Chicago Open 2016: "An Insatiable Kingpin of International Meme-Laundering"
Packet By Editors (1)
Edited by John Lawrence, Mike Cheyne, Matt Jackson, Adam Silverman, Mike Bentley, Aaron Rosenberg, Jake Sundberg, and Shan Kothari, with contributions from Ewan Macaulay and Jonathan Magin
1. This religious figure's origins were the subject of a 1984 "Sociological Account" by Heeren, Lindsey, and Mason. In an issue of The Seer, Orson Pratt warned that there is probably more than one of this being, whose "most perfect obedience" makes for an unfit object of worship. A hymn containing the line "No, the thought makes reason stare!," by Eliza Snow, posits this figure. Gordon Hinckley preached that "we have no revealed knowledge" of this figure at a 1991 meeting of the (*) Relief Society, whose entire membership shares a key trait with this subject. This figure, without whom spirits could not have been propagated in "pre-mortal existence", is often said to be subject to "sacred silence," and is not attested in the Doctrine and Covenants or the Pearl of Great Price. For 10 points, identify this rarely discussed divine personage who is literally wedded to God in Mormonism.
ANSWER: Heavenly Mother [or Mother in Heaven; accept descriptive answers such as God's wife or God the Mother; prompt on Goddess; prompt on God; prompt on Heavenly Parents or Heavenly Family until "obedience"; do not accept or prompt on "Heavenly Father"]
2. Cathy Lee Crane directed a film about this man's "Last Words". In one essay, this director praised the "free indirect discourse" and "model-demythicization" of Chaplin's Modern Times and called for cinema to be a "written language." One of his films opens with a singing titles sequence before the protagonists encounter a talking raven who lives in “the city of the future, on Karl Marx street.” In that same film by this (*) Semiotician, Ninetto and Toto enjoy a dance sequence to a surf-rock track by Ennio Morricone. His best known film ends with two soldiers waltzing after having witnessed scenes such as the Magistrate forcing his daughter to eat a meal of nails. One of this man's films is divided into sections such as "The Circle of Blood" and "The Circle of Shit". For 10 points, name this Italian director of The Hawks and the Sparrows who adapted 120 Days of Sodom into the film Salo.
ANSWER: Pier Paolo Pasolini
3. In this play, a henpecked husband admits that the has been practicing the same flute sonata for five years, shortly before his wife orders him to button up his coat, because it’s cold. After hearing the country’s capital city praised, one character in this play recalls a man who ran a travelling children’s ballet company but sold the children to pay his debts. The main female character in this play faints after watching through a window as the man she loves falls off his horse and breaks his arm. At the end of Act 3 of this play, that character starts a rumors that the protagonist has gone (*) mad, which other people then attribute to a gunshot wound or reading Voltaire. The colonel Skalozub is hungry for promotion in this play, in which Famusov’s daughter is falsely courted by his secretary Molchalin, who doesn’t really love her. For 10 points, Sofia Pavlovna rejects her childhood sweetheart, the idealistic Chatskii, in what satirical verse drama by Alexander Griobyedov? ANSWER: Woe from Wit [or Gore ot Uma; or The Mischief of Being Clever; or The Woes of Wit; or Wit Works Woe]
4. This mythology source was first copied out in 1901 by James Henry Breasted, who called it "the oldest known formulation of a philosophical Weltanschauung." The text of this object describes how two gods made "peace over the Two Lands at Ayan," and relates that it was "copied out anew" because the original was partly eaten by worms. A deity is described in this work using such epithets as "South of his Wall" and (*) "Ta-tenen". It is thought that the writing on this object has faded due to its use in a mill. This object contains a square indent surrounded by eleven carved rays, and describes how Nine Gods emerged after the "heart and tongue" of a blue-capped deity spoke Atum into being. For 10 points, name this block of breccia named for an ethnically-Nubian pharaoh, whose hieroglyphs describe the Memphis theology and the primacy of Ptah.
ANSWER: Shabaka stone [or Shabaqo stone; accept Memphite Theology before "Memphis"]
5. In the 19th century, this place was restored under the patronage of Charles Alexander. Hegel participated in an 1817 festival at this place where the Napoleonic Code and other "un-German" books were burned. A resident of this location complained that "I sit here idle and drunk all day long" and due to his inactivity developed severe constipation. A praise-singing contest here is the subject of the medieval Sängerkrieg poem. The most prominent resident of this location was given the pseudonym (*) Junker George. A work produced at this UNESCO World Heritage Site introduced iconic phrases like "Geld und Gut" and new words such as "Gottseligkeit" or “God's happiness.” One man was kidnapped and brought to this location by friendly knights after leaving the Diet of Worms. For 10 points, name this castle in Eisenach where Martin Luther was hidden from papal authorities by Frederick the Wise.
ANSWER: Wartburg Castle [prompt on Eisenach before mentioned]
6. The discoverer of this expression overcame a major roadblock by disproving an earlier conjecture about the uniqueness of NUT space. Its discoverer later extended some properties of this expression, which is Petrov type D, to general algebraically special solutions along with Alfred Schild. The corresponding principal null vectors for this expression can be combined to form a Killing tensor which yields Carter’s constant when it operates twice on the four-velocity. A sine-squared term in this expression leads to the prediction of a region in which all timelike paths point in the (*) azimuthal direction, implying a finite lower bound on angular velocity there. All but one of the off-diagonal elements of this metric can be eliminated by switching to Boyer-Lindquist coordinates. It was extended for the case where charge is present by Ezra Newman, and as angular momentum approaches zero it reduces to the Schwarzschild metric. For 10 points, name this metric which describes the geometry around a rotating black hole. ANSWER: Kerr metric [prompt on Kerr-Newman metric before “Newman”]
7. This novel mentions a man who defines cannibalism as eating a member of the British Empire, and therefore lives by eating Italian organ-grinders, in its opening chapter, which describes the people of the 20th-century playing the game of “Cheat the Prophet.” A character in this novel pays forty children to hire every hansom cab in the city, so he can capture all their horses. Early in this novel, a man in a green uniform stabs his own hand, so he can use the blood to create a Nicaraguan flag. In this novel, a multi-army invasion of (*) Pump Street is foiled when all the streetlights are extinguished in the Battle of the Lamps, which causes the men of Wilfred Jarvis and Mr. Buck of North Kensington to massacre each other. A man who is randomly chosen to be King of England declares that each borough in London will be re-instated as its own city in, for 10 points, what novel in which Adam Wayne rebels against Auberon Quin for the title neighborhood’s independence, the first novel of G.K. Chesterton? ANSWER: The Napoleon of Notting Hill
8. A transporter for this element is under-produced in Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome. Enzymes named for this element are classified as inner ring donors or outer ring donors. An acetamide or acetate bound to this element inhibits cysteine peptidases and was used to determine the mechanism of GAPDH. Peroxidases named for this element have a crucial selenocysteine residue and are labelled D1 through D3. Pendrin transports this element into the follicular lumen. Incorporation of this element, or (*) “organification,” is impaired at high concentrations of it in the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. A cell viability stain couples FDA to the propidium salt of this element. Removing an atom of this element from a tyrosine residue in T4 produces T3. It forms visible complexes with crystal violet. For 10 points, name this element found in thyroxine, which you should eat if you don’t want a goiter. ANSWER: iodine[or I]
9. Immediately after this event, James Cassels and the 6th Airborne conducted a massive search known as Operation Shark. Persistent rumors claim that John Shaw ignored warnings that it would take place so as not to disrupt the daily routine. Evelyn Barker later regretted saying after this event that the military would fight back by "striking at [the enemy's] pockets." It involved the placing of seven milk cans in a basement area known as "La Regence." This event was intended as revenge for the previous month's Operation (*) Agatha, which was also known as "Black Saturday." It was carried out by a group led by a man dressed as a Sudanese waiter. Ninety-one people were killed in this event masterminded by Irgun, a group led by Menachem Begin. For 10 points, name this July 22, 1946 attack carried out by a Zionist group on the British administrative headquarters in Jerusalem.
ANSWER: King David Hotel bombing
10. The global routing architectures in these devices are classified as either hierarchical or island-style. Due to the high number of pins in these devices, most of them only come in ball grid array packages. Most of them only contain SRAM memory, while those that use antifuse memory can only be programmed once. Commercial examples of these devices include the Altera Arria family and the Xilinx (ZAI-links) (*) Virtex family. They were invented to prototype application-specific integrated circuits, or ASICs, but have replaced them in many niches. These devices are composed of interconnected logic blocks, each of which typically contains a look-up table and flip-flop, unlike the smaller CPLDs. For 10 points, identify these large customizable digital circuits, named for their ability to perform complicated logic functions composed of operations like NOT, AND, and OR. ANSWER: Field Programmable Gate Arrays or FPGAs [prompt on Field Programmable Device]
11. Composer and type of work required. One of these works opens with fortissimo octave C’s in the strings alternating with tutti chords on F minor, F diminished seventh, and F-sharp diminished seventh. Another of these pieces was written for the reopening of the Theater in der Josefstadt. Gustav Mahler introduced the practice of playing one of these pieces between scenes one and two of Act Two of a certain opera. An offstage trumpet call in B-flat twice interrupts that piece, which is the third of (*) four attempts to write one of these. Another of these begins with an introduction in F minor in 3/2 time and concludes with a“Victory Symphony.” One of these titled “The Consecration of the House” replaced one originally composed for The Ruin of Athens.Three of these are named for Leonore, and one of these precedes the incidental music to Egmont. For 10 points, name these works, one of which plays before the curtain rises in Fidelio. ANSWER: overtures by Ludwig van Beethoven
12. This is the largest city represented in Congress by staunch Republican Steve Knight. In this city, the Doll's Head Shrine is among buildings made entirely from recycled materials and containers in Grandma Prisbrey's Bottle Village. This city's Burro Flats area is home to cave paintings left by the indigenous Chumash tribe. Rockets were tested at the toxified Santa Susana Field Laboratory in the hills overlooking this inland city, which is bordered on the southwest by Thousand Oaks. A replica of the White HouseSouth (*) Lawn in this city is home to an authentic piece of the Berlin Wall. In this city, a jury of ten whites and two Latinos acquitted three police officers who beat Rodney King. A retired Boeing 707 once used as Air Force One, in this city's most notable building complex, loomed behind a September 2015 Republican presidential debate. For 10 points, name this southern California city home to the Reagan Presidential Library. ANSWER: Simi Valley, California [do NOT accept or prompt on "Los Angeles" at any point]
13. In a metaphor championed by James Clifford, this author described the inhabitants of an Egyptian village as having the restlessness of passengers in an airport transit lounge. In one novel by this author, a maidservant fondly recalls a room in her home country that was lined with mirrors where you could see yourself everywhere if you lay on the floor. In another of this author’s novels, a woman is rescued by a fisherman after falling into the water while trying to study river dolphins in a mangrove swamp. That novel by him includes excerpts from Nirmal’s notebook, which chronicles the (*) Morichjhapi rebellion. Another of his novels contrasts the success of Rajkumar with the plight of King Thebaw and the exiled Burmese royal family. His Ibis Trilogy about the Chinese-Indian opium trade includes the novels River of Smoke and Sea of Poppies.For 10 points, name this author of The Hungry Tide and The Glass Palace, a contemporary Bengali writer. ANSWER: Amitav Ghosh
14. A 1995 book by Madeline Mary Henry describes this person as a Prisoner of History due to a lack of details with which to construct a sound biography. Antisthenes and Aeschines both wrote lost dialogues named for this child of Axiochus, who lived with Lysicles for about a year until Lysicles's death in battle in Caria. This member of the metics, the second title character of an Imaginary Conversation by Walter Savage Landor, is the only woman mentioned by name in Cicero's De Inventione. Plutarch blamed this woman for inciting a (*) 440 BC war against Samos. Other than Phryne, this rumored oratory instructor-slash ghostwriter is the most famous hetaira. For 10 points, name this frequent target of slander in Athenian comedy, a woman from Miletus who became the courtesan and lover of Pericles in classical Athens.
ANSWER: Aspasia of Miletus
15. As an assemblyman, this man, known as "Skin-and-Bones," successfully pushed a bill to retire his colony's paper currency by using a payment made after the Louisbourg expedition. Documents written by this man and his secretary led to a duel between William Whately and John Temple, with the latter accused of leaking this man's letters to the press. The brother-in-law of his second-in-command, Andrew Oliver, this person fled to Castle William after his home on (*) Garden Court Street was looted by a mob. For actually leaking this politician's letters, Benjamin Franklin was removed from his office as Postmaster General, although the public fixated on this administrator's suggestion to abridge "English liberties." He went to England after he was replaced by General Thomas Gage. For 10 points, name this governor of Massachusetts Bay during the Boston Tea Party.
ANSWER: Thomas Hutchinson
16. This philosopher refuted the sufficiency of extension to determine identity of meaning, by noting that the words “unicorn” and “centaur” both have null extensions, but different meanings. He coined a certain word in order to refute Carnap’s distinction between positional and projectible predicates. He used the example of a tailor’s swatch representing the color but not the size of clothing to illustrate exemplificational representation. His belief that nothing had been contributed to the study of art led him to found Project (*) Zero at Harvard. The fact that a man in a room being a third son does not increase the chance that other men in the room are third sons was considered by this author of The Languages of Art, in a work that imagines emeralds that are green until time “t”, but blue afterwards. For 10 points, name this American philosopher who invented the imaginary color “grue” in “the new riddle of induction” from Fact, Fiction, and Forecast. ANSWER: (Henry) Nelson Goodman
17. Leah Dickerman curated a recent exhibit of these works, commissioning poems by Natasha Trethewey and others for the catalogue. Edith Halpert ignored the instructions of the artist of these works and sold half of them to the Phillips Collection. One entry in this series consists largely of a bell mounted next to a headlamp and a smokestack. In his 70s, the artist of these works went back and edited all but five of the the captions of these paintings. A yellow railing (*) divides diners in the 49th entry in this series. The artist's future wife Gwendolyn Knight helped transfer the drawings from this series to panels. A figure in orange bows before the lone branch of a tree with a noose attached to it in the 15th entry in this series. Its first entry depicts a mass of people queuing underneath ticket windows labeled "Chicago", "New York" and "St. Louis". For 10 points, name this series of works by Jacob Lawrence of African Americans fleeing the Deep South.
ANSWER: The Migration Series [or The Migration of the Negro]
18. This discipline was lauded as a corrective for "unhealthy trends" in American culture by Edith Weisskopf- Joelson, who popularized it at Purdue before she became schizophrenic. Definitional vagueness in this discipline inspired the PIL test developed by Crumbaugh and Maholick. Elizabeth Lukas, spelled with a K, wrote a book summarizing this discipline, which posits that humans are the only creatures affected by "noödynamics," and holds that fervently wishing for an undesirable outcome, such as being unable to sleep, can induce a desired (*) opposite via "paradoxical intention." This discipline's founder proposed that the West Coast of the U.S. erect a Statue of Responsibility to complement the Statue of Liberty, and wrote that he saw the freedom to choose one's attitude remain intact even at Auschwitz. For 10 points, name this type of psychotherapy based on finding meaning, developed by Viktor Frankl.
ANSWER: logotherapy [or existential analysis; or the Third Viennese School of psychotherapy; prompt on "psychotherapy," "existential psychology," etc.]
19. A poem by this author describes a figure who sees underwater: “the sad slow / dance of gilded / chairs” and “the ectoplasmic / swirl of garments.” The speaker of one of this author’s poems has a vision of angels at war with each other in a “brightness / so bright that it was darkness.” Another of this author’s poems describes ships with “bright ironical names / like jests of kindness on a murderer’s mouth.” That poem by this author parodies Shakespeare with the refrain “Deep in the festering hold thy father lies.” His collection A Ballad of (*) Remembrance includes the “The Ballad of Nat Turner.” He asked: “What did I know / of love’s austere and lonely offices?” in a poem that describes listening to his hard-working father splintering wood to build fires on weekend mornings. He wrote about the slave trade in his poem “Middle Passage.” For 10 points, name this 20th-century African-American poet of “Those Winter Sundays.” ANSWER: Robert Hayden [or Asa Bundy Sheffey]
20. An alternative to SILAC called BONCAT uses substrates compatible with this reaction. THPTA stabilizes this reaction’s catalyst, which is normally generated in situ by reduction with sodium ascorbate. Highly strained eight-membered rings like OCT or BARAC are common substrates for this reaction. Carolyn Bertozzi developed non-canonical amino acids used in this reaction for labelling biomolecules. Its catalyst was discovered by Kolb 38 years after this reaction was named. MG Finn, Valery Fokin, and (*) Barry Sharpless will probably win a Nobel for this reaction, which is carried out at room temperature in water with a copper catalyst. Its product is a five-membered ring with three consecutive nitrogen atoms. For 10 points, name this 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, a classic click reaction, in which a triazole is synthesized from an alkyne and an azide. ANSWER: Huisgen cycloaddition [or alkyne-azide cycloaddition until “alkyne” is read; or CuAAC; or 1,3 dipolar cycloaddition until it is read; prompt on cycloaddition]
21. A single water molecule guarantees this protein’s rigidity by linking two isoleucine residues at positions 50 and 150. The two identical subunits of this protein have glycine-rich folds nicknamed "flaps" due to this protein's shocking resemblance to the face of a bulldog. A very strong binder to this enzyme contains two fused THF rings on one end. This protein, which does not bind a nucleic acid, commonly accumulates the V82A and I84V mutations according to a database kept by (*) Stanford. Hydroxyethylamine is a transition state mimic for this protein. Inhibitors of this protein can cause odd lipodystrophies like a Crix belly. 1996 Time Man of the Year David Ho pioneered inhibitors of this enzyme like saquinavir. This protein has an aspartate-threonine-glycine catalytic triad, which it uses to break apart the Gag and Pol polyproteins. For 10 points, name this enzyme that hydrolyzes peptide bonds, extracted from the virus that causes AIDS ANSWER: HIV-1 protease [or HIV-1 proteinase; or HIV-1 peptidase; or retropepsin; prompt on partial answer]
1. An archival center in Sussex called The Keep holds the archives of this project, which was founded in 1937 by documentarian Humphrey Jennings and ornithologist-turned-anthropologist Tom Harrison. For 10 points each:
 Name this project that records the minutiae of many British daily lives, which lapsed in the 60s but was revived in 1981. It published studies such as The Pub and the People about a pseudonymized city called "Worktown," which is actually Bolton.
ANSWER: Mass-Observation Archive [prompt on M-O]
 These devices, whose effectiveness at preventing crime is contested, generate more recent bulk records of British behavior. London has a notoriously high number of these devices, some of which can automatically read license plate numbers.
ANSWER: surveillance cameras [or security cameras; or closed-circuit televisions; or CCTV]
 Rather than surveying lots of people, the 7 Up documentaries follow fourteen British people via this type of study, in which an initial cohort is studied repeatedly over a period of many years.
ANSWER: longitudinal study
2. Despite the death of Sambhaji during a war between these two empires, one side kept fighting under Rajaram and Tarabai. For 10 points each:
 What two empires fought a bloody war that began when one side invaded Bijapur? Near the end of the war, one side crossed the Narmada River to defeat the other, which began to fracture into smaller states.
ANSWER: Mughal Empire and Maratha Confederacy [need both]
 During most of the Mughal/Maratha War, the Mughals were led by this son of Shah Jahan, who confined his father in the Agra Fort and expanded the empire to its greatest size.
ANSWER: Aurangzeb Alamgir [or Abdul Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb]
 During the war, the Mughals spent almost eight years trying to siege this Maratha controlled fort that finally fell in January 1698. Zulfiqar Ali Khan finally took this fort after recruiting European gunners as mercenaries.
ANSWER: Jinji Fort
3. This character is relieved when she finds out that the only reason Maria Wallis snubbed her in a train station was because Maria was preparing to shoot an Englishman. For 10 points each:  Name this character, a wealthy heiress who marries Dick, the psychoanalyst who treated her after her incestuous affair with her father caused a mental breakdown. ANSWER: Nicole Diver [prompt on Diver]  Nicole Diver’s institutionalization in Tender is the Night mirrored the real-life situation of this wife of the author, who was being treated for schizophrenia as the novel was being written. ANSWER: Zelda Fitzgerald [or Zelda Sayre; prompt on Fitzgerald]  Nicole begins her affair with Tommy Barban shortly after Dick embarrasses her by repeatedly trying to perform a stunt for Rosemary in which he lifts a man on his shoulders while performing this sporting activity. ANSWER: waterskiing
4. To illustrate this concept, one philosopher imagined a man being told that he will be put in chains and replying that his leg may be put in chains, but nothing can put himself in chains. For 10 points each:  Give this Greek word, frequently translated as “volition” or “moral choice,” which Epictetus defined as the rational faculty of using and controlling one’s own impressions of events. ANSWER: prohairesis  Prohairesis plays an important role in the Enchiridion and the Discourses, compilations of Epictetus’ teachings created by this student of his. ANSWER: Arrian of Nicomedia  Prohairesis was earlier used in this Aristotle work, which discusses the pursuit of eudaimonia and understanding the virtues as means. ANSWER: Nicomachean Ethics[or Ethika Nikomacheia; or Ethikon Nicomacheon]
5. The second of these pieces quotes “Yankee Doodle,” “The Battle Cry of Freedom,” and “The British Grenadiers,” among other tunes. For 10 points each:  Name this set of pieces by Charles Ives that includes “Putnam’s Camp, Redding, Connecticut” and two other pieces. ANSWER: Three Places in New England  Don’t confuse Ives’ Three Places in New England with the New England Triptych by this other American composer, who orchestrated Ives’ Variations on “America” and wrote an opera based on “Casey at the Bat.” ANSWER: William Schuman  This chord in an Ives piece was originally the conclusion of an authentic cadence in F, but was replaced with an eleven-note cluster often nicknamed the “Bronx Cheer,” which Bernstein famously drew out in his recording. ANSWER: final chord of Ives’ Symphony No. 2 [accept obvious equivalents for “final chord,” such as “closing chord”]
6. This semi-empirical method developed by John Pople makes use of the "core approximation": only valence electrons need to be considered. For 10 points each:  Name this very rough improvement of the extended Hückel or Hartree-Fock methods which does consider electron-electron repulsions, but only from basis functions that are the same on each atom. ANSWER: complete neglect of differential overlap [or CNDO/2; or zero differential overlap]  A common set of basis functions used in CNDO/2 are named for this chemist, and take the form of a constant, times distance raised to some exponent, times the exponential of negative distance. A method named for this man creates the proper linear combination of spin orbitals to make the overall fermionic wavefunction antisymmetric. ANSWER: John C. Slater [or Slater-type orbitals; or a Slater determinant]  Hückel's method, when it works at all, is only good for computing the MOs of compounds with this property. Compounds with this property have delocalized pi systems due to their alternating single and double bonds. ANSWER: conjugated [or word forms; anti-prompt on aromatic]
7. This essay describes a “Latin theory” that declares Racine’s Athalie to be the perfect example of the title entity. For 10 points each:  Name this 1850 essay that declares the title entity to be an author who has caused the human mind “to advance a step” and who has written in a peculiar style “easily contemporary with all time.” ANSWER: “What Is a Classic?” [or “Qu’est-ce qu’un classique?”]  “What Is a Classic?” is by this 19th-century French literary critic who wrote a massive history of the Port Royal abbey and a regular newspaper column called “Monday Chats.” ANSWER: Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve  Sainte-Beuve’s biographically-oriented criticism was attacked in the essay “Against Sainte-Beuve” by this creator of Charles Swann and Odette de Crécy. ANSWER: Marcel Proust
8. [Note to moderator: Do NOT reveal alternate answers for the first part.]
A variation of this specific idea was perpetuated in a 1987 book by Douglas Tottle. For 10 points each:  What specific idea was spread by New York Times reporter Walter Duranty, which has led to persistent calls to strip him of his Pulitzer? Another person to promote this idea was Louis Fischer, with both men refuting Gareth Jones, the first journalist to break a certain story. ANSWER: denial of Soviet famine of 1932-1933 [or denial of Holodomor; or denial of Ukrainian famine; accept answers about denial of Holodomor-as-genocide; accept obvious equivalents; prompt on general answers about defending the Soviet Union or defending Stalin or defending the Five Year Plan]  Much Soviet famine denial centered on denying the existence of the Holodomor, a famine that took place in this modern day country, a former Soviet state. ANSWER: Ukraine [or Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic]  In March 1930, a few years before the great famine, Stalin himself called for a temporary halt to the creation of collective farms in a Pravda article with an English title infamously claiming that the people had developed what characteristic because of success? ANSWER: they were dizzy with success [do not accept alternate answers]
9. One reviewer noted how "full-length Whistler portraits look on with arch forbearance" at this painting, which was on loan to the Frick from the Art Museum of Ponce, Puerto Rico in 2015. For 10 points each:
 Identify this 1895 painting of a sleeping woman whose see-through orange dress reveals her enormous thighs. Some fruit extends over the frame of this painting, which has a background of a seascape.
ANSWER: Flaming June  Flaming June artist Frederic Leighton loved to paint scenes from the lives of other, better artists. One such painting shows a dog looking up at this designer of the dome of the Florence Cathedral on his deathbed.
ANSWER: Filippo Brunelleschi  Leighton also painted a historic scene of Cimabue bought by Queen Victoria. This other artist painted Victoria and Albert at the Bal Costumé of 12 May 1842 and made allegorical paintings such as Doubtful Crumbs and A Distinguished Member of the Humane Society.
ANSWER: Edwin Henry Landseer
10. In an example of this type of stimulus, herring gulls will respond more strongly to food-begging from red needles with white bands painted on them than to their actual children. For 10 points each:  Name this type of unrealistic stimulus studied by Niko Tinbergen, which provokes an unexpectedly strong response. Another example of it is greylag geese that attempt to retrieve football-sized eggs. ANSWER: supernormal stimulus  In a third example of supernormal stimulus, the fixed action pattern of the three-spined sticklebacks is strongest in response to wooden model sticklebacks with their bellies painted a dark shade of this color. ANSWER: red  Fixed action patterns can be co-opted in this process, in which competitive species provide a supernormal stimulus for the FAP. The example of this process that’s usually cited is in brood parasites like cuckoos, which whine louder than the baby warblers and therefore get fed first. ANSWER: code-breaking [or word forms]
11. This composer provided half the score for the ballet La source, while Léo Delibes provided the other half. For 10 points each:  Name this composer of the ballet Don Quixote. The temple dancer Nikiya attracts too much romantic attention in his ballet La Bayadère. ANSWER: Ludwig Minkus [or Léon Fyodorovich Minkus]  Don Quixote and La Bayadère were composed for this impresario and choreographer, who also choreographed Tchaikovsky’s The Sleeping Beauty. ANSWER: Marius (Ivanovich) Petipa [or Victor Marius Alphonse Petipa]  For Petipa’s revival of Adolphe Adam’s Le corsaire, Minkus provided some of the music for this divertissement, in which the Pasha has an opium-induced dream about the title garden. ANSWER: Le Jardin Animé
12. Fashion designers such as Paul Poiret and Madeleine Vionnet produced dresses inspired by this garment in Europe after Sada Yacco wore them in popular performances in Paris. For 10 points each:
 Name this type of wide-sleeved formal robe, which is tied shut with a waist sash called an obi.
ANSWER: kimono [or gofuku]
 Traditionally, a kimono must be wrapped left over right unless the person in it has this property.
ANSWER: the person is dead [or deceased; or passed away; accept obvious equivalents]
 Since kimonos had no pockets, this type of ornate fastener was secured to the obi of a kimono so as to attach a cord and dangle objects off the sash. Many of them were made with ivory.
13. The speaker of this poem asks “what good is it / to be the lime burner’s daughter” after describing a time when he buried his hands in saffron and “disguised them / over smoking tar.” For 10 points each:  Name this erotic poem that expresses a desire to ride a woman’s “bed / And leave the yellow bark dust on [her] pillow.” ANSWER: “The Cinnamon Peeler”  The author of “The Cinnamon Peeler” created this character who has an affair with a woman who reads Herodotus to him, until her jealous husband tries to kill him by crashing a plane into him, while the woman is on board. ANSWER: Count Ladislaus de Almásy [or László; accept either name; prompt on “The English Patient”]  This Sri Lankan-born author wrote “The Cinnamon Peeler” and created Count Ladislaus de Almásy, the title character of his The English Patient. ANSWER: (Philip) Michael Ondaatje
14. This Senator introduced the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. For 10 points each:
 What anti-Communist Democratic Senator, a failed candidate for the 1972 and 1976 presidential nominations, employed numerous future neoconservatives as aides, including Paul Wolfowitz and Richard Perle? A right-wing British think tank is named in his honor.
ANSWER: Henry "Scoop" Jackson  Jackson died very suddenly after giving a speech about this September 1983 event that claimed the life of Congressman Larry McDonald. The Soviet Union admitted being responsible for this event but insisted it was a "deliberate provocation" by the United States.
ANSWER: The shooting down of Korean Air Lines Flight 007 [or shooting down of KAL007; or shooting down of KE007]
 Another failed candidate for the 1976 nomination was this first director of the Peace Corps and the Office of Economic Opportunity, a member of the Kennedy family.
ANSWER: Sargent Shriver Jr. [or Robert Sargent Shriver Jr.; or Sarge Shriver Jr.]
15. According to the Erdős-Turan theorem, sets of positive integers contain arbitrarily long types of these constructs if the sum of their reciprocals converges. For 10 points each:
 Name these constructs whose sums can be found by adding the first and last terms of them, then multiplying by the number of terms, and finally dividing by two.
ANSWER: arithmetic progressions [or arithmetic sequences]
 This Hungarian mathematician proved the Erdős-Turan theorem. Subsequently, it was renamed in his honor.
ANSWER: Endre Szemerédi  Proofs of the general case of Szemerédi's theorem serve as sort of a Rosetta Stone of modern mathematics. For instance, Furstenburg used techniques from this branch of mathematics in his proof of the statement. This branch of mathematics focuses on dynamical systems and is particularly useful in statistical mechanics problems where time and space averages need to be exchanged for one another.
ANSWER: ergodic theory
16. For 10 points each, answer the following about difficult-to-translate terms for the divine in pre-modern religious traditions.
 This West African people uses the term ashe for a sort of divine energy which makes action possible, which their chief god Oludumare bestows upon people and things. Their worship of lwa inspired much of Voodoo and Santeria.
ANSWER: Yoruba people
 This Latin term denotes an impersonal divine presence or will, which emanates from a god or a space sacred to a god. Varro claimed correctly that this word originally meant "a nod of the head".
ANSWER: numen [or the numinous]
 The Aztecs used this Nahuatl term to refer to a divine totality undergirding the whole cosmos, which manifested as gods. The use of this word to refer to the conquering Spanish lends credence to the contested claim that Aztecs saw Cortes's men as gods.
17. The first half of this poem closes with a stanza beginning “Open the temple gates unto my love.” For 10 points each:  Name this poem that begins with a request to the muses to “Help me mine own love’s praises to resound.” This ode was written to celebrate the poet’s marriage to Elizabeth Boyle. ANSWER: Epithalamion  Epithalamion is by this Elizabethan poet, and was published together with his sonnet collection the Amoretti, which was also dedicated to Boyle. ANSWER: Edmund Spenser  Spenser’s Epithalamion has this many stanzas, which is also the number of books he originally intended to write of The Faerie Queene, although he fell far short of that total. ANSWER: 24
18. Calculating this quantity for a charged sphere using conservation of energy gives a result smaller by a factor of 4/3 than the result obtained from momentum arguments. For 10 points each:
 Name this quantity. Poincaré attempted to resolve the aforementioned 4/3 paradox surrounding this quantity by introducing his eponymous “stresses.”
ANSWER: electromagnetic mass [prompt on mass]
 The electromagnetic mass arises when deriving expressions for this force, which is caused by the fields given off by an accelerating charge acting back on the charge. In the nonrelativistic case, it is given by the Abraham-Lorentz formula.
ANSWER: self-force [or radiation reaction force]
 John Wheeler and Richard Feynman once attempted to throw out the self-energy entirely by reinterpreting electrodynamics as a mixture of time-advanced and time-retarded solutions. Unfortunately, they failed to explain this energy difference, which for hydrogen has a value in between the fine structure and hyperfine splitting.
ANSWER: Lamb shift
19. According to Strabo, a religious building on this land formation employed over one thousand temple prostitutes. For 10 points each:
 Name this rock formation on the Peloponnese near an isthmus, whose highest point was once home to an extremely notable temple of Aphrodite.
ANSWER: Acrocorinth [or Akrokorinthos; or Acropolis of Corinth; or Upper Corinth; generously prompt on Corinth; do not accept or prompt on "Acropolis"]
 Bellerophon accomplished this task using a golden bridle while the target animal was drinking from the Peirene spring at the base of the Acrocorinth.
ANSWER: taming of Pegasus [or yoking of Pegasus; prompt on answers such as "meeting Pegasus" which don't convey some kind of capture or process of making the beast submit]
 This 2nd-century text claims that the Acrocorinth was judged to belong to Helios by Briareus of the Hecatonchires, snubbing Poseidon. Myths about Corinth and places you could wander to from Corinth make up its second of ten books.
ANSWER: Description of Greece [by Pausanias][or Hellados Periegesis; prompt on "Pausanias"]
20. This man served a year in prison for publishing his inflammatory 1801 pamphlet, "The Restorer of Society to its Natural State" and responded to Thomas Paine's Agrarian Justice with The Rights of Infants. For 10 points each:
 Identify this advocate of placing all land under the control of local, democratically-elected corporations that would then lease out land to tenants at low prices. He also wrote The Real Rights of Man.
ANSWER: Thomas Spence  Spence's views on property were similar to this earlier English radical group, whose leading lights included the property-hating Gerrard Winstanley. A group of these people performed their namesake activity on St. George's Hill in 1649.
ANSWER: The Diggers [or True Levelers; do NOT accept “Levelers”]
 This man failed in his task of clearing the Diggers from St. George's Hill. This general successfully besieged Colchester and commanded the New Model Army alongside Oliver Cromwell at Naseby.
ANSWER: Sir Thomas Fairfax
21. This event was preceded by the slaying of a man blamed for the loss of Tong Pass. For 10 points each:
 Identify this July 756 incident on the way to Chengdu in which an emperor was forced by his soldiers to order an unwanted execution. The victim and her family were blamed for an ongoing rebellion.
ANSWER: execution of Yang Guifei [or execution of Consort Yang; or execution of Yang Yuhuan; or execution of Taizhen]
 The death of Yang Guifei occurred during this man’s rebellion against Emperor Xuanzong. This obese dude was once described as Xuanzong’s “reserve emperor.”
ANSWER: An Lushan
 This super-loyal eunuch of Xuanzong strangled Yang Guifei to death on orders of the emperor. While later exiled, he returned to the kingdom just in time to hear of his former emperor’s death and responded by spitting up blood and dying himself.
ANSWER: Gao Lishi [or the Duke of Qi]