Ap biology Review

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AP Biology Review

Bring to test: calculator (non graphing), #2 pencil, black pen

- You will take a practice AP tests in class that will count as a test grade in the class. You may use a “cheat sheet:” one piece of standard, 8.5” by 11” paper, front only, hand written. Also, bring a calculator if you want to use one.

Please use my website to help review:

  • you will find helpful links and attachments to help you review, as well as the answer key to the below questions.

Multiple Choice: The actual AP test consists of about 60 to 70 multiple-choice questions (90 min) including about 6 grid in questions. These links may help:





Free Response Review: The test is 8 FRQs (90min)

To prepare for the free response section of the AP Biology, keep in mind that it is very common for free response questions to be organized around the “Themes of AP Biology” and that typically one of the four FRQs will involve one of the AP labs.

Big Idea #1 Evolution Drives the Diversity and Unity of Life

Big Idea #2 Free Energy and Molecular Building Blocks

Big Idea #3 Essential Life Process Information

Big Idea #4 Biological System Interactions

Major themes in AP Biology

  1. science as a process 5. relationship of structure to function

  2. evolution 6. regulation

  3. energy transfer 7. interdependence in nature

  4. continuity and change 8. science, technology, and society

The following are FRQs selections from the past several years. To help study, first identify the theme around which each question is arranged and then, briefly outline or annotate a response to each question. *some may be require by your teacher to have full answers*

1. Certain human genetic conditions, such as sickle cell anemia, result from single base-pair mutations in DNA.

(a) Explain how a single base-pair mutant in DNA can alter the structure and, in

some cases, the function of a protein.

(b) Explain, using a specific example, the potential consequences of the

production of a mutant protein to the structure and function of the cells of an


(c) Describe how the frequency of an allele coding for a mutant protein may

increase in a population over time.


2. ATP and GTP are primary sources of energy for biochemical reactions.

(a) Describe the structure of the ATP or the GTP molecule.

(b) Explain how chemiosmosis produces ATP.

(c) Describe TWO specific cell processes that require ATP and explain how ATP is used in each process.

(d) An energy pyramid for a marine ecosystem is shown below. Label each trophic level of the pyramid and provide an example of a marine organism found at each level of this pyramid. Explain why the energy available at the top layer of the pyramid is a small percentage of the energy present at the

bottom of the pyramid.


3. Regulation is an important aspect of all biological processes.

For FOUR of the following processes, describe the specific role of the regulator

and discuss how the process will be altered if the regulation is disrupted.

Process Regulator

Cell cycle Cyclin

Metabolic rate Thyroxine

Ovarian cycle Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Prey population dynamics Predators

Ecological succession Fire


4. Membranes are essential components of all cells.

  1. Identify THREE macromolecules that are components of the plasma membrane in a eukaryotic cell and discuss the structure and function of each.

  2. Explain how membranes participate in THREE of the following biological processes:

    • Muscle contraction

    • Fertilization of an egg

    • Chemiosmotic production of ATP

    • Intercellular signaling


5. According to fossil records and recent published observations, two species of leaf-eating beetles (species A and B) on an isolated island in the Pacific Ocean for over 100,000 years. In 1964 a third species of leaf-eating beetle (species C) was accidentally introduced on the island. The population size of each species has been regularly monitored as shown in the graph below.

  1. Propose an explanation for the pattern of population density observed in species C

  2. Describe the effect that the introduction of beetle species C had had on the population density of species A and species B. Propose an explanation for the patterns of population density observed in species and in species B.

  3. Predict the population density of species C in 2014. Provide a biological explanation for your prediction.

  4. Explain why invasive species are often successful in colonizing new habitats.


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