American cultural landscapes, 1900 to the present



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AMERICAN CULTURAL LANDSCAPES, 1900 TO THE PRESENT
Geography C160B

Cross-listed as Environmental Design C169B and American Studies C112B

4 units / Instructor: Paul Groth / Spring Semester 2006

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COURSE DESCRIPTION

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This course introduces ways of seeing and interpreting American histories and cultures, as revealed in everyday built surroundings—homes, highways, farms, factories, stores, recreation areas, small towns, city districts, and regions. The course encourages students to read landscapes as records of past and present social relations, and to speculate for themselves about cultural meanings.
Although this course deals with culture, and America, it does not deal equally with three different cultures. Thus, it does not satisfy the University’s American Cultures requirement.
Lectures: 11:00-12:30 Tuesdays and Thursdays
The Wurster Auditorium, 112 Wurster Hall
Sections/GSIs: A one-hour discussion section is required each week. Section options:

101 Tu 1-2 172 Wurster Sarah Lopez, GSI

102 Wed 12-1 801A Wurster David de la Peña, GSI

103 Th 10-11 104 Wurster Lee Panich, GSI

104 Th 4-5 170 Wurster Sarah Lopez, GSI

105 Wed 1-2 801A Wurster David de la Peña, GSI



Note! Sections are assigned by the professor, based on cards filled out at first class.
Prerequisites: None. You may take this “B” course even if you have not had the “A” course.
Non-majors are enthusiastically welcomed.
Required texts: The cultural environment itself is the basic course text, which you will read with the aid of the following required books (prices are approximate):
1. A xeroxed course reader, ca. $45.00

2. Paul Groth, AC 15 (the Oakland tour guide, also xeroxed), ca. $15.00

3. Chris Wilson and Paul Groth, eds., Everyday America, $19.95

4. Daniel Boorstin, The Americans: The Democratic Experience, $19.00

5. Sinclair Lewis, Babbitt (any edition is OK), $5.95

6. D. J. Waldie, Holy Land: A Suburban Memoir, $11.95


The reader and the Oakland tour guide, AC 15, are both available at Copy Central, 2560 Bancroft Way. The other texts are available at Ned’s Berkeley Bookstore
at 2480 Bancroft Way. All will be on reserve, eventually, in the ED Library.
For more information: The xeroxed course reader has a long, detailed syllabus at the front and all the assignment guides at the back, in addition to review notes for every lecture (based on last year’s course).
A new course web site is under construction at: http://www.arch.ced.berkeley.edu/courses/ed169/
Requirement Set One--If you have NOT taken the "A" course:
1. Midterm exam, with slide interpretation 15%

2. Discussion section participation and Oakland tour 25%

3. A research essay of eight to ten pages 25%

4. Final exam, with slide interpretation 35%


Discussion sections will include several short exercises. Discussion section grades—which, as you will note, are worth one-fourth of the course grade--are based on attendance, section participation, timely completion of section exercises, and the general quality of section exercise work.
WARNING: In order to pass this course, students must not only complete the midterm, the final exam, and the paper but also attend lectures and sections regularly. You should not take this course if you think you can routinely skip lectures and sections, and still pass the exams. That may be possible in other courses, but not this one.

Requirement Set Two--Options if you have already taken the "A" course:
The new essay option: You may write a new research essay just as you did in the "A" half of the course, for the same grading proportions (paper, 25% of your course grade, midterm 15%, sections 25% and final, 35%).
The book comparison option: Since you have already written a full-sized essay for the other half of the course, you might want to develop other writing skills. If so, select a pair of contrasting books from the book comparison guide at the back of the course reader, and then prepare a critical and evaluative comparison of them, from three to no more than five pages long. Your book comparison will count for 15% of your grade; the midterm, 15%; sections 25%; and the final, 45%. In other words, the book comparison option, because it is a shorter and simpler exercise than writing a research paper, makes up a smaller proportion of your course grade and puts more emphasis on the final exam. Experience in taking the other half of the course usually helps students do fairly well on exams. The book comparison is due on the same date that research essays are due, and the same late penalties apply.

TEACHING TEAM OFFICES
Paul Groth's office: 597 McCone / Phone: 510-642-0955 / E-mail: pgroth@berkeley.edu

Office hours, starting week 2: 1:30 to 3:30 Wednesdays. For the first week, students may drop by at any time the office door is open. After that, Paul Groth posts a sign-up sheet by his office door. If you have signed up for a time, and cannot make that appointment, please call so someone else can use that slot. Drop-in folks can often be accommodated when there is a no-show, or if prior appointments have been shorter than scheduled.


The GSI office for Graduate Student Instructors: 334 Wurster Hall
GSI office hours, to be announced. Room 334 lies midway between the red and blue elevators and stairs, right next to a little stairway between the second and third floors of Wurster. No appointment sheet; first come, first serve.

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OUTLINE OF LECTURE TITLES

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Introductions and the American West (1870s to 1910s)
Tu 1/17 1. Introductions and review

Th 1/19 2. Fences, farms and forts: enforcing official spatial rules

Tu 1/24 3. From the open range to the cattle ranch

Th 1/26 4. Regional differences in the many Wests: bioregions and migrations as factors

Tu 1/31 5. Special survival lecture: resources for doing "A" research

Th 2/2 6. Western workers’ settlements: work camps, company towns, and mining towns

Tu 2/7 7. Science lesson one: repeating processes of landscape formation

Th 2/9 8. Science lesson two: primarily economic processes at work in cultural landscapes

Tu 2/14 9. Early forms of mechanized farmsteads and fields

Abstract and preliminary source list for research essay due in section during the 5th week
Spatial Reordering of the Progressive Era and New Deal (1890s to 1930s)
Th 2/16 10. The idea of efficiency and central planning of urban factories

Tu 2/21 11. Science lesson three: innovation diffusion

Th 2/23 12. Rebuilding downtown as the heart of a New City

Tu 2/28 Midterm exam (beginning of the 7th week)

Th 3/2 13. Urbane alternatives to the single family house: hotels, apartments, flats

Tu 3/7 14. Urban outskirts: old additions vs. new packaged districts

Th 3/9 15. Small houses made more socially polite

Tu 3/14 16. Rediscovery of the road and highway, 1870 to 1930

Th 3/16 17. Farm service towns and “plugged-in” family farms

Tu 3/21 18. Regional landscapes of the Depression era

Th 3/23 19. Recreational and rural landscapes of the New Deal

3/27 to 3/31 Spring recess. No classes.

Tu 4/4 20. The urban New Deal and its housing ideas
The Troubled Triumph of Single-Use Landscapes (1945 to the Present)
Th 4/6 21. Squeezing and stretching the wartime and post-war center city, 1940 to 1955

Tu 4/11 22. Armatures and outreaches for the post-WW II city of realms



Research essays due at the beginning of class (Tuesday of Week 12)

Th 4/13 23. Two recent forms of suburban houses and yards

Tu 4/18 24. The apotheosis of stratification: suburban residential districts, 1945 to the present

Th 4/20 25. Suburban shopping and recreation landscapes

Tu 4/25 26. Processes at work in the re-building of downtown, 1955 to the present

Th 4/27 27. Recreation as cosmic conversion: helix sports

Tu 5/2 28. Industrial farms

Th 5/4 29. Review 1: axioms and processes in retrospect

Tu 5/9 30. Review 2: visual review and readings highlights
Final Exam: Wednesday morning, 8-11 AM, May 17, 2006

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DETAILED SYLLABUS OF LECTURES AND READINGS

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Over and over again I have said that the commonplace aspects of the contemporary landscape, the streets and houses and fields and places of work, could teach us a great deal not only about American history and American society but about ourselves and how we relate to the world. It is a matter of learning how to see. J. B. Jackson, environmental philosopher, 1984
To see is to think. To think is to put together random bits of private experience in an orderly fashion. Seeing is not a unique God-given talent, but a discipline. It can be learned. Joshua Taylor, museum curator, 1977
Believing, with Max Weber, that humans are animals suspended in webs of significance they themselves have spun, I take culture to be those webs, and the analysis of it to be . . . an interpretive science in search of meaning.
Clifford Geertz, anthropologist, 1973
Landscape is thus best understood as a kind of produced, lived, and represented space constructed out of the struggles, compromises, and temporarily settled relations of competing and cooperating social actors; it is both a thing (or a suite of things) . . . and a social process, at once solidly material and ever changing. Don Mitchell, geographer, 1991 [The Lie of the Land, p. 30]
Although delving for cultural meaning is as much an interpretive art as it is a science, this course takes up Geertz's theme. Together we will examine the key physical webs of American cultures: how they have evolved, their past meanings, and how they express and create webs of significance which still surround us. Similarly, we will learn to see the effects of social and cultural forces in our ordinary landscapes. The aim, in general, is to connect our eyes to our brains as we consider our everyday surroundings.

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ABOUT THE READINGS

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In addition to the xeroxed reader and the xeroxed Oakland tour guide AC 15, we will use four required books. All are in paperback editions. Their full citations:
Daniel Boorstin, The Americans, Vol. 3: The Democratic Experience (NY: Random House, 1965)

Sinclair Lewis, Babbitt (NY: New American Library, 1961. Originally published in 1922.)

D. J. Waldie, Holy Land: A Suburban Memoir (NY: A Buzz Book for St. Martin’s Press, paperback edition, 1996)

Chris Wilson and Paul Groth, eds., Everyday America: Cultural Landscape Studies after J. B. Jackson


(Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003)
We strongly recommend that you simply read these books, cover to cover. However, not all of every book is required. For those who want to review a particular section of the course, this syllabus indexes the required reading passages, lecture-by-lecture. Occasional titles in the reader are identified as “primary sources”—voices or documents that date directly from the period under study.
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LECTURES, SECTIONS, AND READINGS

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Readings for the week will normally be discussed as part of each week’s discussion section.

The Oakland field trip, taken on your own, substitutes for the discussion sections of weeks 1 and 7.
PART ONE

INTRODUCTIONS AND THE AMERICAN WEST (1870s to 1910s)
WEEK ONE
Lecture 1. Introductions and review. People in the class; a recap of ED C169A and preview of axioms, elements, and landscape orders we use to help us read the environment; various sales pitches.
Lecture 2. Fences, fields, and forts: enforcing official spatial rules. New Midwestern fences, military forts, and Indian boarding schools using "isonomic" order. Rural cattle-raising ideas of the various parts of the humid East clash as settlers reach the arid West. Settlement challenges of the Great Plains.
Readings:
Paul Groth and Chris Wilson, “The Polyphony of Cultural Landscape Studies,” ch 1, Everyday Am

Patricia Limerick, “J. B. Jackson and the Play of the Mind,” ch 2, Everyday America

Daniel Boorstin 1 (range cattle industry); 2 (range rituals); 3 (1885 and nesters war)
Sections, Week 1: Sections do not meet during the first week.

Organization of section times and student schedules. Section lists will be posted by Paul Groth’s office, 597 McCone, by the GSI office, 334 Wurster, and (before and after lecture only) on the main doors for 112 Wurster.


WEEK TWO
Lecture 3. From the open range to the cattle ranch. Early cattle-raising traditions of the Great Plains and desert West. "Open order" and the nature of abstract landscape orders. From the open range to the fenced ranch, with speculation on the dude ranch as an influence on the 1950s ranch house.
Lecture 4. Regional differences in the many Wests: bioregions and migrations as factors. Bioregion (especially mountains, dryness, and separation) as frames for cultural uses and the sequence of Native and Euro-American settlements in the several Wests. The Mormon culture region as an example.
Reading:
J. B. Jackson, “The Vernacular City,” in reader [on Lubbock, Zenith, and the Western city]

Joan Didion, “Notes from a Native Daughter,” in reader

Andrew Phillips, “The Shape of America’s Population” [reference pictograms], in reader

Wilbur Zelinsky, excerpt from The Cultural Geography of the U.S., in reader




Sections, Week 2: Student introductions.

Section instructors divulge secrets on how to get an A in the course. Discussion of key readings from first two weeks. Students introduce themselves and where they have lived, ideally using Zelinksy’s culture regions as a reference, or (as Didion does) invoking specific landscape details from your past that still reverberate with meanings of “home” or personal identity.
WEEK THREE
Lecture 5. Special survival lecture: resources for doing “A” research. Guest lecture by Elizabeth Bryne, Head Librarian, Environmental Design Library, stressing the latest developments in computer searches and web-based resources for your individual research. Each semester, Ms. Byrne brings new insights and examples—volunteer your paper topic, and she might use it as a spontaneous class example.
Lecture 6. Western workers’ settlements: work camps, company towns, and mining towns. Street grids, lots, and buildings, and land uses as key settlement landscape elements; privatism as a policy of landscape development. Work camps, company towns, and mining towns of western resource extraction; rural Chinatowns in California.
Reading:

James Buckley, “A Factory without a Roof: The Company Town in the Redwood Region,” in reader

Patricia Limerick, “Disorientation and Reorientation,” in reader

Sarah Deutsch, “Landscape of Enclaves: Race Relations in the West, 1865-1990,” in reader


Sections, Week 3: Reading floor plans of buildings for social and cultural clues

We will compare floor plans of the Southwest in Chris Wilson article, small 1910 cottages, and post-World War II suburban houses—essentially, a crash course in reading architectural floor plans and deciphering them for ideas about spatial organization, social connections, and cultural meaning. Also: pre-reading intro to structuration and Pierre Bourdieu (a reading assigned next week)—individual experience versus social structure.


WEEK FOUR
Lecture 7. Science lesson one: repeating processes of landscape formation. General processes that shape historical and present-day landscape forms and human relations. In this lesson, we look at the inertia of nature and of existing cultural resources, connection, migration, initial settlement, reinforcement of identities, and the sparking of innovation. Don’t miss this lecture or any of the other two “science lessons”! These are central ideas in the course and its exams—and, hopefully, in the ways you may look at the world in the future.
Lecture 8. Science lesson two: primarily economic processes at work in cultural landscapes. We continue our survey of general processes, including household spending, day-to-day maintenance and sporadic remodeling, cyclical periods of major investment, capital accumulation, then local and distant circulation of capital.
Reading:
Garry Stevens, “The Sociological Toolkit of Pierre Bourdieu,” from The Favored Circle, in reader

Albert Eide Paar, "Heating, Lighting, Plumbing, and Human Relations," [very short] in reader

Chris Wilson, "When a Room Is the Hall," in reader
Sections, Week 4: Reading cultural history on maps: the western half of the U.S.
Interpreting place names, land divisions, rural and urban settlement features on present-day USGS quad maps for Lubbock, Texas; Manti, Utah; and Anaheim, California. Reinforcement of the idea of the many Wests, and beginning of review for the midterm. Learning map-reading skills you can apply to any place in the U.S., urban or rural.

WEEK FIVE
Lecture 9. Early forms of mechanized farmsteads and fields. Basic farmstead forms of the small farms built after the Civil War, contrasted with early corporate farms whose investment and specialization which matched railroad-sized capital and railway spaces.
PART TWO: SPATIAL REORDERING OF THE PROGRESSIVE ERA
AND NEW DEAL (1890s to 1930s)

Lecture 10. The idea of efficiency and central planning of urban factories. The city as place of modern production. The factory manager as innovation agent (Frederick Winslow Taylor); scientific management and behavioral design in factories, offices and public relations.
Due in section this week: the abstract and preliminary source list for your research essay
Reading:

Boorstin 41 (Frederick Winslow Taylor and Louis Brandeis)

Spiro Kostof, excerpt from “The American Workplace,” America by Design

Grady Clay, “The Cross Section as a Learning Tool, “ ch 7, Everyday America

John Schaar, "America the Homogenous," in reader (a critique of the required Boorstin book)
Sections, Week 5: Students present paper ideas

Students turn in the abstract and preliminary bibliography for their research paper. One-minute presentations of research paper topics, with suggestions for the work from the class.



WEEK SIX
Lecture 11. Science lesson three: innovation diffusion. A crash course in notions of change and the recurring general processes of the adoption of new ideas; how variations in innovation diffusion help to explain differences in culture and cultural landscapes, as well as similarities in culture and landscapes. Definition of monomic landscape order. Again, don’t miss this lecture: key ideas for the whole course.
Lecture 12. Rebuilding downtown as the heart of a New City. Urban challenges of the Old City versus the New City. Overlapping urban reform groups and their approach to downtown. The drive for establishing new order, organization, and single-use space in the City Beautiful spaces of the business leaders, 1890-1930.
Reading:
Malcolm Gladwell, “Case Study: Rumors, Sneakers, and the Power of Translation,” in reader
Jessica Sewell, “Gender . . . in the Early 20th Century Am. Downtown,” ch 14, Everyday America
Boorstin 10-12 (dept. stores, chains), 15-18 (marketing, Xmas), 30 (political machines)

Sections, Week 6: Review for midterm exam
Comparison of readings to date (remember, one question on exam is based entirely on the readings). Practice for slide interpretation questions and strategies for short answer and essay questions.
WEEK SEVEN
Midterm exam (on material through Lecture 12). As you review, you will be pleased by how much you already know. If you have attended lectures and sections faithfully, and kept up with the readings, nothing on the midterm should be a surprise.
Lecture 13. Urbane alternatives to the single family house: hotels, apartments, flats. Old-city survivals of living downtown: Apartments, flats, and single-room housing (i.e., residential hotels) as components of traditional mixtures, densities, and employment up to the 1930s. Zoning as an antidote for uncertainty.
Readings for Lecture 13:
Webster Tomlinson, "Apartment House Planning in Chicago," (floor plans) primary source, in reader

Paul Groth, "SF’s Third and Howard Streets: Skid Row and the Limits of Architecture," in reader

Sinclair Lewis, Babbitt (whole novel)—begin reading Babbitt now

Sections, Week 7: Discussion sections will NOT meet during the week of the midterm.
The week after the midterm is a good time to dive into writing the first draft of your research paper. Two pages a day means a full 10-page draft in 5 days. Or, if the weather is good, this is also an ideal time to take the self-guided Oakland field trip.

WEEK EIGHT
Lecture 14. Urban outskirts: Old additions vs. new packaged districts. Curbstoner's additions and "zones of emergence" as 20th century cottage districts; more elitist and centrally-planned additions and suburbs. Conflicts over urban residential expansion.
Lecture 15. Small houses made more socially polite. In response to the new household roles and economic realities, developers hammer out the early forms of small houses for middle-income families; a Jackson-style term for these houses: “technoform.”
Reading:
James Borchert, "Visual Landscapes of a Streetcar Suburb," in reader
Boorstin 31 (streetcar developments)

Gwendolyn Wright, "The Progressive Housewife and the Bungalow,” in reader


Christine Frederick, excerpt from Household Engineering, in reader (primary source)


Sections, Week 8: One-hour field trip of Telegraph Avenue in Berkeley.
Seeing landscape formation processes on site: change over time, different phases of investment in general purpose retail space. How to “read” changing ideas about retail life in the exterior forms, construction materials, and building details of very ordinary stores near campus.
WEEK NINE
Lecture 16. Rediscovery of the road and highway, 1870 to 1930. The road as a machine track for farm wagons to bicycles; the Good Roads movement, and early trucks; in the 1920s, seeds of change in experimental parkways and a notion called "steady flow."
Lecture 17. Farm-service towns and “plugged-in” family farms. The classic farm-service small town, founded in the railroad era and then plugged into rural highways. The 1920s re-sorting of small towns and more urbane farm and small-town life due to postal, auto, and road-building developments. Regional variations of the “wrong side of the tracks.” Meanwhile, by using tractors and dry land farming techniques, farmers transform their farmsteads and fields, and also open up the entire High Plains.
Reading:

Timothy Davis, “Looking Down the Road: J. B. Jackson and the Am. Highway,”


ch 5 in Everyday America
Fritz Malcher, "A Traffic Planner Imagines a City," in reader (diagram primary source)

Boorstin 13-14 (Montgomery Wards, Rural Free Delivery)


J. B. Jackson, "The Almost Perfect Town," in the reader

Sections, Week 9: Writing workshop on revising and rewriting as the crux of good writing.
How to edit your own work, integrate illustrations and text, and get pesky details right so your manuscripts will read and look like those of professional writers.
WEEK TEN
Lecture 18. Regional landscapes of the Depression era. Rural and urban problems in the late 1920s and early 1930s, and to the rescue--FDR's highway and electrification plans, the CCC, TVA, and other regional resource management schemes. Recreation as a public issue, and the traditions of recreation for the masses.
Lecture 19. Recreational and rural landscapes of the New Deal. Restructuring vacation places: making formerly private amenities into public ones. Remaking farms and fields with rural electrification, soil conservation, and resettlement plans; re-building and connecting much of rural America.
Reading:

John Steinbeck, excerpt from “The Harvest Gypsies,” in reader

Phoebe Cutler, "On Recognizing a WPA Rose Garden," in reader

Norman Bel Geddes, "Full Speed through Bottlenecks" from Magic Motorways, in reader



Sections, Week 10: One hour field trip of Shattuck Avenue
For sections this week, meet in the vicinity of the downtown Berkeley BART station at Shattuck and Central. We compare general purpose space with single-use space, some of it visually spectacular such as the 1930s downtown movie theaters and the New Deal building now used as City Hall.

PART THREE: THE TROUBLED TRIUMPH OF SINGLE-USE LANDSCAPES
(1940s TO THE PRESENT)

WEEK ELEVEN
Lecture 20. The urban New Deal and its housing ideas. The parks, play fields, and public buildings. Important home-building experiments and hammering out the fateful rules of the FHA.
Lecture 21. Squeezing and stretching the wartime and post-war center city: 1940 to 1955. “Warspeed” factory construction in large cities; rural-edge factories and speed-up of the use of trucks(and less use of rails) for urban connection. War and postwar migrations—both voluntary and forced--and the baby boom impact an already tight housing supply: The slow start towards the fully-reordered New City, designed and managed by experts.
Readings for Week 11:

Greg Hise, “The Minimal House,” from Magnetic Los Angeles, in reader

Kenneth Jackson, "Federal Subsidy," from Crabgrass Frontier, in reader

D. J. Waldie, Holy Land: A Suburban Memior, all (read for this week and next week)


Sections, Week 11: Works of fiction as clues to landscape meanings
How do fiction writers help us understand individual and social meanings in the environment? In what ways should we be critical of fiction’s use of landscape? Drawing primarily on Sinclair Lewis’s Babbitt, how do cultural landscape elements function as social and cultural indicators in fiction? In what ways does Waldie’s non-fictional Holy Land use fictional devices?
WEEK TWELVE
Lecture 22. Armatures and outreaches for the post-World War II city of realms. Design of the true super highway. Truck culture. Suburban white-collar work in suburban offices and research parks, blue-collar work in factories located at the periphery. Developments that transform the old metropolis form of the urban region into what the geographer James Vance calls the “city of realms.”
Research papers due at the beginning of lecture on Tuesday. Late penalties begin when lecture starts!
Lecture 23. Two recent forms of suburban houses and yards. The “house and yard of extension”: post-WW II wave of suburban houses, to the mid-1970s; the fall of the street and porch and the simultaneous rise of the back yard; the kitchen as laboratory. The “inward-looking house and yard” of 1980s to the present: double-incomes, conspicuous consumption, and extreme isolation; master suites; the kitchen as recreational health spa.
Reading:
Eric Avila, “The Folklore of the Freeway: Space, Culture, and Identity in Postwar L.A.,” in reader

Louise Mozingo, “ . . . Lawn Culture Comes to the Corporation,” ch 15 in Everyday America

Boorstin, pp. 557-558 (mission and momentum); and section 57 (post WWII industrial R&D)

Julie Mathaei, “The Entrance of Homemakers into the Labor Force as Homemakers,” in reader

J. B. Jackson, “The Popular Yard,” in reader
Sections, Week 12: Presentations of student research work
Students present a 2-minute summary of their research essay.
WEEK THIRTEEN
Lecture 24. The apotheosis of stratification: suburban residential districts, 1945 to the present. Refinements of completely packaged and income-stratified suburbs. Designers’ and planners’ attempts (still a tiny proportion of the suburban extent of the U.S.) for alternatives: in the 1970s, planned unit developments; in the 1990s, rediscovery of Zenith’s 1920s suburbs in the New Urbanism of mixed-use, social-neighborhood towns. The social neighborhood vs. the “island house.”
Lecture 25. Suburban shopping and recreation landscapes. Hammering out rules of shopping and recreation for the automobile: the 30‑MPH and 50-MPH highway strips; evolution of the supermarket, shopping centers, and franchise rows.

Reading, Week 13:

James Rojas, “. . .The Streets and Yards of East Los Angeles,” ch 16, Everyday America

W. D. Wetherell, “The Man Who Loved Levittown,” in reader

Dolores Hayden, “Nostalgia and Futurism [on New Urbanism], in reader

David Sloane, “Medicine in the Mini-Mall,” ch 17, Everyday America

Boorstin 48-49 (franchises; supermarkets)


Sections, Week 13: Discussion of 20th Century Oakland, based on the Oakland tour

Compare pre-WW II Oakland to post-WWII Oakland; effects of recent downtown building programs and non-profit housing groups.


WEEK FOURTEEN
Lecture 26. Processes at work in the re-building of downtown, 1955 to the present. Abstraction (alienation) as a common phenomenon associated with the erosion and deposition of new plots, land-uses, and freeways downtown. Urban renewal, and the center city of multinational corporate offices and new-economy startups. Rediscovery of multiple-use settings: beginning clues of a new (old) landscape order?
Lecture 27. Recreation as cosmic conversion: helix sports. Skiing, hang-gliding, and dirt-biking as innovation diffusion, religion, and self-design. Recreation as a possible vector for cultural change.
Reading:

J. B. Jackson, “The Abstract World of the Hot-Rodder,” in reader

Michael Brill, “Problems with Mistaking Community Life for Public Life,” in reader

Boorstin 34 (African-Americans and urban slums), 45 (in search of the spontaneous; sports)

Joan Didion, "Bureaucrats," [the Santa Monica Freeway] The White Album, in the reader
Sections, Week 14: Social orders and landscape orders
Review of Bourdieu’s notions of social structure, and pulling together scattered examples of social class, stratification, and their reinforcement in cultural landscapes. Review of concept of landscape orders, and the class implications of who typically prompts changes in landscape orders.
WEEK FIFTEEN
Lecture 28. Industrial farms. Agribusiness as more than efficient industry: the meaning and significance of totally managed soil, plants, and animals; California's "five-scape."
Lecture 29. Review 1: axioms and processes in retrospect. The processes of cultural landscape development re-considered, and visually reviewed; review of major landscape elements and regions (both urban and western). Further avenues of study, and flagrant recruiting of potential landscape specialists.
Reading:

J. B. Jackson, "An Engineered Environment," in reader

Carol Bly, "Getting Tired," from Letters from the Country, in reader

Walter Goldschmidt, "The Spread of Agribusiness," from As You Sow, in reader

J. B. Jackson, "Preface,” from Discovering the Vernacular Landscape, in reader
Sections, Week 15: How to get an “A” on the final exam.
Quick discussions and comparisons of readings from second half of the course. Exam writing strategies, plus any leftover work from prior weeks.
Lecture 30. Review 2: visual review and readings highlights. Slide interpretation review for the final exam.
Final exam: 8-11 AM Wednesday, May 17, 2006
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NOTES

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About Late Work
We cheerfully accept late papers, but work is graded and returned in the order received. Work is due at the beginning of class—that is, when the lecture formally begins. Work received after the lecture begins is considered late, and receives a reduced grade. The grades of late papers are reduced. The rate of mark-down is one third of a grade (from an A to A-, A- to B+, and so on) for every week. After the deadline, for grading purposes weeks start at the beginning of that week’s section meeting. We can accept no late student work after the beginning of the final exam.
Return of final exams and final grades
If you would like us to MAIL you your final exam and final grade, give us a large self-addressed envelope stamped with the appropriate amount of postage. Your exam will follow you anywhere. For news of your grade alone, give us a stamped postcard.

All other final exams will be posted in the hallway next to the GSI room (334 Wurster) until June 1st. After that date, exams still languishing in the hall will be stored for one year.


About using library reserve readings.
The required course texts (including the Oakland Tour, AC 15), and one copy of this reader are on overnight reserve in the ED Library, 210 Wurster Hall. The library staff has asked us to include the following instructions for locating reserves in the GLADIS online catalog:
1. Look up course name (CO) or instructor name (IN). For this course, you would type F CO ENVD 169B.

2. Gladys should then display the titles on reserve.

3. Identify the appropriate title. Write down the library location and call number. Items listed as "IN PROCESS" are not yet available.

4. To see whether or not an item is checked out, SELECT THE TITLE by typing the line number.

5. Bring the call number (e.g., NA112 G71 no 5, or FC182) to the Circulation Desk. The library staff will check the book out to you for the specified time period. Note: There is a limit of 2 reserve items per person at a time.

Type HELP COURSE (CO) or HELP INSTRUCTOR (IN) for more specific instructions. Type HELP ABBREVIATIONS for a list of official course abbreviations.

______________________________________________________________________________
CONTENTS: READER AND COURSE GUIDE

______________________________________________________________________________


Contents 3

Course Description, Outline, and Syllabus 5

Guide to Xeroxed Readings (and full citations for them) 17
Part 1: Introductions and the American West
1. J. B. Jackson, “The Vernacular City,” from Landscape in Sight 26

2. Joan Didion, "Notes from a Native Daughter" 32

3. Andrew Phillips, “The Shape of America’s Population,” [reference cartograms] 41

4. Wilbur Zelinsky, “Structure,” from Cultural Geography of the U.S. 44

5. James Buckley, “A Factory without a Roof: Company Towns in the Redwood Region” 61

6. Patricia Limerick, “Disorientation and Reorientation . . .” 79

7. Sarah Deutsch, “Landscape of Enclaves: Race Relations in the West, 1865-1990” 94

8. Garry Stevens, “The Sociological Toolkit of Pierre Bourdieu” 104

9. Albert Eide Paar, "Heating, Lighting, Plumbing, and Human Relations" 122

10. Chris Wilson, “When a Room Is the Hall” 124


Part 2: Spatial Reorderings of the Progressive Era and New Deal (1890s to 1930s)
11. Spiro Kostof, excerpt from “The American Workplace,” America by Design 140

12. John Schaar, "America the Homogenous" 150

13. Malcolm Gladwell, “Case Study: Rumors, Sneakers, and the Power of Translation” 155

14. Webster Tomlinson, "Apartment House Planning in Chicago" 168

15. Paul Groth, “SF’s Third and Howard Streets: Skid Row & the Limits of Architecture” 172

16. James Borchert, “Visual Landscapes of a Streetcar Suburb” 184

17. Gwendolyn Wright, “The Progressive Housewife and the Bungalow” 197

18. Christine Frederick, excerpt from Household Engineering 209

19. Fritz Malcher, "A Traffic Planner Imagines a City" (urban traffic diagram) 235

20. J. B. Jackson, “The Almost Perfect Town” 237

21. John Steinbeck, excerpt from “The Harvest Gypsies” 244

22. Phoebe Cutler, "On Recognizing a WPA Rose Garden" 246

23. Norman Bel Geddes, "Full Speed through Bottlenecks," from Magic Motorways 253

24. Greg Hise, “The Minimal House,” from Magnetic Los Angeles 270

25. Kenneth Jackson, "Federal Subsidy," from Crabgrass Frontier 288
Part 3: The Troubled Triumph of Single-Use Landscapes (1940s to the Present)
26. Eric Avila, “The Folklore of the Freeway: Space, Culture, and Identity in L.A.” 303

27. Julie Mathaei, “The Entrance of Homemakers into the Labor Force as Homemakers” 320

28. J. B. Jackson, “The Popular Yard” 333

29. W. D. Wetherell, “The Man Who Loved Levittown” 340

30. Dolores Hayden, “Nostalgia and Futurism” [on New Urbanism] 351

31. Michael Brill, “Problems with Mistaking Community Life for Public Life” 369

32. J. B. Jackson, “The Abstract World of the Hot-Rodder” 377

33. Joan Didion, “Bureaucrats” [the Santa Monica Freeway], from The White Album 383

34. J. B. Jackson, “An Engineered Environment” 387

35. Carol Bly, "Getting Tired," from Letters from the Country 392

36. Walter Goldschmidt, "The Spread of Agribusiness," from As You Sow 395

37. J. B. Jackson, "Preface," from Discovering the Vernacular Landscape 405



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