Anatomy and physiology



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* APPLY IT:
Injuries to the rotator cuff may result from a sudden force or repetitive actions. Throwers are particularly at risk of injury to their rotator cuff through repetition, as the muscles work to control the acceleration of the arm after the point of release. They are therefore working eccentrically and this can produce a force of up to 80% of the body weight to travel through the tendons of the rotator cuff muscles.

Core Stability
The term core stability refers to the ability to prevent unwanted movement of the body’s centre. The reason why core stability is so important is due to the role of the axial skeleton in providing a base for movement of the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton provides the foundations for movement. The more stable these foundations, the more control there is available for co-ordinated movements of the appendicular skeleton (arms and legs).




The superficial muscles that cross the spine (RECTUS ABDOMINUS, EXTERNAL OBLIQUES and ERECTOR SPINAE) provide large/gross movements.


The deeper muscles (TRANSVERSE ABDOMINUS, MULTIFIDUS and INTERNAL OBLIQUES) provide for fine control of movement and stability.

Name

Joint Type

Articulating Bones

Movement

Agonist

Antagonists


Knee



























Radio-ulnar



























Elbow



























Ankle



























Hip
























































Shoulder

























































Spine











































The Role of Muscular contraction
In order to produce the vast range of movements of which it is capable, the body’s muscles either shorten, lengthen or remain the same length whilst contracting.
Define the following terms and give sporting examples of each:

ISOMETRIC:
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ISOTONIC contractions refer to when a muscle is moving while contracting. This can be divided further into concentric and eccentric muscle actions.
ISOTONIC

CONCENTRIC ECCENTRIC

Discuss eccentric contraction in training and training methods (Plyometrics):


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IN CONTEXT:

When a muscle contracts eccentrically it is often acting as a brake to counteract the effect of gravity. So a triple jumper’s quadriceps muscles must contract eccentrically on landing during the hop-and-step phase to stop the leg from buckling and the jumper collapsing to the floor.

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