Am I stoned?



Download 238.52 Kb.
Page25/31
Date04.05.2017
Size238.52 Kb.
1   ...   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   ...   31

Geographic Ignorance

  • Percent of US teens unable to locate the following on a map:
    • United States – 11%
    • Pacific Ocean – 29%
    • Japan – 58%
    • United Kingdom – 68%

Pseudoscientific Beliefs

  • Percentage of Americans who believe “at least to some degree” in these “phenomena”
  • 1997 1976
  • Astrology (35%, 2014) 37% 17%
  • UFOs 30% 24%
  • Reincarnation 25% 9%
  • Fortune-Telling 14% 4%

Ignorance/Pseudoscientific Beliefs

  • Half of US citizens do not believe in evolution and do believe that humans and dinosaurs coexisted (2007); 35% (2014)
    • 40% think scientists still generally disagree about evolution
    • Only 12% of U.S. Protestant pastors believe in evolution
    • 20% of high school biology teachers are creationists

Pseudoscientific Beliefs

  • 40% - 70% believe in global warming
  • 54% believe places can be haunted (2014)
  • 25% believe in UFOs (2007)
  • 24% believe in reincarnation (2014)
  • 24% believe in astrology (2009)

Ignorance/Pseudoscientific Beliefs

  • 16% believe that people with the “evil eye” can cast curses or harmful spells
  • 22% of Americans don’t know whether an atomic bomb has ever been dropped (2000)
  • 25% of Americans don’t know the earth revolves around the sun (2014)

Ignorance/Pseudoscientific Beliefs

  • Some states require instructors to teach “creation science,” “intelligent design,” and “climate change skepticism”
  • Americans rank last overall in environmental attitudes and habits (survey of 20 developed countries, 2014)
    • Those who are less green feel less guilt

Ignorance/Pseudoscientific Beliefs

  • 18% believe in Bigfoot and the Loch Ness Monster (2007)
  • 8% of men / 18% of women believe in astrology and fortune tellers (2007)
    • 14% have consulted a psychic or fortune teller (2009)
  • Widespread misconceptions regarding vaccine efficacy and safety and antibiotic use/resistance

Ignorance/Pseudoscientific Beliefs

  • Anti-vaccination
    • Puts unvaccinated child and general public at risk
    • Promoted by “celebrity” and former Playboy Playmate Jenny McCarthy (“The University of Google is where I got my degree from”)
    • MS mandates vaccination (and has lowest rate of vaccine-preventable diseases); others considering
    • Childhood vaccinations prevented more than 100 million cases of serious disease between 1924 and 2012, with very rare adverse effects
      • 53% of Americans think vaccines are safe and effective (2014)

Greenwash

  • Public relations / ad campaigns -Chevron’s “People Do” Campaign, butterflies/refinery -BP invests $100 million annually in clean energy = amt. it spends annually to market its new name and environmentally-friendly image of moving “Beyond Petroleum”
  • -Dupont Freon Campaign in 1970’s -Grants to a few scientists who challenge environmental warnings -tobacco ads in 1950’s
  • Bluewash: association with UN principles/logo

Astroturf

  • Artificially-created grassroots coalitions
    • Utilize specially tailored mailing lists, field officers, telephone banks, fax machines, intense lobbying
    • May be one or two individuals, or run by a PR firm, or have “volunteer” employee members

Corporate Front Groups

  • The American Council on Science and Health
  • The Alliance for Responsible CFC Policy
  • The Oregon Lands Coalition
  • National Wilderness Institute
  • The Environmental Conservation Organization
  • The Foundation for Clean Air Progress
  • Council for Biotechnology Information
  • Cornell Alliance for Science
  • Similar semantics for new laws/congressional bills

Corporate PR Tactics

  • Advertising
    • “The art of convincing people to spend money they don't have for something they don't need.“ (Will Rogers)
  • Astroturf - artificially-created grassroots coalitions
  • Corporate front groups
  • Invoke poor people as beneficiaries

Corporate PR tactics

  • Characterize opposition as “technophobic,” anti-science,” and “against progress”
  • Portray their products as environmentally beneficial despite evidence to the contrary
  • Corporate espionage: spying, bribes
    • Bribery of foreign officials illegal under Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

Public Relations

  • $200 billion industry
  • PR flacks now outnumber journalists
    • 40% fewer journalists than just a decade ago
  • “Fake news” epidemic; gaslighting

Sponsored Environmental Educational Materials

  • Corporate-sponsored and supported by a loose coalition of antiregulatory zealots, corporate polluters, lapdog scientists and misguided parents

Sponsored Environmental Education Materials (Examples)

  • Exxon’s “Energy Cube”
  • -“Gasoline is simply solar power hidden in decayed matter”
  • -“Offshore drilling creates reefs for fish”
  • - Exxon deliberately hid data showing fossil fuels can contribute to devastating climate change since the 1970s, instead spread disinformation

Sponsored Environmental Education Materials (Examples)

  • International Paper
  • -“Clearcutting promotes growth of trees that require full sunlight and allows efficient site preparation for the next crop”
  • American Coal Foundation 4th grade lesson packet (published by Scholastic) entitled “The United States of Energy)
    • Omits mention of toxic waste, mountaintop removal, and greenhouse gasses


Download 238.52 Kb.

Share with your friends:
1   ...   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   ...   31




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2020
send message

    Main page