Anatomy and physiology



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What is osteoarthritis
Cause
Effect
Who’s at risk?
E.g., what is the impact on osteoarthritis including bone spurs if you take part in contact sports?

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E.g., what is the impact on osteoarthritis if you take part in high impact sports?

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What is the impact on osteoarthritis if you take part in low impact repetitive sports/activities?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

give examples?
Notes:

Impact of High Impact Activities on BONES

General Positive Impact

General Negative Impact

  • Strength training increases bone density

  • Should be a gradual increase / overload in intensity – caution

  • Can increase PEAK bone density during adolescence - minimise risk later in life

  • Important for aging people to maximise bone density and osteoblast stimulation




Impact of High Impact Activities if suffering from Osteoporosis



  • Greater risk of bone fractures

  • Especially jumpers, basketball (hard surfaces), runners

Impact of High Impact Activities if suffering from Growth Plate Problems




Impact of Contact Activities on BONES

General Positive Impact

General Negative Impact





Impact of Contact Activities if suffering from Osteoporosis




  • Greatest risk of fractures

  • Especially rugby, kick-boxing

Impact of Contact Activities if suffering from Growth Plate Problems


  • Greatest risk of stress fractures and displacements / fractures




Impact of Repetitive / Low Impact Activities on BONES

General Positive Impact

General Negative Impact

  • Excessive repetition puts excessive stress on bones and the epiphyseal plates

  • May develop bones stress fractures



Impact of Repetitive Activities if suffering from Osteoporosis



  • Especially jogging, throwers, racket sports

Impact of Repetitive Activities if suffering from Growth Plate Problems

  • Lower impact activities may not over-stress the weaker plate areas



Joint stability

E.g., what is the impact on joint stability if you take part in contact sports?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

E.g., what is the impact on joint stability if you take part in high impact sports?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What is the impact on joint stability if you take part in low impact repetitive sports/activities?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Give examples

Notes:


Posture
E.g., What is the impact on posture if you take part in contact sports?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

E.g., what is the impact on posture if you take part in high impact sports?
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What is the impact on posture if you take part in low impact repetitive sports/activities?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Give examples

Notes:







Joint stability refers to the resistance offered by various musculo-skeletal tissues surrounding a joint.





JOINTS
Identify the joints in the skeleton. Describe the purpose of different joints in relation to sporting activity. There are three types of joints:


Joint

Description

Example































There are six types of synovial joints:


Joint and example

Structure

Movement/ stability



















































THE STRUCTURE OF A SYNOVIAL JOINT








Feature

Structure

Function



Ligament








Synovial Membrane








Synovial Fluid









Articular Cartilage







Joint Capsule







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