Annotated Examples of Strategies abc brainstorming

Download 463.21 Kb.
Size463.21 Kb.
1   2   3   4   5   6

17. Inquiry Chart


Inquiry Chart (I-Chart)


Guiding Question 1

Guiding Question 2

Guiding Question 3

Guiding Question 4

My Research Topic: 





Interesting Facts and Figures

New Questions

What I Know Right Now:


















































18. Jigsaw

  1. Divide students into 5- or 6-person jigsaw groups. The groups should be diverse in terms of gender, ethnicity, race, and ability.

  2. Appoint one student from each group as the leader. Initially, this person should be the most mature student in the group.

  3. Divide the day's lesson into 5-6 segments. For example, if you want history students to learn about Eleanor Roosevelt, you might divide a short biography of her into stand-alone segments on: (1) Her childhood, (2) Her family life with Franklin and their children, (3) Her life after Franklin contracted polio, (4) Her work in the White House as First Lady, and (5) Her life and work after Franklin's death.

  4. Assign each student to learn one segment, making sure students have direct access only to their own segment.

  5. Give students time to read over their segment at least twice and become familiar with it. There is no need for them to memorize it.

  6. Ask the members of the jigsaw group to teach each other what they have learned. Give students time to discuss the main points of their segment and to rehearse the presentations they will make to the rest of the class.

  7. As the students make the presentation to the class, the teacher will add relevant information that was left out or prompt the students to include the missing information.

19. K-W-L



What I Know

What I Want to Learn

What I Have Learned

Categories of Information:


Topic: Fruits and Vegetables

What I Know

What I Want to Learn

What I Have Learned

  • Many different fruits and vegetables available

  • Contain many vitamins

  • Vegetables and fruits should be eaten every day

  • They are good for your body

  • They are low in fat and calories

  • Can be found fresh or canned

  • Can be found in solid or juice form

  • Found all over the world


  • What fruits and vegetables contain; the nutrients necessary for a healthy body

Daily Recommended Allowance:

  • How many fruits and vegetables should be eaten each day?


  • What are the benefits if a person eats a lot of fruits and vegetables?


  • Spring, summer, fall, and winter fruits


  • Vitamin C – citrus, tomatoes, cantaloupe

  • Vitamin B – green leafy vegetables

  • Vitamin A – yellow vegetables

  • Calcium – green leafy vegetables

Daily Recommended Allowance:

  • 3-5 servings of vegetables per day needed

  • 2-4 servings of fruits per day needed


  • Antioxidants-help blood vessels

  • Fiber for digestion

  • Vitamins for healthy heart, eyes, hair, teeth, gums

Many are low in fat and calories, but not all, e.g., bananas peas

Categories of Information:



Daily recommended allowance


20. Magnet Summaries

Students identify “magnet words” (key concepts and terms from their reading), relate appropriate details to each magnet, then combine the ideas in writing.

  1. Introduce the idea of “magnet” words with an analogy: “Just as magnets attract metal, magnet words attract information.” Read a short familiar passage to your students and pick out one or two magnet words. Show your students how the various details “attach” themselves to the magnet words.

  2. Next, write magnet words on an overhead transparency. For example, in an article on Indonesia, the magnet word for the first part of the article might be population.

  3. Ask students to recall details, expanding the concept. For the topic population, responses might be: fourth most populous nation (225 million people), diverse religions, poverty, political unrest. Ask student to write the magnet word and details on an index card:

4th most populous nation political unrest
diverse religions poverty

  1. Model how to combine these words into a summary (e.g., Indonesia, the fourth most populous country, is characterized by poverty, diversity of religion, and political unrest.

  2. C
    petroleum textiles
    subsistence farming: mining

    rice, cassava, peanuts

    ontinue by distributing three or four cards to each student. Read, stop, and talk about possible magnet words and details. Then, help the students create a one-sentence summary for each card.

One-sentence summary: Indonesian economy is poor, primarily based on petroleum, textiles, and mining with most people working as subsistence farmers raising rice, cassava, and peanuts.

  1. Arrange the sentences into a logical order to create an initial draft of the selection summary.

  2. Model for the students how to edit the draft into a finished summary.

  3. Ask students to think about the relationship between summarizing and active reading. How did this strategy help them get to the essence of the author’s message?

21. Mind Streaming
Students work in pairs to bring out their background knowledge about a topic:

Student A talks for one minute about the topic.

Student B listens and encourages student A.

The roles reverse:

Student B talks for one minute about the topic.

Student A listens and encourages student B.

Mind Streaming also works effectively as a post-reading/listening strategy in which students do one-minute paired retellings of what they have learned from a reading assignment, video, or lecture. Also, use Mind Streaming as a component of Think-Pair-Share. Students could “mind stream” after they have written down what they “think” they know about a topic.
22. Numbered Heads Together

  1. Number students off from 1 to 4 within their teams.

  2. Call out a question or problem. (Example: Where do plants get their energy?)

  3. Students in teams put their heads together to discuss the answer. They must make sure everyone on the team knows the answer.

  4. Randomly call a number from 1 to 4 (use a spinner, draw popsicle sticks out of a cup, roll a die, etc.)

  5. On each team, the student whose number was called writes the answer on the team response board. They may not receive any help from their team at this point! They place the response board face down when ready.

  6. When all teams are ready, have the designated student stand and hold up their response board to show their answer. Check each team's answer for accuracy.

  7. Repeat with additional questions as time allows.

Ideas for Using Numbered Heads in Your Class:

  • Science - Reviewing for a test, discussing experiment results,

  • Math - Solving word problems, reviewing geometric shapes, reviewing terms like prime number, multiple

  • Health - Reviewing parts of the body and body systems, discussing the food pyramid, discussing issues related to drugs and violence

  • Spelling - Practicing the spellings and definitions of words, creating sentences when given a word

  • Reading - Discussing setting, plot, theme, characters of a book; listing character traits of various characters in a book; finding the main idea of articles in Weekly Reader or Scholastic News magazines; reviewing poetic terms (onomatopoeia, alliteration, etc.); finding examples of poetic devices in poems

  • Writing - Revising and editing written work samples (place work sample on overhead, students put heads together to discuss specific errors in punctuation, spelling, etc.)

  • Grammar - Finding nouns, verbs, etc, in sentences; reviewing common versus proper nouns; plural versus possessive nouns; diagramming sentences

  • Social Studies - Practicing map skills, answering chapter discussion questions, reviewing for a test

23. One-Sentence Summary
Procedure A: Read, Set Aside, and List

  1. Read a selection aloud.

  2. Put the selection aside and list four or five ideas/words from it.

  3. Model how to combine these ideas/words into a One-Sentence Summary.

  4. Delete any extraneous words from the summary.

  5. Ask students, “How did putting the material aside and writing down key words help you begin transforming the information?”

Procedure B: Content Summary Chart

  1. Present students with the following chart for developing a One-Sentence Summary.

Identify the topic being summarized.

Tell what it begins with.

Tell what’s in the middle. Use words such as: covers, discusses, presents, continues with.

Tell what it ends with.

  1. Summarize familiar content using the chart

  2. Write summaries together based on the information in the chart. Delete extraneous words.

Math Example: To multiply two fractions, I begin by changing mixed numbers to improper fractions, continue by multiplying the two numerators to get the numerator of the answer and multiply the two numerators to get the numerator of the answer and multiply the two denominators to get the denominator of the answer, and I end by simplifying the answer, first through reducing it to lowest terms and them by changing it to a mixed number if it is an improper fraction.
Procedure D: One-Sentence Summary Frames

  1. Make an overhead transparency of One-Sentence Summary Frames as show below.

  2. Model how to develop a summary sentence using several of these frames.


1. A ________ is a kind of ________ that …


2. ________ and ________ are similar in that they are both …, but

________ …., while ________ …


3. ________ begins with …, continues with…, and ends with…


4. ________ wanted…, but…, so…


5. ________ happens because… or ________ causes…

24. QAR

Question-Answer- Relationships (QAR)

Right There:

Author and You:

Think and Search:

On My Own:

25. QtA: Question the Author

Sample Queries

Initiating Queries

What is the author trying to say here?

What is the author’s message?

What is the author talking about?

What does the author expect you to know?
Follow-up Queries

What does the author mean here?

Did the author explain this clearly?

Does this make sense with what the author told us before?

Does the author tell us why?

Why do you think the author tells us this now?

Narrative Queries

How do things look for the character now?

Given what the author has already told us about this character, what is this character thinking now?

How does the author let us know that something has changed?

26. Questioning Strategies

Questioning Strategies
We tend to ask question in the “knowledge” category 80% of the time. These are not bad questions, but using them all the time is. Try utilizing higher order questions. These higher level questions force our students to use more “brain power”.
The levels of questions are based on Bloom’s Taxonomy.

Thinking level

Some Common Verbs

Possible questions


Remembering, memorizing, recognizing, recalling of information

tell, list, state, who, what, when, where, describe and name

How many____?

List the persons_____.

Which is true or false___.


Interpreting, translating from one to another, describing in own words, retell

explain, discuss, retell, predict, compare and interpret

Write a brief outline

Discuss what happens next.

Explain the differences.

Compare the two items.


Problem solving, applying information to produce some result, use of facts, rules and principles

solve, show, use, illustrate,

construct, classify, predict, demonstrate and complete

Can you classify the _?

Predict the outcome __?

Complete the story___?


Seeing patterns, identifying motives, recognition of hidden meanings, identification of components

examine, compare, contrast,

identify, explain, outline, analyze, select, explain

Outline the story.

Compare the hero to someone you know.

Can you explain what must have happened?


Creating a unique ideas from original, combination of ideas, predict and draw conclusions

create, invent, predict, plan rewrite, generalize, what if?, integrate, compose, rearrange

Predict a possible solution….

What would happen if…..?

Devise your own way

Create a use for…..


Compare and discriminate between ideas. Assess value of evidence

judge, rate, assess, verify, justify, rank, assess, measure, recommend, prioritize

Rank the characters in the story.

How would you decide?

27. Read-and-Say-Something
This is effective for difficult materials. Rather than letting students struggle with the meaning alone, have them work with a partner so they can grapple with meaning together.

  1. Have students read their assignment silently, paragraph-by-paragraph or page-by-page. (More difficult assignments probably call for paragraph-by-paragraph reading) Use sticky notes on longer selections.

  2. After students have completed the paragraph or page, have them turn to their partner and say something. They can say anything they want related to the article. They react to ideas, descriptions, images, and confusing sections.

  3. You will find that conversations about the meaning of the article occur naturally. You may want students to conclude this session by writing down questions they would like answered by the whole class or other teams.

  4. Talk about how Read-and-Say-Something worked for them as readers. “How did this strategy help you untangle meaning? Were you more actively engaged? Did it help you to be more metacognitive?”

  • Use this strategy as a way for students to review class notes. Have them read through their notes with a partner and then say something to one another.

  • Incorporate Read-and-Say-Something as part of problem solving in mathematics.

  • Discussions can focus on specific topics. For example, a language arts teacher might have students talk about descriptive writing; a history teacher might have students pay attention to issues regarding human rights.

  • Use Read-and-Say-Something as a small group activity. The group chooses a leader. The leader is the first to read a section – paragraph, half page, or whole page. (If the classroom is confining, students can whisper-read the article while the group members follow along with the written text.) Student who are not comfortable reading aloud in front of their peers can pass. However, all students participate in oral discussion. After the leader has finished reading, the person directly to his or her right asks a question or makes a comment related to the section read.


28. Read-Recall-Check-Summarize

  1. Read a selection together. Then, as a whole class, recall information you’ve read. List the information on the board.

  1. Reread the piece to check for accuracy of recalled information.

  1. Cluster the recalled material into logical groupings using a concept map.

  1. Delete any unimportant ideas from this information.

  1. Write the summary together.

  1. Discuss how this type of summary is similar to or differs from other summary processes.

29. Response Questions
Response Questions
Explain why ____. (Explain how ____.)

What would happen if ____?

What is the nature of ____?

What are the strengths and weaknesses of ____?

What is the difference between ___ and ___?

Why is ____ happening?

What is a new example of ____?

How could ____ be used to ____?

What are the implications of ____?

Do you agree or disagree with this statement: ____?

What evidence is there to support your answer?

What is ____ analogous to?

How does ___ effect ____?

How does ___ tie in with what we learned before?

Why is ____ important?

How are ____ and ____ similar?

How does ____ apply to everyday life?

What is a counter-argument for ____?

What is the best ____, and why?

What is the solution to the problem of ____?

Why is ____ important?

How are ____ and ____ similar?

How does ____ apply to everyday life?

What is a counter-argument for ____?

What is the best ____, and why?

What is the solution to the problem of ____?

Compare ____ and ____ with regard to.

What do you think causes ____? Why?

Do you agree or disagree with this statement: ____?

What does ____ mean?

What is another way to look at ____?

Describe ____ in your own words.

Summarize ____ in your own words.

Compare ____ and ____ with regard to.

What do you think causes ____? Why?

What is another way to look at ____?

What does ____ mean?

Describe ____ in your own words.

30. Seed Discussions

  1. Explain to students that they will be leading their own Seed Discussions. Begin you introduction something like this: “while reading this book (assignment) you will be leading your own discussions. You aren’t just going to answer my questions. Instead, you are to identify and develop topics important to your own thinking. As you read, think of one important thing to discuss. Write your discussion seed in your journal or on a card. We want strong seeds that will lead to lots of discussion about a topic. We’ll do the first several seed assignments together.”

  1. Together, make a list of possibilities for seeds. Post them on a large chart so that students can refer to the suggestions:

  • Information or situations that I don’t understand

  • Comments about what I have learned

  • Things that seem interesting or surprising

  • Vocabulary I want to know about

  • Descriptive writing I particularly enjoyed

  • Things that remind me of other things I know

  1. Read aloud two or three pages and model your own discussion seeds. Model strong seeds and weak seeds. For example, seeds for the novel Julie of the Wolves might be:

Strong seed:

I am not sure what this quote means: “Patience with the ways of nature had been instilled in her by her father.” Discussion could center around what is meant by “ways of nature.” How would patience relate to the “ways of nature?”

Weak seed:

“Miyax is a pretty you girl.” There is nothing to discuss here.

  1. Begin the discussion by introducing one seed. Then have a least four students say something about the seed before the next one is introduced.

  1. If little can be said about the see, it means that the seed is not strong enough. Continue to model some strong and weak seeds.

  1. Also model discussion behavior so students can respond to one another’s comments:

I really like what you said about…”

Do you have any other ideas about…”

I agree with you… but I also think…”
7. Talk about the process. “How might Seed Discussions help you become a better reader? How did you feel about being a part of a Seed Discussion group? How does this strategy help you to become more actively engaged in your reading?”
31. Story Maps Story Maps



Main Characters

Other Characters


Problem Resolution






32. SQ3R

Name: _______________________

Date: _______________________

Class: _______________________



Record important titles and subtitles from work.





Write "Who, What, When, Where, and Why" questions from main topics.







Write answers to questions from above.







Record key facts and phrases as needed for each question.





Create a summary paragraph for each question.




33. Sticky Note Discussion

  1. Read aloud. When you come to a spot that you want to mark a sticky note, explain why you are marking it. As you read and model, make a list of the kids of things you noted. Some sample guidelines follow:

Guidelines for students in preparation for literature study groups. (fiction)

    • Tension: excitement, suspense, nervousness; anticipation that keeps us turning pages

    • Character: conversation, actions; descriptions that teach us about the characters

    • Place and time: descriptions that paint mind-pictures; sections creating time and place

    • Mood: feelings of reader, characters; parts that arouse emotions

    • Symbols: symbols contributing to mood, tension or resolution; what they represent

    • Point of view: first or third person; how point of view influences thoughts and feelings about characters

Guidelines for non-fiction:

  • Questions I have

  • Places where I need more examples

  • Powerful images to help me remember

  • My opinions, feelings, reactions

  1. Once students have the idea, you might suggest they mark one or two places per chapter. Limiting notes assists students in narrowing down significant areas and ensures that everyone participates more equally in sticky-note discussions. Students who have multitudes of items marked tend to dominate the discussion.

  2. Begin sticky-note discussions as a whole class. Start by sharing a place that you have marked. Select one that will likely inspire the most discussion. Talk about why you marked it, and then ask students for any comments or reactions. This may launch a lively discussion in over, or if no real discussion has transpired, share another one of your noted areas.

  3. Engage students in examining why sticky-not discussions help them become more involved in their reading than more traditional methods of teaching. “Would you prefer doing sticky-not discussions or reading the chapter and answering questions? How do you feel about discussing ideas in you groups? Do you understand the text better than if you had read it without any discussion?”


    • Argument notes: pink for information that supports opinion; blue for information that defeats opinion

    • Vocabulary notes: pink for words they don’t understand; blue for key math/science terms

    • Question notes: yellow for questions to ask the author; blue for concepts that would make good test questions

34. Summarizing Non-Fiction Text

    1. Begin by reviewing any structural aids such as titles, bold faced headings, vocabulary, discussion questions, and illustrations. Remind students to notice transition words (e.g., first, second) that indicate main points. Note the presence of key vocabulary, repeated ideas, and clue phrases (e.g., the main point is…, most important).

    1. Make predictions about what you think you will learn from the selection.

    1. Read the selection and describe your own thinking processes (teacher think alouds) for sorting through main ideas and details. Reread and take notes on the board, including key words from topic sentences that express the main points of each paragraph. Or read and model how to annotate the text with brief notes in the margins.

    1. Organize your ideas from your notes. You might cluster ideas that seem to go together or organize your ideas into a concept map.

    1. Write your summary. As you write, cross out any information that does not seem important. Be sure to verbalize your thoughts. Choices about what to exclude are as important as decisions about what to retain.

    1. Ask student to think about the process of summarization. What does it entail?

35. THIEVES: A Strategy for Previewing Textbooks

THIEVES: A Strategy for Previewing Textbooks
This activity will help students with comprehension by allowing them to preview the text structure in an organized manner. This pre-reading strategy will allow students to “steal” information before they actually begin reading the chapter. Students will survey the text in the following manner:
Title – Students sometimes skip the title, but it provides valuable information by establishing the topic and the context of the chapter. If the text is written in chronological order, the title may indicate where the chapter would fit on a timeline. Some questions that the student may ask while looking at the title include:

  • What do I already know about this topic?

  • How does it connect to the previous chapter?

  • How can I turn this title into a question to focus my reading?

Headings – Headings indicate the important sections of the chapter. They help students identify the specific topics covered. Students can turn the headings into questions to create a more focused look at information covered in the chapter. Some questions that the student may ask while looking at the headings include:

  • How does this heading let me know what I will be reading about?

  • What topic will be discussed in the paragraphs below this heading?

  • How can I turn this heading into a question that can be answered when I read this section?

Introduction – The introduction provides an overview of the chapter. It may come after the title and before the first heading. Sometimes the goals and objectives of the chapter are stated in the introduction. Some questions that students may ask when previewing the introduction include:

  • Is the introduction marked or do I have to locate it?

  • Does the first paragraph introduce the chapter?

  • What important information will I find in the introduction?

  • Do I already know anything about this?

Every first sentence in a paragraph – First sentences are often the topic sentences of the paragraph, and by reading these a student can get an idea of the information that will be contained in the chapter.
Visuals and Vocabulary – Students should look at all pictures, charts, tables, maps and graphs contained in the chapter. They need to read the captions and labels on each. This enables students to learn a little about the topic before they begin to read. Some questions that students may ask about the visuals include:

  • How do these visuals relate to the content of this chapter?

  • What can I learn from them?

  • How do the captions help me understand the visual?

Vocabulary unlocks the meaning of the content. Students need to understand vocabulary in order to comprehend the text. Vocabulary may or may not be identified as key words. It might be highlighted or italicized in the text. Some questions that students may ask about the vocabulary include:

  • Is there a list of key words and are they defined In the glossary?

  • Are there important words in boldface or italics?

  • Do I know the important words?

  • Are there other words I don’t know?

End-of-Chapter Questions – These questions indicate important points and concepts from the chapter. Just reading these questions will help students target information that is important in the text and establish a purpose for reading. Some questions that students may ask about the end-of-chapter questions include:

  • What do these questions ask?

  • What information will be important in this chapter?

  • How do I locate this information in the text?

Download 463.21 Kb.

Share with your friends:
1   2   3   4   5   6

The database is protected by copyright © 2022
send message

    Main page