African and african american studies


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Kashi Nath Tiwari,

KNT’s Academic Financial Research

Chris Erickson,

New Mexico State University

Ram N. Acharya,

New Mexico State University
Alex Bernal,

New Mexico State University

"Impact of Natural Amenities, Food Environment, and Income Inequality on Diabetes”
Diabetes has evolved into a major public health concern in the US. It is the leading cause of blindness, non-traumatic lower-limb amputation, and kidney failure. Also, two-thirds of people with diabetes will die from cardiovascular disease or stroke. In 2011, diabetes affected 25.8 million people, and additional 79 million had pre-diabetes. The total estimated cost of diagnosed diabetes in 2007 was $174 billion (CDC, 2011).

Recent studies show that access to natural amenities as well as the food environment plays crucial role in determining obesity (Feng et al., 2010; Chi et al., 2013). We aim to expand this literature by evaluating the impact of environmental, as well as socio-economic risk factors on the prevalence of diabetes in the U.S. The preliminary results, show that while access to natural amenities, supercenters and club store, recreational and fitness activities helps in reducing the incidence of diabetes. On the other hand, factors such as food insecurity, poverty, and income inequality increase the prevalence of diabetes.

David Aske,

University of Northern Colorado

“Organizing the Religious Marketplace"
The economic approach to examining the changing religious landscape in the United States involves viewing religion as a product. Like any product, the religious product has consumers and producers and increasingly the decision to buy and sell religion is taking on the characteristics of a marketplace. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) is the standard system of organizing the production side of markets used by economists. NAICS classifies each production establishment based on their primary economic activity.

This study uses an approach similar to NAICS for organizing religious establishments. The production of the religious product occurs at the congregation, or what most people refer to as their “church”. At the sector level, religious congregations are classified by major religion (Christianity, Muslim, Judaism…). At the Industry level (for Christianity) congregations are classified by religious tradition (evangelical, mainline protestant, catholic…). For this analysis the firm, the decision making unit, is the religious body. The religious body is a formal identifiable association or affiliation of congregations. Congregations that are associated with a religious body share similar beliefs, doctrine and administrative structure. This paper will discuss the methodology of classifying congregations and present a case study of the religious market in Greeley, Colorado.

Dale S. Bremmer,

Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Dr. Randall Kesselring,

Arkansas State University

"Female Labor Supply and the Social Security Earnings Test by Marital Status, Ethnicity and Race"
Since its inception in 1935, social security benefits have been subject to an “earnings test,” depending on age and congressional preferences benefits of social security recipients have been reduced if they earned too much income. Though the particulars of the law have changed over time, the earnings test taxes labor income and possibly reduces the incentive to work. This paper’s objective is to determine how a major policy change in 2000 affected the labor supply of married and single women over the age of sixty of different races and ethnicities. If spouses’ wages are no longer taxed after reaching Social Security’s defined NRA (normal retirement age), household income increases. This will undoubtedly affect the labor force participation decision of married females. On the other hand, if the income of single women is no longer taxed after reaching normal retirement age, their labor force participation decision may be quite different. This paper uses an econometric technique known as the difference-in-differences. This popular technique quantifies the effect of a policy change on economic behavior. The data consist of monthly observations from the Current Population Survey. Explanatory variables include marital status, race, ethnicity and years of education. Previous work which has concentrated on the effect of the earnings test on male labor supply has generated mixed results. The emphasis on female labor supply is one of this paper’s contributions. Also previous studies on the effects of the policy change in 2000 used a very limited number observations after the regime change. This study uses more observations after the regime change, adding to the paper’s overall contribution to the literature.

Timothy Clark,

UMKC Economics
“In Lieu of a Theory of Value"
This paper explores the concept of economic valuation via a bifurcation into its subjective and objective elements beginning with Adam Smith's often paradoxical and seemingly contradictory discussion of value in The Wealth of Nations. I will argue this common interpretation of Adam Smith's theory of value as contradictory and paradoxical relies on a misunderstanding of the philosophy of language. Moreover, this analysis using John Dewey's “Theory of Valuation” seeks to clarify the conceptual analysis of valuation, and purports a general philosophical approach to economic valuation.

Ziya Cologlu,

University of Texas at Dallas
“Price Dynamics in Asian and European LNG Markets"
In this paper we investigate the structure of pricing mechanism in LNG (liquefied natural gas) markets both in the high and low oil price environments. Despite numerous reports and articles explain LNG industry, only a few academic papers focus on the dynamics behind the price mechanism. Given the fact that the long term contracts come along with take-or-pay obligation, an interesting question is why contract prices remain higher than spot prices for long periods of time. We describe these transactions in LNG markets from the perspective of Williamson’s (1985) asset specificity theory and analyze the dynamics behind contract and spot prices in European and Asian markets. We conduct Granger Causality Test and apply Error Correction Model to evaluate the short- and long-term relationships between spot and contract prices in LNG markets. The test results indicate that while the spot and contract prices do not Granger cause each other in Europe, contract prices do Granger cause spot prices, and oil prices Granger cause both spot and contract prices in Asia. Error Correction mechanism that is constructed with the inclusion of all related determinants also draw interesting conclusions about the impacts of short and long run causality particularly in European markets.

Rhonda R. Corman,

General Economics
David Aske,

University of Northern Colorado

“Developing an Operational Placement Model of Institutions"
Throughout history institutions have been an integral component of societal development, whether they be governmental, political, fraternal, or religious. The question inspiring this research is if that influential impact varied over time. Recent developments indicate that certain institutional bodies have experienced significant gains in power and influence that is leading to stark societal disruption. Reasons may be attributed to social media which allows for the message of such institutions to more rapidly disperse and be “louder”; or perhaps it can be related to a change in strategy, allowing their messages to “speak” to the people in ways that illicit greater response. In order to address these questions, the authors have worked to first understand the differentiation in motives, intent, purpose, and goals of varying institutions and develop an institutional placement grid by integrating components of place-building theory, systems theory, and game theory. This presentation will focus on the methodologies employed in grid development, explanation of the operational placement model, and a discussion of some inference to patterns of institutional interaction."

Karl R. Geisler,

New Mexico State University
“Dichotomy of Recovery: Nevada Tourism and the Great Recession"
Following the Great Recession, tourism to Southern Nevada has rebounded while tourism to Northern Nevada has stagnated. Using tourism data from the Nevada Commission on Tourism, the difference in the recovery of the Las Vegas area of Southern Nevada is compared to that of Washoe County (Reno) in Northern Nevada. These changes are put into context using economic theory, including the growing body of economics literature dealing with commercial gaming. The future potential for each industry is then discussed in the larger context of Nevada’s state economy.

Eric Gibbons,

University of Nevada, Reno
"Occupational Substitutability"
Occupational mobility reflects how able workers are in reallocating their skills across different sets of technologies. This paper explores how technological differences across occupations affect workers’ occupation choices and how technological change has contributed to occupational mobility. Using tasks to measure technological distance between occupations well explains occupation choices of workers. In general, workers experience higher costs in the reallocation of skills to occupations that are more technologically intensive in a given task measure. Workers employed in technologically isolated occupations are least sensitive to technological change. Additional, the paper will explore how task specific technological change determines occupational transitions. Technological change within specific tasks has a heterogeneous effect on occupation transitions.

Thomas Harris,

University of Nevada, Reno
Jeffery Stroup,

University of Nevada, Reno

"Use of Multi-Regional Interindustry Model to Target Industrial Gaps and Disconnects for Economic Development: A Sierra Pacific Megapolitan Area Example"
In studying regional economic development, the U.S. Census has developed classification schemes to provide a hierarchy class of the nation’s counties. Metropolitan areas are often used to classify urban areas of economic trade and development. However, recognizing community patterned trade between metropolitan counties, a new classification has been developed by Virginia Tech geographers called “Megapolitan Areas.” These Megapolitan Areas are forecasted to be places of future national economic growth and development. Megapolitan Areas are expected to add at least 83 million people (the current population of Germany) by 2040, accounting for seven in every ten new Americans. By 2040, a projected $33.0 trillion will be spent on Megapolitan building construction. This figure represents over three quarters of all the capital that will be expended nationally on private real estate development. Megapolitan Areas are a growing force in globalization and drive the integration of continental economies into the increasing integrated world economy. The Sierra Pacific Megapolitan Region includes parts of two states, which are California and Nevada. The Sierra Pacific Megapolitan Region contains twenty-one (21) counties in California.

Jack W. Hou,

California State University, Long Beach
“Causal Mechanisms in the Intergenerational Transmission of Income in China"
Intergenerational income elasticity (IIE) is often used to measure intergenerational income mobility, but it tell us little regarding the determinants behind the intergenerational income correlation. Accurate understanding of the intergenerational transmission of income is important for policies aimed at improving social equality. In this paper, we use current income data from the 2010 China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), studying the causal effect of father’s income and human capital on the intergenerational transmission of income between fathers and sons. We find that the majority of the intergenerational income elasticity can be attributed to the causal effect of father’s financial resources. Moreover, we provide a lower bound of the elasticity, which is 0.339, with the true value is estimated to be closer to 0.6. The result suggests that public policies aim at narrowing current income gap will have a long lasting effect as it is conducive to increasing intergenerational income mobility in China.

Malieka Landis,

University of Nevada, Reno
“Area Sector Analysis Process: Ranking the Intersection of Community Goals and Industry Needs"
The Area Sector Analysis Process (ASAP) is a process and modeling tool used to assist communities in obtaining sustainable economic development. The process is based on the concept that sustainable community development strategies should reflect the preferences of both community and industry in order to be successful in both the short and long time periods. Accordingly, ASAP assesses (1) community members’ priorities for sustainable community development, (2) how different industry sectors can meet the development priorities of a community, (3) what different industry sectors need in terms of physical, economic, and social infrastructure, and (4) which infrastructure the community can offer to these industry sectors. Data representing these four assessment sets are used to identify which industry sectors are more desirable to the community and which sectors are more compatible with community infrastructure and assets and are obtained from a variety sources. Primary data is collected via two discrete surveys, one targeted at communities and another at industries. Secondary data is collected using an input-output model representing economic linkages as well as data sourced from various federal agencies such as the Census. Both the community survey and industry survey collect data used to perform ranking procedures across three goal categories – economic, environmental, and social. The goal ranking is combined with secondary data to perform an analytic hierarchy process to derive the weight and ranking for each industry given each community asset or goal. Model output for an example community is provided along with discussion of how this ranking procedure can benefit sustainable community development. In particular, the influence of community assets and infrastructure on each sector’s compatibility index ranking and may provide specific development tactics to strengthen long-term community development.

Julia Lawson,

El Pomar Foundation
Kristina Lybecker

Colorado College

“The Impact of the Complete Food Environment on County-Level Obesity Rates”
Obesity rates in the United States have risen dramatically in the last several decades. In an attempt to explain this trend, much of the current literature looks for correlation between community demographic characteristics and independent food environment components. However, few studies analyze the direct relationship between obesity rates and the food environment. In order to fill the problematic gap in the literature, this paper explores this relationship at a county-level across the United States. To provide a complete representation of the food environment, county-level data for the prevalence of fast-food restaurants, full-service restaurants, grocery stores, convenience stores, and supercenters are analyzed for their relationship to obesity rates at the county-level while controlling for a variety of demographic and community characteristics. This study concludes that fast-food restaurants and convenience stores are positively correlated with obesity rates, while full-service restaurants and grocery stores are negatively correlated with obesity rates. Though intuitive, these conclusions provide representative insight to policymakers on the true dynamic between the food environment and obesity rate such that effective strategies may be implemented to better fight the obesity epidemic.

Norman Lo,

San Francisco State University
“Informational Policy Improves Consumers’ Choice for Healthier Food"
As reported by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2010, more than 78 million US adults and about 12.5 million children and adolescents were obese. Up until 2010, the US had the highest rate of childhood obesity among 30 industrialized nations. We have seen different economic approaches in the past trying to explain the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the US. This paper mainly focuses on consumer use and understanding of nutrition labels, as well as the impact of labelling on dietary habits. Our theoretical model is an extension of the innovative weight management framework introduced by Lakdawalla and Philipson (2009). Our model illustrates that imperfect information about food quality promotes body weight gain during the economic expansion. Finally, we present descriptive empirical evidence that illustrates the impact of nutrition labels on body weight control.

Frederick John Oerther III,

Western Oregon University
“Dynamics and Challenges in Using Games to Teach Economics"
This paper will explore and analyze the concept of using classroom games, simulations, and role-play to teach the social science of economics. We will describe a set of arguments about the nature of learning and the potential social dynamics which games may be able to leverage for educational purposes. We will also critique these arguments, presenting a catalog of the most serious challenges and problems with using games in the classroom. Some reflection on remedies (or the lack thereof) to these difficulties will be included. Further, the paper will describe how the content of microeconomics, macroeconomics, and a number of disciplinary subfields may lend itself to games and simulations. In addition, we shall describe what would seem to the the important logistical and pedagogical constraints and problems that would accompany using such devices in the economics classroom. Although the academic content of game theory is important in games, and the economic sub-field game theory can obviously be taught through the use of games, this paper concentrates on the pedagogical dimensions of games. It is our view that intellectual discipline “economics” - in the behaviors it seeks to explore and understand, and in the structures of social life and organization that seem to follow from models of economic behavior - may be especially suitable for the use of classroom games.

Victor Owusu-Nantwi,

New Mexico State University
“Does Foreign Aid Matter to Economic Growth? Evidence from Fifteen ECOWAS Countries”
This study assesses the impact of foreign aid on economic growth of fifteen West African countries over the period 1980-2013. The study employed cointegration technique and vector error correction. The empirical results show a positive and statistically significant long-run relationship between foreign aid and economic growth. This study may provide some insights that will guide policymakers in terms of policies relating to attracting aid to fund economic development programs.

Francisco J. Pallares,

New Mexico State University
Richard V Adkisson,

New Mexico State University

"The Impact of Industrial Diversification on Employment Volatility in the 50 U.S. States, 2000-2013"
Employment stability is a factor for economic development. Using data from the 50 U.S. states from 2000-2013 the study explores the relation of employment volatility and industrial diversification. The evidence indicates that after accounting for regional wealth, regulatory environment, trade, and other variables, there is a negative relationship between employment volatility and diversification. The study evaluates the impact of volatile and non-volatile industries in total employment volatility. The conclusion is that there are different industry-to-industry effects to employment volatility. Not all industries reduce employment volatility.

Jim Peach,

New Mexico State University
Paul Weir,

New Mexico State University

“The Second Arms Race in the NCAA: Capital Expenditures among Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) Schools”
The first arms race among the 128 Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) institutions refers to the rapidly escalating expenditures in operating budgets. This phenomenon is well documented and widely discussed. Numerous data sets are available to examine the first arms race. The second arms race refers to the rapid increase in capital expenditures by FBS institutions. The media widely note the increase in athletics related capital expenditures, particularly among the so-called power 5 conferences (ACC, SEC, Big 10, Big 12, and PAC 12), but there has not been a database in which such expenditures could be systematically examined. In this paper, we introduce a new database on athletics related capital expenditures of all 128 FBS institutions. We will discuss the nature of the database including its limitations. Then, using descriptive statistics and regression analysis, we will examine the data in relation to institutional characteristics (e.g., enrollment size, operating budgets, football won-loss records, and attendance) as well as economic and demographic characteristics of the areas in which the facilities are located.

Jim Peach,

New Mexico State University
Richard V. Adkisson,

New Mexico State University

“Book Review Panel: Joseph Stiglitz' The Great Divide"
Can America become simultaneously more prosperous and more equal? In his new 2015 book, The Great Divide: Unequal Societies and What We Can Do About Them, Joseph E. Stiglitz attempts to answer this question. In this session, five scholars (Jim Peach, Richard V. Adkisson, Reynold Nesiba, Tonia L. Warnecke, and John P. Watkins) will discuss the author’s approach to understanding and explaining the causes, consequences, and possible policy solutions to America’s inequality problem.

Leila Pratt,

University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
“First Job of Economist"
A multi-logit model is used to examine the different career choices of economist who received their PhD in 2000 for a US or Canadian university. The individual’s choice of one of five jobs—employment at a top 25 economics department, employment in another economics department, employment in government, employment in the private sector—is hypothesized to depend on several factors including a measure of the “quality” of their graduate degree, their field of study, their gender.

Julia Puaschunder,

The New School Department of Economics
“Intergenerational equity in the eye of overindebtedness"
Globalization leveraged pressure on contemporary society. One of today's most pressing social dilemmas between generations arise from overindebtedness. In the aftermath of the 2008/09 crisis, budget crises around the world led to austerity plans triggering an economic climate of stagnation, federal spending constraints and prospected social welfare decline for decades to come. Outlining the causes of the current overindebtedness crisis in the Western world prepares for an analysis of the consequences of governmental budgetary constraints. The impact of governmental austerity plans on societal well-being is discussed. Potential overindebtedness remedies are reflected upon with a focus on the US and Europe. The outlined intergenerational equity constraints herald a call for intergenerational equity – the fairness to provide an at least as favorable standard of living as enjoyed today. As an implicit contract and transfer inbetween living and future generations, intergenerational equity avoids discriminating against future generations and ensures future infrastructure, equal opportunities over time and constant access to social welfare for the youth. Intergenerational equity grants a favorable climate between generations and alleviates frictions arising from the negative negative impacts of overindebtedness.

Julia Puaschunder,

The New School Department of Economics
“The beauty of ivy"
Thomas Piketty’s (2014) Capital in the 21st Century revolutionized economic thoughts on inequality. Started by the 2008/09 World Financial Crisis and cumulated in the subsequent Occupy movement, attention to rising inequality regarding economic wage, opportunity and wealth led to advocacy for a more equal society. Innovatively, this article argues for a mixture of equality and inequality within a societal network holding value when access to opportunities to transfer implicit wealth is distributed merit-based. By the example of Ivy League educational institutions, but also elaborating on social environments and interaction networks, a novel economic wealth transfer model is proposed. Within an economic system, dyads of unequal crystallized value based on heritage (e.g., royal families, legacy admits) and merit-based equality represented by offspring from families with underprivileged backgrounds, whose outperforming ambition, fluid intelligence and drive may lead to fruitful social interactions and beneficial wealth transfers, may create beneficial economic outcomes. On the societal level, within networks favorable environments may serve as transformation hubs if entered merit-based by underprivileged families. While presenting a preliminary idea of an economic model of value transfer between equality and inequality, the article outlines a blatant research gap on information about the direct and indirect transactions and interactions between equality and inequality representing agents within societal networks. The article concludes with giving hope in Piketty’s outlook of rising inequality by showing the economic merits of inequality when paying attention to merit-based distributed value transfer opportunities."

Sharaf Rehman,

University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley
Joanna Dzionek-Kozowska,

University of Lodz, Poland

“Tale of Two Cities: A Comparative Study of Relationship between Education and Economic Prosperity"
The impact of education on national GDP, and the gradual changes that occur in city/community after the establishment of institutions of higher education have been studied by urban sociologists and development economists in developed and developing countries. There is ample evidence to support that bringing a university to a town brings economic growth, improved infrastructure, an increase in population, new jobs and career opportunities, and a general improvement in the overall quality of life for the people in the region. It has also been suggested that when a city prospers so do its educational institutions. It may thus be argued that a bi-directional relationship between education and economic prosperity may exist. This paper compares such an association in two cities that are nearly 7,000 miles apart - city of Lodz in central Poland and Brownsville, a city in the south most part of Texas. Despite the physical distance that separates these two university towns, there is a striking similarity between Lodz and Brownsville. Both are relatively depressed economies: Lodz being the 3rd in Poland and Cameron County, where Brownsville is located, the poorest county in the US. Relying on the official records, the paper traces changes in population size, employment, establishment of schools and healthcare facilities and increase in the number of retail outlets. These changes are tracked along with the increase in the number of students enrolled at the universities in the two cities. The authors argue that not only is there a link between education and economic prosperity, but there is a strong case for treating education as a catalyst for economic growth in an economically depressed region. Both Lodz and Brownsville are a valid testimony to this assertion.

Manuel Reyes,

University of Texas at El Paso
Jesus Mendoza,

University of Texas at El Paso

"Small Business Access to Capital in El Paso, TX"
This study will analyze small businesses’ access to capital from commercial and community banks, as well as, other state and federal sponsors in the City of El Paso, Texas. Previous research conducted in the region (Schauer 2001) find that small businesses’ access to capital tends to be low in metropolitan areas with relatively low population, such El Paso, Texas. As a major propeller in local economies, small businesses’ capital access will be examined via an econometric model. The deposit to loan relationship in the local banking system is to be used in a panel data analysis to determine different factors that may affect this variable during the 2005 – 2015 time period. Some economic and demographic variables are to be also used as control variables in the econometric model. The results may be relevant to local decision makers in order to improve the economic development of the region.

Francisca Reyes,

Western New Mexico University
“Labor Market Monopsony: The Case of New Mexico and the Copper Mines”
A monopsony occurs when the labor market has either a single firm as the sole employer of a particular type of labor. This paper explores the case of New Mexico and compares it against other U.S. states that have operating copper mines. In addition, the paper explores the changes in market prices of copper, massive layoffs occurring at the mines, adjustments to wage and employment determination, and the ripple effects that the changes in the labor market have in New Mexico’s economy.

Comfort Ricketts,

New Mexico State University
Carlos Silva,

New Mexico State University

“The Effect of Religious Knowledge Disparities on Future Extremism"
Religious extremism is often linked to the belief in religious information that is often considered a misinterpretation of the intentions of the religion by several believers of the religion in question. Extremists as well as moderates exist and have been researched in variety of religions; however, little is known about extremism tendencies among non – religious individuals and specifically, individuals who lack any form of religious knowledge. This study seeks to observe the effect of religious ignorance on the tendency of an individual to exhibit future extremism; that is, does the lack of religious knowledge in an individual leave fertile ground for extremism or is it inconsequential. Data from the World Value Survey is used for the analysis in this study. The finding of this study would address whether or not there is a need to provide basic religious knowledge to individuals as a means to ensure future tolerance.

Florina Salaghe,

University of Nevada, Reno
Thomas Haris,

University of Nevada, Reno

“Nevada Ranchers Attitudes towards the Trichomoniasis Vaccine"
The Tritrichomonas Foetus vaccine, developed by University of Nevada in cooperation with Ford Dodge Laboratories, has been available for over twenty years to Nevada cattle producers. The rates of adopting the vaccine are still lagging while the disease incidence in the state is increasing, raising concerns of industry leaders and local authorities. A generalized ordered logit adoption model has been employed in finding what the factors and characteristics that influence the decision making process of Nevada cattle producers are. This paper investigates what influences their decision on whether to vaccinate or not, and what are the policy issues that need to be addressed in order to enhance its adoption or the adoption of alternative public land management practices. Subjective risk attitudes were incorporated and the probabilities of adoption for three different groups of respondents were estimated. Results indicate that familiarity with disease treatment, likelihood of exposure and the degree of optimism regarding ranch profitability influence the probability of adoption. Subjective measures of risk aversion also play a significant role."

Carlos Guilherme Silva,

New Mexico State University
“The impact of drought on tourism: The California county level analysis"
Once it were rare occasions, however in recent years weather related events are becoming more present and more severe. The most recent California drought is one of the latest weather related concerns facing the American Southwest, the latest drought has negatively affected a variety of economic sectors. Although large industries in the main urban areas and the agricultural sector receive a lot of attention by the media and scholars during such events, many other communities and sectors are not a prevailing concern by such groups. Communities with different economic strengths and weaknesses are affected in different ways by such extenuating climate events. This study aims to add to the literature by using county level employment data in the tourism sector to analyze the impact of the latest California drought. One key point of this study, is that it will also separate counties by their industry specialization and their category (i.e. urban, rural) and interpret the impact of the drought in those regions. By separating the counties by different attributes one can better understand the economic impact disparity between those groups, this can lead to a more efficient allocation of resources and improvement of prospective policy decisions."

Shunfeng Song,

University of Nevada, Reno
“China’s Urban Development Policies and City Growth: An Analysis based on the Gibrat Law"
This paper links China’s urban development policies to its city growth. Since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, China’s urban development policies have experienced dramatic changes, from anti-urbanization before the reform, to anti-large city-development during 1978-1999 and coordinated urbanization in 2000-2012. Using city-level data from 1985 to 2012, via the Gibrat law, this paper examines how China’s city growth is affected by those policies. The results indicate that city growth converged more rapidly before 2000, especially during 1991-1999, but that this trend either slowed or disappeared after 2000. The difference-in-difference analysis shows that large cities’ growth rates significantly increased compared with small and medium-sized cities after the growth control on large cities started to relax in 1998. Findings based on the Gibrat law suggest that city growth is strongly affected by China’s shifting urban development strategies.

Jeffery Stroup,

University of Nevada, Reno
Dr. Thomas Harris,

University of Nevada, Reno

"Income and Age Distributed Social Accounting Matrix"
The Census Bureau estimates that the percentage of elders in the United States will increase from 14.8% in 2015 to 30.5% by 2060. (Citation) Taking this dramatic change into consideration, the importance of differentiating economic impacts by income and age becomes crucial. In order to address this concern, we expanded IMPLAN’s National Social Accounting matrix and developed a national income and age distributed social accounting matrix. American Community Survey and Consumption Expenditure Survey data were used to disaggregate the households by income and age of the householders. The employee compensation and proprietor income vectors were also disaggregated to include income and age groups. By disaggregating income from these accounts it gives a better understanding of each group’s spending and consumption patterns. Three scenarios were run on the resulting matrix. The first scenario estimates the impact of the 2014 expansion of Medicaid, the second estimates a 10% increase in proprietor income of those younger than 35 and the last estimates the impact of a 10% increase in elder’s wages. Our results suggest that those in lower income groups have higher multipliers than those of higher income groups, regardless of the age category. The model shows that the 42 billion dollar Medicaid expansion resulted in over 200 billion dollars of economic output across the national economy. Also, increasing proprietor income by 10% for those younger than 35 results in a 51 billion dollar increase to the economy, while a 10% increase in elder wages results in an increase of 132 billion dollars to the economy.

Ying Zhen,

Wesleyan College
“Using the Evolution of International Trade Theories and Kahoot! To Teach Comparative Advantage"
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