost of Enclosure

        1. In England, open fields were enclosed fairly but other historians argue that because large landowners controlled Parliament, which made laws, they had Parliament pass hundreds of “enclosure acts” each that authorized the fencing of open fields in a given village and the division of the common in proportion to one’s property in the fields

        2. The heavy legal and surveying costs of enclosure were also divided among the people, peasants had pay cost and landless cottagers lost access to common pastures

        3. By 1750, as much as half of English farmland was enclosed and many English lost their ability to produce wool, from sheep, for the growing textile industry

        4. By 1700, a highly distinctive pattern of landownership and production existed in England, where the were the few large landowners, at the other extreme were a large mass of landless cottagers who labored mainly for wages, and in between, small, independent peasant farmers who owned their own land and substantial tenant farmers who rented land from landowners, hired laborers, and sold output on market

        5. The tenant framers, who had formerly been independent owners, were the key to mastering the new methods of farming, because the tenant farmers fenced fields, built drains, and improved the soil with fertilizers—increasing employment opportunities

        6. By eliminating common rights and greatly reducing the access enclosure movement marked the completion of two major historical developments in England

          1. The rise of the market-oriented estate agriculture

          2. The emergence of a landless rural proletariat—wealthy English land owners help most of the land, leasing their holdings to middle-sized farmers, who in turn relied on landless laborers for their workforce (proletarianization—this transformation of large numbers of small peasant farmers into landless rural wage earners)

    2. The Beginning of the Population Explosion

      1. Limitations on Population Growth

        1. Commonly held ideas about population that are wrong included the idea that people married young and had large families and societies were so ignorant that they could do nothing to control the numbers and that population was always growing too fast 

        2. Until 1700, the total population of Europe grew slowly much of the time following an irregular cyclical pattern, which had great influence on social and economic life

        3. The Black Death created a sharp drop in population and prices after 1350 and also created a labor shortage throughout Europe—increased standard of living

        4. The second great surge of population growth outstripped the growth of agricultural production after 1500 where food prices rose more rapidly than wages resulting in a decline in the living standards for the majority of people throughout Europe

        5. Population slowed and stopped in seventeenth-century Europe and birthrate and death rate were about balanced and population grew about 0.5 to 1 percent in a normal year

        6. In periods, increases in deaths occurred periodically in the seventeenth century on a local scale— famine, epidemic disease, and war caused demographic crisis

          1. Famine, the result of poor farming methods and periodic crop failures accompanied by disease killed (bubonic plague, dysentery, and smallpox)

          2. The indirect effects were more harmful than the organized killings—war spread disease—armies passed venereal disease throughout the countryside

      2. The New Pattern of the Eighteenth Century

        1. Population growth was especially dramatic after about 1750—caused by fewer deaths

        2. Fewer deaths occurred due to the disappearance of the bubonic plague in part because of stricter measures of quarantine in Mediterranean ports and along Austrian border

        3. Bubonic plague was a disease that was mainly carried around by the black rat’s flea (carrying around bacillus) and after 1600, a new rat of Asiatic origin, the brown, or wander, rat began to drive out and eventually eliminated the black rat

        4. The most important advance in preventive medicine in this period was the inoculation against smallpox and improvements in the water supply and sewerage promoted better public health, drainage of swamps and marshes reduced insect population

        5. Human beings also became more successful in their efforts to safeguard the supply of food and protect against famine and advances in transportation lessened the impact of local crop failure and family—emergency supplies could be brought in

        6. Population grew in the eighteenth century primarily because years of abnormal death rates were less catastrophic; famines, epidemics, and wars continued but moderated

        7. There was only so much land available and agriculture could not provide enough work for the rapidly growing labor force, and people had to look for new ways

    3. The Growth of the Cottage Industry

      1. Introduction

        1. The growth of population contributed to the development of industry in rural areas; manufacturing with hand tools in peasant cottages and workshed grew—peasants had always made clothing, processed some food, and constructed some housing

        2. A new system emerged called “cottage industry” or “domestic industry” that distinguished it from the factory industry and scholars have preferred to speak of “protoindustrialization,” by which they mean a stage of rural industrial development with wage workers and hand tools that preceded the emergence of factory industries

        3. Putting-out system is used by contemporaries to describe the key features of eighteenth-century rural industry (new form of industrial production)

      2. The Putting-Out System

        1. The two main participants in the putting-out system were the merchant capitalist and the rural worker—the merchant loaned, raw materials to several cottage workers, who processed the materials in homes and returned the finished product to the merchant

        2. The system was a kind of capitalism and grew because it had competitive advantages

          1. Since countryside was unregulated, workers and merchants could change procedures and experiment but they did not need to meet rigid guild standards

          2. Textiles: all manner of knives, forks, and housewares; buttons and gloves; clocks; and musical instruments could be produced in the countryside

        3. Rural manufacturing did not spread across Europe at an even rate, first appearing in England and by 1500, half of England’s textiles were being produced in the countryside and in France, Colbert revived the urban guilds and used them to control

        4. In 1762, the government encouraged the growth of cottage manufacturing and thus in France, as in Germany and other areas, the later part of the eighteenth century witnessed the remarkable expansion of rural industry in certain populated regions

      3. The Textile Industry

        1. The making of linen, woolen, and cotton cloth was the typical activity of cottage works engaged in the putting-out system—way of life and economic system


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