Am I stoned?



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HIV/AIDS

  • 2008: 33 million infected
  • 2007: 2 million deaths
  • Sub-Saharan Africa hardest hit
  • Only 20% of HIV+ individuals in low and middle-income countries know they are infected
  • Less than 1/3 of those needing therapy receive any medication

HIV Prevalence

Malaria Deaths

Species Loss

  • Earth contains an estimated 5 to 100 million species
    • Best estimate 8.7 million +/- 1.3 million
      • 6.5 million on land (est. 86% not yet discovered)
      • 2.2 million in water (est. 91% not yet discovered)

Species Loss

  • Only 1.8 million have been identified
  • Background rate of extinction = 0.1 species/yr
  • Current rate of extinction = 100-1,000 species/year, highest estimates = 4 species/hour
    • Mass die-offs common but increased now

Species Loss

  • 50,000 vertebrates
    • 7,100 of 10,000 bird species threatened with extinction (25 million killed illegally each year in the Mediterranean alone)
    • Vultures dramatically declining, in part due to use of diclofenac 9now banned in India) – increases risk of human infectious diseases, including rabies

Species Loss

    • 50,000 vertebrates:
      • 1/4 of 4,400 mammalian species
      • 70% decline in wild chimpanzees over last 30 years
      • 1/2 of 232 primate species (including man?)
      • Bush meat trade contributing
      • 1/3 of 24,000 fish species
      • 30-50% of 10,300 reptile and amphibian species (may be higher, limited assessment)

Species Loss

  • Vital invertebrates have declined by 45% since 1980
  • 20% of all invertebrates at risk of extinction
  • 1/5 of world’s plant species, and almost ¾ of flowering plants, at risk of extinction

Species Loss

  • 50% decline in number of wild animals over last 40 years
  • Precipitous decline of alpha predators (apex consumers) will have enormous repercussions for ecosystems/other species
    • 90% already extinct

Species Loss

  • Dilution Effect Hypothesis:
    • Biodiversity loss increases number and types of parasites and herbivore pests, thus disrupting the production of natural ecosystems and causing increases in human, wildlife, and plant diseases

Species Loss

  • 6000-8000 Orangutans left in Borneo
  • 3500 wild tigers worldwide
    • 5,000 – 10,000 in captivity in U.S. (only 350 in accredited zoos)
      • 110 killed per year
  • 720 wild gorillas
  • 30-50 Florida Panthers
  • 1 Pacific Manzanita Plant

Species Loss

  • 2,100 animals on ES list today – many more at risk
    • 73% of plants and animals that have gone extinct since 1973 were not listed
  • 49% decline in marine vertebrate populations between 1970 and 2012 (WWF)

Species Loss

  • Yangtze River dolphins extinct as of 2007
  • Polar bears, Adelie penguins at risk of extinction due to global warming
  • Bees and bats imperiled

Causes of Species Loss

  • Habitat loss (logging, overpopulation, etc.) - #1 cause now
  • Global warming – est. #2 cause by 2050
  • Overhunting
  • Chemical pollution of environment

Causes of Species Loss

  • Exotic species invasions (e.g. rabbits/Australia; role of ballast water, link of shipping with GDP):
    • Cost = $1.4 trillion/yr (5% of global economy); $130 billion/yr in US
    • Ballast Water Convention (few signatories to date)

Causes of Species Loss

  • Rise of fungi and fungus-like pathogens (oomycetes)
    • Account for 65% of pathogen-driven species loss

Causes of Species Loss

  • HUMANS

Species Loss

  • Norwegian government built artificial cave in frozen mountain at edge of Arctic Circle (Svalbard) to preserve 2 million varieties of seeds from ???
  • Global Genome Initiative – 200,000 DNA samples and counting
  • De-extinction
  • Pleistocene Re-wilding

Extinction: Lost Pharmacopoeia

  • Drugs from plants and native peoples’ health knowledge -More than 1/2 of the top 150 prescription drugs contain an active compound derived from or patterned after natural products -e.g. aspirin, acyclovir, lovastatin, digoxin, vincristine, etoposide, captopril, cyclosporine, sirolimus, vancomycin, paralytic agents, warfarin, etc.
  • Of the more than 250,000 known flowering species, <0.5% have been surveyed for medicinal value

A Cure for Cancer?

The Black Market in Endangered Animals

  • $20 billion market -equal to smuggled arms market -less than contraband drug market ($30 Billion)
  • -criminal syndicates involved, profits fund terrorist and other extremist groups

The Black Market in Endangered Animals

  • Laws poorly enforced
  • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)
    • Until recently, allowed more than 100 million individuals of rare species to be bought and sold each year, but strengthened in 2016
  • WildLeaks (Wikileaks for wildlife) to help identify perpetrators

The Black Market in Endangered Animals

  • 100 million sharks killed per year (many for shark fin soup)
  • Tigers killed for tiger penis/fur, or sold to wealthy as pets
  • 30,000 African elephants slaughtered annually for ivory (for Asian medicine and religious icons)
    • Helps fund terrorism
    • Population down 73% over last 40 y
  • Rhinos slaughtered for horns (Asian medicine)
    • Population down 95% over last 40 y


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