Agenda Questions? Assignment 5 Corrected



Download 29.5 Kb.
Date07.01.2017
Size29.5 Kb.
#7680

ELC 200 Day 17

  • Copyright, Tony Gauvin, UMFK, 2011

Agenda

  • Questions?
  • Assignment 5 Corrected
    • 5 A’s, 3 B’s, 3 C’s and 3 non-submits
  • Assignment 6 Due
  • Assignment 7 posted (one more)
    • Due April 15
    • ELC 200 assignment 7.pdf
  • Quiz 2
    • April 11 (changed)
    • Chaps 6-8
    • 20 M/C 4 Short essay,
  • There will be an optional assignment 9, replaces lowest assignment grade.
  • Discussion on Ethical, Social and Political Issues in E-commerce

Possible Bonus Points Questions

  • Name and origin of 
    • What does his name mean?
    • What does he look like all
    • “grown up”?
  • Origin of the word SPAM for email
    • First SPAM
    • First email SPAM
  • Slide 1-
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 8

  • Ethical, Social, and Political Issues in E-commerce

Learning objectives

  • Explain why e-commerce raises ethical, social, and political issues.
  • Identify the main ethical, social, and political issues raised by e-commerce.
  • Identify a process for analyzing ethical dilemmas.
  • Explain basic concepts related to privacy.
  • Identify the practices of e-commerce companies that threaten privacy.
  • Describe the different methods used to protect online privacy.
  • Explain the various forms of intellectual property and the challenges involved in protecting it.
  • Explain how the governance of the Internet has evolved over time.
  • Explain why taxation of e-commerce raises governance and jurisdiction issues.
  • Identify major public safety and welfare issues raised by e-commerce.

Second Life

  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Discovering Law and Ethics in a Virtual World

  • Why is “mischief” in virtual worlds more difficult to stop? What constitutes mischief in Second Life?
  • Which behaviors have been banned in Second Life?
  • Is there a consensus regarding whether or not in-game gambling and other virtual crimes are also actual crimes? What is Second Life’s stance?
  • How faithfully do you believe the law should be enforced in virtual worlds?
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Understanding Ethical, Social, and Political Issues in E-commerce

  • Internet, like other technologies, can:
    • Enable new crimes
    • Affect environment
    • Threaten social values
  • Costs and benefits must be carefully considered, especially when there are no clear-cut legal or cultural guidelines
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

A Model for Organizing the Issues

  • Issues raised by Internet and e-commerce can be viewed at individual, social, and political levels
  • Four major categories of issues:
    • Information rights
    • Property rights
    • Governance
    • Public safety and welfare
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

The Moral Dimensions of an Internet Society

  • Figure 8.1, Page 500
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Basic Ethical Concepts

  • Ethics
    • Study of principles used to determine right and wrong courses of action
  • Responsibility
  • Accountability
  • Liability
    • Laws permitting individuals to recover damages
  • Due process
    • Laws are known, understood
    • Ability to appeal to higher authorities to ensure laws applied correctly
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Analyzing Ethical Dilemmas

  • Process for analyzing ethical dilemmas:
    • Identify and clearly describe the facts
    • Define the conflict or dilemma and identify the higher-order values involved
    • Identify the stakeholders
    • Identify the options that you can reasonably take
    • Identify the potential consequences of your options
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Candidate Ethical Principles

  • Golden Rule
  • Universalism
  • Slippery Slope
  • Collective Utilitarian Principle
  • Risk Aversion
  • No Free Lunch
  • The New York Times Test
  • The Social Contract Rule
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Privacy and Information Rights

  • Privacy
    • Moral right of individuals to be left alone, free from surveillance, or interference from other individuals or organizations
  • Information privacy
    • Subset of privacy
    • Includes:
      • The claim that certain information should not be collected at all
      • The claim of individuals to control the use of whatever information is collected about them
  • Maine’s Debate on Information Privacy
    • http://www.pressherald.com/news/Bangor-newspaper-seeks-names-of-concealed-carry-permit-holders.html?pagenum=full
    • Maine FOAA vs Individual Privacy rights
    • Maine passed emergency bill to black access to information
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Privacy and Information Rights (cont.)

  • Major ethical issue related to e-commerce and privacy:
    • Under what conditions should (can?) we invade the privacy of others?
  • Major social issue:
    • Development of “expectations of privacy” and privacy norms
  • Major political issue:
    • Development of statutes that govern relations between recordkeepers and individuals
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Information Collected at E-commerce Sites

  • Data collected includes
    • Personally identifiable information (PII)
    • Anonymous information
  • Types of data collected
    • Name, address, phone, e-mail, social security
    • Bank and credit accounts, gender, age, occupation, education
    • Preference data, transaction data, clickstream data, browser type
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Social Networks and Privacy

  • Social networks
    • Encourage sharing personal details
    • Pose unique challenge to maintaining privacy
  • Facebook’s facial recognition technology and Photo tagging
  • Personal control over personal information vs. organization’s desire to monetize social network
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Profiling and Behavioral Targeting

  • Profiling
    • Creation of digital images that characterize online individual and group behavior
    • Anonymous profiles
    • Personal profiles
  • Advertising networks
    • Track consumer and browsing behavior on Web
    • Dynamically adjust what user sees on screen
    • Build and refresh profiles of consumers
  • Google’s AdWords program
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Profiling and Behavioral Targeting (cont.)

  • Deep packet inspection
  • Business perspective:
  • Critics’ perspective:
    • Undermines expectation of anonymity and privacy
    • Consumers show significant opposition to unregulated collection of personal information
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

The Internet and Government Invasions of Privacy

  • Various laws strengthen ability of law enforcement agencies to monitor Internet users without knowledge and sometimes without judicial oversight
    • CALEA, USA PATRIOT Act, Cyber Security Enhancement Act, Homeland Security Act
  • Government agencies are largest users of private sector commercial data brokers
  • Retention by ISPs of user data a concern
    • https://www.eff.org/de/issues/mandatory-data-retention
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Legal Protections

  • In United States, privacy rights explicitly granted or derived from:
    • Constitution
      • First Amendment—freedom of speech and association
      • Fourth Amendment—unreasonable search and seizure
      • Fourteenth Amendment—due process
    • Specific statutes and regulations (federal and state)
      • http://www.mainelegislature.org/legis/statutes/17-a/title17-asec511.html
      • http://www.mainelegislature.org/legis/statutes/35-A/title35-Asec7101-A.html
    • Common law
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Informed Consent

  • U.S. firms can gather and redistribute transaction information without individual’s informed consent
    • Illegal in Europe
  • Informed consent:
    • Opt-in
    • Opt-out
    • Many U.S. e-commerce firms merely publish information practices as part of privacy policy without providing for any form of informed consent
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

The FTC’s Fair Information Practices Principles

  • Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • U.S. Federal Trade Commission:
    • Conducts research and recommends legislation to Congress
    • http://www.ftc.gov/privacy/
    • http://www.consumer.ftc.gov/
  • FTC Fair Information Practice Principles (1998):
    • Notice/Awareness (Core)
    • Choice/Consent (Core)
    • Access/Participation
    • Security
    • Enforcement
  • Guidelines, not laws
  • Slide 8-

FTC’s Fair Information Practice Principles

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-
  • Notice/Awareness
  • Sites must disclose information practices before collecting data. Includes identification of collector, uses of data, other recipients of data, nature of collection (active/inactive), voluntary or required, consequences of refusal, and steps taken to protect confidentiality, integrity, and quality of the data
  • Choice/Consent
  • There must be a choice regime in place allowing consumers to choose how their information will be used for secondary purposes other than supporting the transaction, including internal use and transfer to third parties. Opt-in/Opt-out must be available.
  • Access/Participation
  • Consumers should be able to review and contest the accuracy and completeness of data collected about them in a timely, inexpensive process.
  • Security
  • Data collectors must take reasonable steps to assure that consumer information is accurate and secure from unauthorized use.
  • Enforcement
  • There must be in place a mechanism to enforce FIP
  • principles. This can involve self-regulation, legislation giving consumers legal remedies for violations, or federal statutes and regulation.
  • See Table 8.5, page 516

FTC Recommendations: Online Profiling

  • Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Principle
  • Recommendation
  • Notice
  • Complete transparency to user by providing disclosure and choice options on the host Web site. “Robust” notice for PII (time/place of collection; before collection begins). Clear and conspicuous notice for non-PII.
  • Choice
  • Opt-in for PII, opt-out for non-PII. No conversion of non-PII to PII without consent. Opt-out from any or all network advertisers from a single page provided by the host Web site.
  • Access
  • Reasonable provisions to allow inspection and correction.
  • Security
  • Reasonable efforts to secure information from loss, misuse, or improper access.
  • Enforcement
  • Done by independent third parties, such as seal programs and accounting firms.
  • Restricted Collection
  • Advertising networks will not collect information about sensitive financial or medical topics, sexual behavior or sexual orientation, or use Social Security numbers for profiling.
  • Slide 8-
  • See Table 8.6, page 517

The FTC’s Evolving Privacy Approach

  • New privacy framework (2010)
    • Privacy by design
    • Simplified choice
    • Greater transparency
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-
    • http://ftc.gov/opa/2012/03/privacyframework.shtm

The European Data Protection Directive

  • Privacy protection much stronger in Europe than United States
  • European approach:
    • Comprehensive and regulatory in nature
  • European Commission’s Directive on Data Protection (1998):
    • Standardizes and broadens privacy protection in European Union countries
  • Department of Commerce safe harbor program:
    • For U.S. firms that wish to comply with directive
    • http://export.gov/safeharbor/
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Private Industry Self-Regulation

  • Safe harbor programs:
    • Private policy mechanism to meet objectives of government regulations without government involvement
    • e.g., Privacy seal programs
    • TRUSTe
  • Industry associations include:
    • Online Privacy Alliance (OPA)
    • Network Advertising Initiative (NAI)
      • CLEAR Ad Notice Technical Specifications
  • Privacy advocacy groups
  • Emerging privacy protection business
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Chief Privacy Officers

  • What does a Chief Privacy Officer do?
  • Why do corporations need a CPO?
  • What is a “privacy audit”?
  • Why did ChoicePoint hire a CPO?
    • http://epic.org/privacy/choicepoint/
  • How do federal laws like Graham-Leach Bliley and HIPPA influence corporate privacy practices?
  • What is a “legalistic” approach to privacy as opposed to a “pro-consumer” approach?
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

The Privacy Tug of War: Advertisers vs. Consumers

  • What are some of the technologies being used to invade privacy?
  • What are some of the technologies being used to protect privacy?
  • Do you accept the tradeoff between privacy invasion and “free” Web content?
  • Is a browser’s “Do Not Track” feature a viable solution?
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Intellectual Property Rights

  • Intellectual property:
    • Encompasses all tangible and intangible products of human mind
  • Major ethical issue:
    • How should we treat property that belongs to others?
  • Major social issue:
    • Is there continued value in protecting intellectual property in the Internet age?
  • Major political issue:
    • How can Internet and e-commerce be regulated or governed to protect intellectual property?
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Intellectual Property Protection

  • Three main types of protection:
    • Copyright
    • Patent
    • Trademark law
  • Goal of intellectual property law:
    • Balance two competing interests—public and private
  • Maintaining this balance of interests is always challenged by the invention of new technologies
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Copyright

  • Protects original forms of expression (but not ideas) from being copied by others for a period of time
    • http://www.copyright.gov/
    • Individual  life + 70 years
    • Corporate  95 years
  • “Look and feel” copyright infringement lawsuits
  • Fair use doctrine
  • Digital Millennium Copyright Act, 1998
    • First major effort to adjust copyright laws to Internet age
    • Implements WIPO treaty that makes it illegal to make, distribute, or use devices that circumvent technology-based protections of copyrighted materials
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Patents

  • Grant owner 20-year monopoly on ideas behind an invention
    • Machines
    • Man-made products
    • Compositions of matter
    • Processing methods
    • http://www.uspto.gov/
  • Invention must be new, non-obvious, novel
  • Encourages inventors
  • Promotes dissemination of new techniques through licensing
  • Stifles competition by raising barriers to entry
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

E-commerce Patents

  • 1998 State Street Bank & Trust vs. Signature Financial Group
    • Business method patents
  • Most European patent laws do not recognize business methods unless based on technology
  • Patent reform
    • Patent trolls
    • 2011 Leahy-Smith America Invents Acts
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Internet and E-commerce Business Method Patents

  • Figure 8.2, Page 538
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • SOURCE: Based on data from United States Patent and Trademark Office, 2010.
  • Slide 8-

Trademarks

  • Identify, distinguish goods, and indicate their source
    • http://www.uspto.gov/trademarks/
  • Purpose
    • Ensure consumer gets what is paid for/expected to receive
    • Protect owner against piracy and misappropriation
  • Infringement
    • Market confusion
    • Bad faith
  • Dilution
    • Behavior that weakens connection between trademark and product
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Trademarks and the Internet

  • Cybersquatting
    • Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act (ACPA)
  • Cyberpiracy
    • Typosquatting
  • Metatagging
  • Keywording
  • Deep linking
  • Framing
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Governance

  • Primary questions
    • Who will control Internet and e-commerce?
    • What elements will be controlled and how?
  • Stages of governance and e-commerce
    • Government Control Period (1970–1994)
    • Privatization (1995–1998)
    • Self-Regulation (1995–present)
    • Government Regulation (1998–present)
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Who Governs E-commerce and the Internet?

  • Mixed mode environment
    • Self-regulation, through variety of Internet policy and technical bodies, co-exists with limited government regulation
  • ICANN : Domain Name System
  • Internet could be easily controlled, monitored, and regulated from a central location
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Taxation

  • E-commerce taxation illustrates complexity of governance and jurisdiction issues
  • U.S. sales taxed by states and local government
  • MOTO retailing
  • E-commerce benefits from tax “subsidy”
  • October 2007: Congress extends tax moratorium for an additional seven years
  • Unlikely that comprehensive, integrated rational approach to taxation issue will be determined for some time to come
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Net Neutrality

  • Neutrality: All Internet traffic treated equally—all activities charged the same rate, no preferential assignment of bandwidth
  • Backbone providers vs. content providers
  • December 2010 FCC approved “compromise” net neutrality rules
  • Telecom providers adopting compromise position between wired and mobile wireless access
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-

Public Safety and Welfare

  • Protection of children and strong sentiments against pornography
    • Passing legislation that will survive court challenges has proved difficult
  • Efforts to control gambling and restrict sales of drugs and cigarettes
    • Currently, mostly regulated by state law
    • Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-
  • Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Slide 8-


Download 29.5 Kb.

Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2022
send message

    Main page