Anatomy Lecture Review Anatomical Position

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Anatomy Lecture Review

Anatomical Position

  • The body standing erect, facing forward, feet together, toes pointed slightly apart, hands at one’s side, palms facing forward.
  • Once the body is in this position (or imagined to be in this position,) the positional terms can be used correctly.
  • Left and Right: yours or the patient’s?

Positional Terms

    • Anterior
    • Posterior
    • Ventral
    • Dorsal
    • Superior
    • Inferior
    • Medial
    • Lateral
    • Superficial
    • Deep
    • Proximal
    • Distal
    • Supine
    • Prone

Body Planes

  • Frontal (Coronal)
  • Sagittal
  • Transverse
  • Sagittal plane
  • Para-Sagittal plane


  • Histology is the study of normal tissues under a microscope.
  • Be able to recognize a description of all the structures seen in compact bone under a microscope:
    • Lacunae, perforating canal, osteon (functional unit of compact bone), central canal, canaliculi, lamellae, osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, periosteum, hydroxyapatite.

Compact Bone

Compact Bone Structures

  • Osteon: functional unit of compact bone.
  • hydroxyapatite The crystalline structure of calcium and phosphate that make up bone matrix
  • lamellae The circular and concentric layers of collagen fibers
  • lacunae The pockets or cavities in which the cells are trapped
  • Haversian (or central) canal The large channels containing a blood vessel which run longitudinally down the center of each unit
  • canaliculi The “tiny channels” which run transversely through the layers of bone and allow for diffusion of nutrients and wastes to the cells
  • perforating canal: connects one Haversian canal to another
  • osteocytes The mature bone cells which are trapped in the matrix and help to maintain it
  • Osteoblasts: bone cells that lay down new bone
  • Osteoclasts: bone cells that reabsorb bone

Bone Terms to Know

  • Periosteum (secured to the bone by Sharpey’s fibers)
  • Sharpey’s fibers (anchor the outer wrapping to the bony matrix below it)
  • Articular Cartilage (cap around long bone)
  • Tendon (attaches muscle to bone)
  • Ligament (attaches bone-to-bone)
  • Aponeurosis (modified tendon)
  • Epiphysis (ends of long bones)
  • Diaphysis (shaft of long bone)
  • Medullary Cavity (hollow area inside long bone)
  • Spongy Bone (contains trabeculae instead of osteons and lamellae)
  • Trabeculae

Spongy Bone

  • Instead of osteons, spongy bone has trebeculae.


  • Tendons and ligaments are made from what type of connective tissue?
    • Dense Regular Connective Tissue

The Axial Skeleton

  • Skull
  • Sternum
  • Vertebrae
  • Ribs
  • Pelvic Girdles
  • Os Coxae (Innominate bone)
    • Ilium
    • Ischium
    • Pubis (Os pubis, pubic bone)
  • Pectoral Girdles
  • Clavicle
  • Scapula

Appendicular Skeleton

  • Humerus
  • Radius
  • Ulna
  • Carpals
    • Metacarpals
    • Phalanges (pollicis refers to the thumb)
  • Femur
  • Patella
  • Tibia
  • Fibula
  • Tarsals
    • Metatarsals
    • Phalanges (hallux is the big toe)

Bone Characteristics

  • Vascular (has own blood supply)
  • Regenerates well
  • Contains calcium and hydroxyapatite
  • Forms mostly after birth
  • Is not flexible

Bone Cells

  • Osteoblast (makes bone)
  • Osteocyte (mature bone cell)
  • Osteoclast (reabsorbs bone)

Formation of Endochondral Bone

  • Hyaline cartilage develops in the general shape of the future bone.
  • Periosteum forms on the outside of the developing bone.
  • Osteoblasts deposit bony tissue in place of disintegrating cartilage.

Types of Ossification

  • Primary
    • starts in diaphysis from cartilage
  • Secondary
    • starts in epiphysis from cartilage

Types of Bones

  • Long Bones
    • Arms and legs
  • Sesamoid Bones
    • Develop inside tendons and near joints
  • Flat Bones
    • Skull bones and scapula
  • Irregular Bones
    • vertebrae


  • What are the three types of cartilage?
    • Hyaline cartilage (most of the joints)
    • Fibrocartilage (vertebral discs, pubic symphysis)
    • Elastic cartilage (ears)
  • Where in the body can each of these three types of cartilage be found?
  • What type of cartilage does an embryonic skeleton have?
    • Hyaline

Cartilage Characteristics

  • Avascular (no blood supply)
  • Does not regenerate well
  • Contains no calcium or hydroxyapatite
  • Begins conversion to bone before birth
  • Is flexible

Stages of Healing a Fracture

  • Figure 6.14
  • Blood escapes
  • Fibrous callous
  • Spongy Bone callous
  • Osteoclasts remove excess bone

Categories of Fractures

  • Simple: Skin is not broken
  • Compound: Bone sticks out through skin, often gets infected
  • Complete: Both sides of diaphysis broken through
  • Incomplete: One side of diaphysis is broken
  • Stress: Just a crack in the surface

Types of Fractures

  • Comminuted
  • Compression
  • Spiral
  • Epiphyseal
  • Depressed
  • Greenstick
  • Types of Fractures
  • Table 6.1
  • Table 6.1
  • Table 6.1
  • Table 6.1
  • Table 6.1
  • Table 6.1

About Joints

  • Tendons
    • bind a muscle to bone
  • Ligaments
    • bind bone to bone
  • Both are dense regular connective tissue
  • About Muscles (acting at a joint)
    • origin
    • insertion
    • action

Joint Movement

  • Synarthrotic
    • immoveable, allows no movement
  • Amphiarthrotic
    • allows only limited movement
  • Diarthrotic
    • freely moveable
  • Fibrous Joints
  • A fibrous joint is two bones joined by fibrous connective tissue.
  • It is immovable so it is categorized as a synarthrotic joint.
  • No joint cavity
  • Cartilaginous Joints
  • A cartilaginous joint is two bones joined by cartilage. The cartilage is either fibrocartilage (a symphysis joint) or hyaline cartilage (a synchondrosis).
  • Fibrocartilage joints (symphyses) are amphiarthrotic (slightly moveable).
    • Examples are intervertebral discs and the pubic symphysis
  • Hyaline cartilage joints (synchondroses) are synarthrotic (immovable).
    • Examples are epiphyseal plates and costal cartilages


  • A synchondrosis is a joint in which the bones are bound by hyaline cartilage (A synchondrosis is synarthrotic: not moveable)
  • A synchondrosis is a synarthrosis
  • Synovial Joints
  • The most familiar type of joint and the most common. It allows a wide range of motion so it is functionally classified as a diarthrotic joint
  • Examples include the elbow, knee, knuckles, the joints between the wrist and ankle bones
  • Synovial joints are the most structurally complex type of joint, (having a joint cavity) and are the most likely to develop uncomfortable and crippling dysfunctions


  • A bursa is a fibrous sac filled with synovial fluid, located between adjacent muscles or where a tendon passes over a bone.
  • Bursae cushion muscles, help tendons slide more easily over the joints, and sometimes enhance the mechanical effect of a muscle by modifying the direction in which its tendon pulls.

Condyloid Joints

  • Metacarpal-phalangeal joints: these are
  • biaxial condyloid joints

Ball and Socket Joints

  • Shoulder and hip joints are ball and socket. This type of joint is multiaxial.

The Knee Joint

  • Tibiofemoral joint and patellofemoral joint
  • The largest and most complex diarthrosis
  • of the body
  • Hinge joint, but has movements of gliding, rolling and rotation
  • 3 articulations: lateral and medial articulations of femur and tibia; intermediate articulation of patella and femur. Note: Fibula does not articulate with the femur, only with the tibia.

10 pt Essay Question: Label this

Essay Answer: ½ pt each

10 pt Essay Question: Label this

Essay Answer: 1 pt each

  • Anterior
  • Posterior

10 pt Essay Question: Label this (1/2 point each)

Essay Answer (a)

Essay Answer (b)

Muscle Types

  • Smooth: spindle shaped
    • no striations
    • involuntary
  • Cardiac: cylindrical shaped
    • striated
    • involuntary (only responds to direct electrical stimulation)
  • Skeletal: elongated
    • striated
    • voluntary


  • FLEXION: reduces the angle of the joint from the anatomical position. Flex elbow
  • EXTENSION: movement that returns you to anatomical position. Extend elbow.
  • All these terms refer to either a body part or a joint. Can flex elbow or flex joint.
  • HYPEREXTENSION: extension beyond anatomical position; wrist, neck.
  • Some terms relate only to certain areas, such as the ankle:
  • DORSIFLEXTION: lift up toes
  • PLANTARFLEXION: move toes down
  • INVERSION: when sole of foot points inward
  • EVERSION: sole of foot points outward.
  • ABDUCTION: move body part away from midline; arm, fingers, thumb
  • ADDUCTION: bring back to midline; arms, fingers, thumb


  • ROTATION: pivot on an axis; shake head “no”; can rotate head and shoulder
  • CIRCUMDUCTION: to draw a circle with body part; shoulder, head
  • PRONATION (to lie prone is on stomach). Turn hands downward.
  • SUPINATION: refers to arms; want a bowl of soup, supinate
  • PROTRACTION: to move anteriorily; shoulders, mandible
  • RETRACTION: to move part posteriorly; shoulders
  • ELEVATION: to raise part superiorly; shoulders
  • DEPRESSION: to lower part; open mouth.

Muscle Terms

  • Prime mover
  • Synergist (helps prime mover)
  • Antagonist (does opposite of prime mover)
  • Fixator (holds bone in place so prime mover can move a body part better)

Gluteus Maximus

  • When sitting and going to a standing position, this is the primary muscle responsible for straightening the hip

Hip Flexors

  • When one foot is on the ground, these muscles contract to lift the opposite foot off the ground

The Reflex Arc

  • Dorsal root ganglia contain cell bodies of sensory neurons

Order of Nerves Firing

  • To pick up an object, you wrap your hand around the object. This gives you a sensory input as you feel the object.
  • The sensory neuron sends the impulse to the spinal cord where it synapses on an interneuron.
  • The interneuron synapses on a motor neuron
  • The motor neuron tells your muscles to contract so you can pick up the object.

Spinal Nerve Plexi

  • C1-C4- Cervical plexus
  • C5-T1- Brachial plexus
  • L1-L4- Lumbar Plexus
  • L4-S4- Sacral Plexus

Brachial Plexus

  • Damage to the Brachial Plexus

Major Nerves of the Upper Extremity

  • Axillary
  • Musculocutaneus

Axillary Nerve

  • Deltoid
  • Teres minor

Musculocutaneus Nerve

  • Supplies anterior muscles of the arm

Median Nerve

  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
  • Supplies no muscles of the arm
  • Supplies anterior forearm (except flexor carpi ulnaris)

Ulnar Nerve

  • “Funny Bone”
  • Supplies flexor carpi ulnaris

Radial Nerve

  • Supplies muscles on the posterior arm and forearm
    • Triceps brachii
    • Extensor carpi radialis
    • Extensor digitorum communis

Nerves of the Lower Extremity

  • Femoral
  • Obturator

Obturator Nerve

  • Supplies adductor muscles

Sciatic Nerve

  • Supplies back of thigh
    • Biceps femoris
    • Semimembranosis
    • Semitendonosis
  • Supplies leg and foot

Femoral Nerve

  • Anterior Thigh
    • Quadriceps femoris

Tibial Nerve

  • Posterior leg and foot
    • Gastrocnemius
    • Soleus
    • Tibialis Posterior

Common Peroneal Nerve

  • Superficial branch
    • Lateral side of leg
    • Supplies peroneal muscles
  • Deep branch
    • Supplies anterior leg muscles
    • Injury causes “Foot Drop”


  • The area of skin innervated by a cutaneous branch of a spinal nerve at a particular level.

Arteries of the Upper Extremity

Arteries of the Upper Extremity

  • Subclavian (becomes axillary artery in armpit)
  • Axillary (becomes brachial artery in arm)
    • Supplies triceps brachii
  • Brachial (divides into radial and ulnar arteries when it reaches the elbow)
    • Supplies arm muscles except triceps brachii
  • Radial
  • Ulnar

Arteries of the Lower Extremity

  • External Iliac artery

Arteries of the Lower Extremity

  • External iliac (becomes femoral artery)
  • Femoral (becomes popliteal artery at knee)
    • Muscles of thigh
  • Popliteal (becomes tibial artery in leg)
  • Tibal
    • Leg muscles

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