Ap biology review Campbell Chapter 7 Plants that can tolerate extreme cold have a



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AP BIOLOGY Review Campbell Chapter 7

Plants that can tolerate extreme cold have a

  • Plants that can tolerate extreme cold have a
  • higher percentage of phospholipids with ______________ fatty acid tails.
  • SATURATED UNSATURATED
  • unsaturated
  • Cholesterol can be called a “temperature buffer” because at higher temperatures (like body temp) it makes the phospholipids ________ fluid by restraining
  • their movements. less more
  • At lower temperatures cholesterol hinders the close packing of phospholipids so it __________ the temperature required for membranes to solidify. lowers raises
  • less
  • lowers

Proteins that penetrate the hydrophobic core of a membrane are called _________________

  • Proteins that penetrate the hydrophobic core of a membrane are called _________________
  • Membrane proteins with carbohydrates attached are called ____________________
  • Living things must control the balance of water and ions in their tissues. This is called
  • _____________________
  • Integral proteins
  • glycoproteins
  • Osmoregulation (kind of homeostasis)

If a Paramecium were to swim from a hypotonic environment to an isotonic one, would the activity of its contractile vacuole increase or decrease?

  • If a Paramecium were to swim from a hypotonic environment to an isotonic one, would the activity of its contractile vacuole increase or decrease?
  • http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/imgjun99/vidjun1.gif
  • It would decrease, because less water would be entering
  • Campbell Concept check 7.3

An environment in which the concentration of solutes outside and inside the cell are equal is

  • An environment in which the concentration of solutes outside and inside the cell are equal is
  • called _________________
  • An animal cell placed in this type of environment will _____________________
  • swell & burst shrink stay the same size
  • The diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane is called _________________
  • isotonic
  • stay the same size
  • osmosis

An environment in which the concentration of solutes is greater outside the cell than inside is

  • An environment in which the concentration of solutes is greater outside the cell than inside is
  • called _________________
  • An animal cell placed in this type of environment will _____________________
  • swell & burst shrink stay the same size
  • Membrane transport that requires energy is called
  • ________________
  • hypertonic
  • shrink
  • ACTIVE

The Na+-K+ pump in animals causes the

  • The Na+-K+ pump in animals causes the
  • cytoplasm inside cells to be more ___________
  • than the surrounding extracellular fluid
  • negative positive
  • Membrane lipids with carbohydrates attached are called ____________________
  • In passive transport molecules always move
  • ___________ their concentration gradient.
  • down up
  • negative
  • glycolipids
  • DOWN

An environment in which the concentration of solutes outside is less than inside the cell is called _________________

  • An environment in which the concentration of solutes outside is less than inside the cell is called _________________
  • An animal cell placed in this type of environment will _____________________
  • swell & burst shrink stay the same size
  • Channel proteins that facilitate the movement of water across cell membranes are called
  • ___________________
  • hypotonic
  • aquaporins

Transport proteins called _____________ proteins

  • Transport proteins called _____________ proteins
  • function by forminng a hydrophilic tunnel that
  • allows charged molecules or ions to pass through
  • the hydrophobic portion of a cell membrane.
  • Transport proteins called _____________ proteins hold on to their passenger molecules, change
  • shape, and shuttle them across the membrane.
  • As a cell grows, its plasma membrane expands via ___________________.
  • endocytosis exocytosis
  • channel
  • carrier
  • Exocytosis; when vesicles fuse with membrane they become part of the
  • membrane
  • Campbell Concept check 7.5

Name 3 kinds of passive transport

  • Name 3 kinds of passive transport
  • Name 3 kinds of active transport
  • Ion channels that open or close in response to a signal are called ___________________
  • Osmosis, diffusion, facilitated diffusion
  • Na+-K+ pump, co-transport, bulk transport, endocytosis, pinocytosis, phagocytosis, receptor mediated endocytosis, exocytosis
  • gated

Name the kind of transport

  • Name the kind of transport
  • Name the kind of transport
  • Facilitated diffusion with an Ion channel
  • Facilitated diffusion with a carrier

A transport protein that generates voltage across

  • A transport protein that generates voltage across
  • a membrane is called an ________________________
  • When nerve cells establish a voltage across their membrane with a sodium-potassium pump, does this pump use ATP or produce ATP?
  • Electrogenic pump
  • The pump uses ATP. To establish a voltage, ions would have to be pumped against their gradient, which requires energy
  • Campbell Concept check

Name this kind of transport

  • Name this kind of transport
  • Give an example of bulk transport
  • Sodium-potassium pump
  • Endocytosis (phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor mediated endocytosis)
  • Exocytosis
  • http://www.biologymad.com/NervousSystem/nakpump.gif
  • Animation from: http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/cell-movement.html
  • http://www.accs.net/users/kriel/chapter%20nine/
  • Name this kind of transport used by bacteria to take in food or white blood cells to engulf bacteria
  • phagocytosis

If this vesicle is releasing

  • If this vesicle is releasing
  • products outside the cell,
  • this type of transport is called
  • ________________________
  • If this vesicle is bringing
  • small molecules & fluids
  • into the cell, this type
  • of transport is called
  • ______________________
  • exocytosis
  • pinocytosis
  • http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBooktransp.html#Vesicle-mediated%20transport

The currently accepted model that describes cell

  • The currently accepted model that describes cell
  • membranes as the arrangement of constantly moving
  • proteins embedded in or attached to a bilayer or phospholipids is called the
  • ______________________________________
  • Click here to See Fluidity
  • Animation from: http://www.sp.uconn.edu/~terry/images/anim/fluidmem.gif
  • Fluid mosaic model

Name this kind of transport that enables the

  • Name this kind of transport that enables the
  • cell to acquire bulk quantities
  • of specific substances
  • The molecules that bind to these receptors are
  • called _____________________
  • Give an example of a molecule that moves into cells in this way _________________
  • Receptor mediated endocytosis
  • ligands
  • http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/rectpr.htm
  • Cholesterol LDL ligands bind receptors and attached cholesterol is taken into cell

  • Name the kind of transport that moves molecules from high concentration to low across a membrane without using energy and without the help of any carriers or vesicles
  • _______________________
  • DIFFUSION

To send a signal, a neuron may carry out exocytosis of chemical signals that are recognized by a 2nd neuron. In some cases, the 1st neuron ends the signal by taking up the signaling molecules by endocytosis.

  • To send a signal, a neuron may carry out exocytosis of chemical signals that are recognized by a 2nd neuron. In some cases, the 1st neuron ends the signal by taking up the signaling molecules by endocytosis.
  • Would you expect this to occur by pinocytosis or by receptor mediated endocytosis? EXPLAIN
  • Campbell Concept check
  • Receptor mediated endocytosis because in this case one specific molecule needs to be taken up at a particular time; pinocytosis takes up molecules in a non-specific manner

Name this kind of transport in which transport of

  • Name this kind of transport in which transport of
  • one substance DOWN its gradient is coupled to the
  • movement of another moving UP the gradient.
  • cotransport
  • http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lecturesf04am/sucrosepump.jpg

Explain why the

  • Explain why the
  • sodium-potassium pump
  • is NOT considered a
  • cotransporter.
  • Campbell concept check 7.4
  • Each ion is being transported against its gradient. If either ion were flowing DOWN its electrochemical gradient, this would be Co-transport. Co-transport couples the movement of one substance down its gradient with one moving up.
  • http://www.biologymad.com/NervousSystem/nakpump.gif

Name the kind of transport used by Golgi bodies in secretory cells to export their products.

  • Name the kind of transport used by Golgi bodies in secretory cells to export their products.
  • Name the kind of transport used by cholesterol to enter cells
  • Name the molecule that provides energy for active transport
  • exocytosis
  • Receptor mediated endocytosis
  • ATP

The swelling and bursting of animal cells when placed in a hypotonic environment is called _________________

  • The swelling and bursting of animal cells when placed in a hypotonic environment is called _________________
  • The shrinking and shriveling up of animal cells when placed
  • in a hypertonic environment is called ___________________
  • cytolysis
  • crenation
  • http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBooktransp.html#Vesicle-mediated%20transport

The swelling of plant cells when placed in a hypotonic

  • The swelling of plant cells when placed in a hypotonic
  • environment ______________ the osmotic pressure inside
  • the cell increases decreases
  • We would say the cell is ___________ turgid flaccid
  • increase
  • turgid
  • http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBooktransp.html#Vesicle-mediated%20transport

The pulling away of the cell membrane from the cell wall in

  • The pulling away of the cell membrane from the cell wall in
  • plant cells when placed in a hypertonic environment is called _______________________
  • A plant cell that has lost water and is “limp” is called _____________________
  • plasmolysis
  • flaccid
  • http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBooktransp.html#Vesicle-mediated%20transport

Carrier proteins

  • Carrier proteins
  • like this one are
  • ______________proteins.
  • Integral peripheral
  • integral
  • Carbon dioxide and oxygen move across membranes in cells by
  • _________________
  • Diffusion

Kind of endocytosis used to take in large particles or whole cells.

  • Kind of endocytosis used to take in large particles or whole cells.
  • phagocytosis
  • The voltage across a membrane is called __________________
  • membrane potential

When you sit in the bathtub, your fingers get wrinkly because of the water entering your skin cells. The bathtub water is a ____________ solution compared to your skin cells

  • When you sit in the bathtub, your fingers get wrinkly because of the water entering your skin cells. The bathtub water is a ____________ solution compared to your skin cells
  • hypotonic
  • Hypotonic isotonic hypertonic

A membrane that lets certain molecules pass through and not others is called

  • A membrane that lets certain molecules pass through and not others is called
  • _______________
  • Semi permeable OR
  • selectively permeable

Name a kind of transport that uses

  • Name a kind of transport that uses
  • vesicles to move substances across
  • a membrane
  • Pinocytosis, phagocytosis,
  • Exocytosis, endocytosis
  • OSMOSIS

A freshwater fish has about 1% salt in his body. Freshwater is close to 0% salt.

  • A freshwater fish has about 1% salt in his body. Freshwater is close to 0% salt.
  • Will water move into or out of this kind of fish?
  • More solute
  • molecules inside the fish’s cells
  • than in the
  • freshwater. (HYPOTONIC)
  • Water will move INTO the fish

Which of the following factors would tend to increase

  • Which of the following factors would tend to increase
  • membrane fluidity?
  • A. a greater proportion of unsaturated phospholipids
  • B. a greater proportion of saturated phospholipids
  • C. a lower temperature
  • D. a relatively high protein content in the membrane
  • E. a greater proportion of relatively large glycolipids
  • compared to lipids having smaller molecular masses
  • Campbell Concept check
  • A

Which organelle makes the ATP used to run the Na + -K+ pump?

  • Which organelle makes the ATP used to run the Na + -K+ pump?
  • mitochondria
  • Type of endocytosis in which cells take in small molecules or fluids
  • pinocytosis

The white circles stand for oxygen molecules.

  • The white circles stand for oxygen molecules.
  • Use what you know about diffusion of molecules to predict which way the oxygen will move.
  • Diffusion moves molecules from high concentration to low so…
  • from the lungs into the blood

Based on the model of sucrose uptake in the figure below, which of the following experimental treatments would increase the rate of sucrose transport into the cell?

  • Based on the model of sucrose uptake in the figure below, which of the following experimental treatments would increase the rate of sucrose transport into the cell?
  • A. decreasing extracellular sucrose concentration
  • B. increasing extracellular pH
  • C. decreasing cytoplasmic pH
  • D. adding an inhibitor that block the regeneration of ATP
  • E. adding a substance that make the membrane more permeable to hydrogen ions
  • Campbell Concept check
  • B
  • This type of transport which opens in response to a signal and forms a “tunnel” through the membrane to let ions in and out is called a(n) ___________________
  • Gated ion channel

Tell if the transport is ACTIVE or PASSIVE

  • Tell if the transport is ACTIVE or PASSIVE
  • Facilitated diffusion ___________________
  • Osmosis ____________________
  • Na + - K+ pump ____________________
  • Diffusion ____________________
  • Endocytosis _______________________
  • Exocytosis ________________________
  • Ion channels ________________________
  • Proton pumps ______________________
  • Aquaporins _____________________
  • PASSIVE
  • PASSIVE
  • ACTIVE
  • PASSIVE
  • ACTIVE
  • ACTIVE
  • PASSIVE
  • ACTIVE
  • PASSIVE

Match the picture with the kind of transport

  • Match the picture with the kind of transport
  • FACILITATED DIFFUSION (carrier)
  • DIFFUSION

Match the picture with the kind of transport

  • Match the picture with the kind of transport
  • EXOCYTOSIS
  • INSIDE OUTSIDE CELL CELL
  • Substance is put in a
  • vesicle and transported up to the cell membrane and released OUTSIDE
  • Name an organelle that uses this kind of transport
  • Golgi Bodies

In what way do the various membranes of a eukaryotic cell differ?

  • In what way do the various membranes of a eukaryotic cell differ?
  • A. Phospholipids are found only in certain membranes
  • B. Certain proteins are unique to each membrane
  • C. Only certain membranes of the cell are selectively permeable.
  • D. Only certain membranes are constructed from
  • amphipathic molecules
  • E. Some membranes have hydrophobic surfaces exposed to the cytoplasm; while others have hydrophilic surfaces facing the cytoplasm.
  • Campbell Concept check
  • B

Match the picture with the kind of transport

  • This pump is the main electrogenic pump used in ______________ cells.
  • plant animal
  • Match the picture with the kind of transport
  • Na+ - K + pump
  • Energy from ATP is used to move 3 Na + ions OUT of
  • the cell and carry 2 K + ions INTO the cell
  • animal

Which of the following processes includes all the others?

  • Which of the following processes includes all the others?
  • A. osmosis
  • B. diffusion of a solute across a membrane
  • C. facilitated diffusion
  • D. passive transport
  • E. transport of an ion down its electrochemical gradient
  • Campbell Concept check
  • D; diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, ion channels are all kinds of passive transport

Match the picture with the kind of transport

  • Match the picture with the kind of transport
  • ENDOCYTOSIS
  • Substance is transported INTO cell inside a vesicle
  • PINOCYTOSIS

LABEL THE TONICITY DIAGRAMS

  • LABEL THE TONICITY DIAGRAMS
  • HYPERTONIC
  • HYPOTONIC
  • ISOTONIC

Name the two types of transport proteins that carry out facilitated diffusion

  • Name the two types of transport proteins that carry out facilitated diffusion
  • Which of these would increase membrane fluidity?
  • a) greater proportion of unsaturated phospholipids
  • b) greater proportion of saturated phospholipids
  • c) a lower temperature
  • d) relatively high protein content in membrane
  • e) greater proportion of relatively large glycolipids compared to lipids having smaller molecular masses
  • Campbell Ch 7 self quiz
  • Channels and carriers
  • A

Diffusion is a spontaneous process in which molecules move _______ their concentration gradient. up down

  • Diffusion is a spontaneous process in which molecules move _______ their concentration gradient. up down
  • Aquaporins are ______________________
  • a) carrier proteins
  • b) channel proteins
  • c) active cotransporters
  • d) ligands
  • e) a kind of Na+-K+ pump
  • down
  • Channel proteins for water molecules

Name the genetic disorder you learned about in BIO I in which there is a mutation in the protein that transports Cl- ions causing a build up of thick mucous in the lungs and digestive organs

  • Name the genetic disorder you learned about in BIO I in which there is a mutation in the protein that transports Cl- ions causing a build up of thick mucous in the lungs and digestive organs
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Image from: BIOLOGY by Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall Publishing ©2006

Explain why plant cells don’t undergo cytolysis in hypotonic environments but animal cells do.

  • Explain why plant cells don’t undergo cytolysis in hypotonic environments but animal cells do.
  • Give an example of an amphipathic molecule.
  • Method of splitting a cell membrane along the middle of the phospholipid bilayer
  • Cell wall is rigid and keeps them from bursting
  • Phospholipids have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions; so do many proteins
  • Freeze fracture

Name this cell model which proposed that membranes were “sandwiches” of phospholipids between two layers of hydrophilic proteins

  • Name this cell model which proposed that membranes were “sandwiches” of phospholipids between two layers of hydrophilic proteins
  • Davson-Danielli model

A mole of table sugar and a mole of vitamin C are equal in their

  • A mole of table sugar and a mole of vitamin C are equal in their
  • A. mass in daltons
  • B. mass in grams
  • C. number of molecules
  • D. number of atoms
  • E. volume
  • Campbell Self quiz
  • C. A mole of anything contains 6.02 X 10 -12 molecules.
  • A _______________ molecule has both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophobic region.
  • Cell membranes are called _____________________ because they allow certain substances to pass through, but keep others out.
  • amphipathic
  • Selectively or semi- permeable

The proton pump is the main electrogenic pump in ________________ cells.

  • The proton pump is the main electrogenic pump in ________________ cells.
  • plant animal
  • Membrane proteins that span the membrane touching both sides are called _________________ proteins
  • Name the molecules which can be attached to proteins or lipids in cell membranes and are involved in cell recognition
  • plant
  • transmembrane
  • carbohydrates

How would you make a 0.5 M solution of sodium chloride?

  • How would you make a 0.5 M solution of sodium chloride?
  • (The atomic mass of Na is 23 daltons and Cl is 35.5 daltons)
  • Mass of 1 mole of NaCl = _______ daltons
  • 58.5 g NaCl 0.5 moles = _______ g/L
  • 1 mole 1 L
  • 58.5
  • (23 + 35.5)
  • Dissolve 29.25 g of NaCl in water to make 1 L of solution
  • 29.25
  • X
  • Campbell Concept Check 3.2

How many grams of acetic acid (C2H4O2) would you use to make 10 L of a 0.1 M aqueous solution of acetic acid?

  • How many grams of acetic acid (C2H4O2) would you use to make 10 L of a 0.1 M aqueous solution of acetic acid?
  • (The atomic masses in daltons are approximately 12 for C, 16 for O, and 1 for H)
  • A. 10.0 g
  • B. 0.1 g
  • C. 6.0 g
  • D. 60.0 g
  • E. 0.6 g
  • Mass of 1 mole of acetic acid C = 2 X 12 = 24 daltons H = 4 X 1 = 4 daltons
  • O = 2 X 16 = 32 daltons
  • 60 daltons
  • Campbell Chapter Self Quiz
  • 60.0 g of acetic acid and add water to make 10 L of solution (D is correct)
  • 60.0 g X 0.1 moles = 6 g/L X 10 L = 60.0 g
  • 1 mole 1 L

Which type of transport maintains the membrane potential in animal cells?

  • Which type of transport maintains the membrane potential in animal cells?
  • Molecules that bind specifically to a receptor site
  • on another molecule are called ____________
  • Name the transport process you learned about in which ligands are involved in the uptake of molecules
  • Sodium-potassium pump
  • ligands
  • Receptor mediated endocytosis

Electrogenic pumps create voltage across cell membranes making the cytoplasm more

  • Electrogenic pumps create voltage across cell membranes making the cytoplasm more
  • _______________ than the extracellular fluid.
  • negative positive
  • The water potential ψ for pure water at atmospheric pressure is ______
  • The addition of solutes ___________ the water potential. increases decreases
  • negative
  • zero
  • decreases

USE lower and higher to complete the following:

  • USE lower and higher to complete the following:
  • Water always moves from an area with ________ water potential to an area with _______ water potential.
  • Water with solutes dissolved in it will have a
  • ______________ water potential than plain water.
  • higher
  • lower
  • lower

According to the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure, proteins of the membrane are mostly

  • According to the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure, proteins of the membrane are mostly
  • A. spread in a continuous layer over the inner and outer surfaces of the membrane
  • B. confined to the hydrophobic core of the membrane
  • C. embedded in a lipid bilayer
  • D. randomly oriented in the membrane with not fixed
  • inside-outside polarity
  • E. free to depart from the fluid membrane and dissolve in the surrounding solution
  • Campbell Concept check
  • C

An artificial cell consisting of an aqueous solution enclosed in a selectively permeable membrane has just been immersed in a beaker containing a different solution.

  • An artificial cell consisting of an aqueous solution enclosed in a selectively permeable membrane has just been immersed in a beaker containing a different solution.
  • The membrane is permeable to water and to the simple sugars glucose and fructose, but completely impermeable to the disachride sucrose.
  • Which solute(s) will exhibit a net diffusion into the cell?
  • Which solute(s) will exhibit a net diffusion out of the cell?
  • Campbell Concept check
  • fructose
  • glucose

An artificial cell consisting of an aqueous solution enclosed in a selectively permeable membrane has just been immersed in a beaker containing a different solution.

  • An artificial cell consisting of an aqueous solution enclosed in a selectively permeable membrane has just been immersed in a beaker containing a different solution.
  • The membrane is permeable to water and to the simple sugars glucose and fructose, but completely impermeable to the disachride sucrose.
  • Campbell Concept check
  • Which solution-the cell or the environment- is hypertonic to the other?
  • In which direction will there be a net osmotic movement of water?
  • Cell (0.05 M) is hypertonic to the environment (0.03 M)
  • Water will move into the cell

After the cell is placed in the beaker, which of the following changes will occur?

  • After the cell is placed in the beaker, which of the following changes will occur?
  • A. The artificial cell will become more flaccid.
  • B. The artificial cell will become more turgid.
  • C. Some water molecules will flow out of the cell, but the majority will flow in.
  • D. The membrane potential will decrease
  • E. In spite of the inability of sucrose to cross the cell membrane, eventually the two solutions will become isotonic.
  • Campbell Concept check
  • B, C, E are correct


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