African and african american studies

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Gerhard Besier,

Sigmund Neumann Institute for the Research on Freedom and Democracy
Katarzyna Stoklosa,

University of Southern Denmark, Odense

“How to Deal with Refugees?”
In the past, very often the newcomers have driven out the hereditary population, in some cases we observe assimilation and since about 200 years parallel societies have come into being. So, for instance, Germany has absorbed many Polish miners in the 19th century and Italian guest workers in the 20th century. But most of the Turkish foreign workers, invited to Germany during the 60ies, 70ies and 80ies, formed their own subcultures that endure until today. In the USA, France and the UK we observe very similar developments. Too different are the (religious) convictions, life styles, values and norms but also the habits between the native majority and the foreign newcomers. Living together in separate subcultures might not be a problem, if the minimal preconditions are accepted by all – separation of church and state and the rule of secular law. That means recognition of the profane culture in the public sphere, obeying the constitution, particularly human rights and equality of men and women. In our contribution we would like to demonstrate how an integration process on this low level might be successful. How to harmonize the differences, the fears and expectations on both sides to avoid disappointments and clashes?

Guadalupe Correa-Cabrera,

University of Texas at Rio Grande Valley
Jennifer Clark,

South Texas College

“Migration and Trafficking along Mexico’s Southern Border: The Unintended Consequences of Mexico’s Southern Border Plan and the Re-victimization of Vulnerable Groups”
The Southern Border Plan (Programa Frontera Sur) implemented by the Mexican Government in July 2014, has increased the vulnerability of migrants, women and the LGBT community in particular, to trafficking. According to the Secretary of the Interior (Secretaría de Gobernación, SEGOB), the plan has resulted in a sharp increase in deportations from Mexico. Migrants and smugglers have been pushed to find new routes to evade the new checkpoints and increased militarization along the southern border. The phenomena of migration and trafficking are inextricably linked. Restrictive border policies increase the vulnerability of migrants to exploitation and trafficking. Women and the LGBT community constitute a highly vulnerable population facing increasing risks of, not only trafficking, but of re-victimization. This presentation explores the effects the Southern Border Plan has had on the vulnerability of women and the LGBT community to trafficking and re-victimization. The research is based on interviews conducted along the southern border in Tapachula, Chiapas and Tenosique, Tabasco as part of grant from the Trafficking in Persons Office of the U.S Department of State.

Guadalupe Correa-Cabrera,

The University of Texas Rio Grande
“Energy and Security in the Texas-Tamaulipas Border: Winner and Losers of the War on Drugs”
The present paper analyzes the current situation with regard to energy and security in the Mexican border state of Tamaulipas. Recent developments in the energy sector and security policies in Tamaulipas, the state of the Zetas’ birth, confirm the patterns of organized crime paramilitarization, militarization, and paramilitaries, which will possibly greatly benefit transnational energy companies once energy reform is more advanced. The most violent zones of Tamaulipas are also zones rich in hydrocarbons, where forced displacements have been frequent and the opportunities for societal resistance have eroded. Tamaulipas is an extremely violent state rich in hydrocarbons. Recently, the government announced important discoveries of oil and shale gas reservoirs in this region. Soon afterwards, an ambitious infrastructure plan was announced; the project would facilitate the development of energy projects in this northern Mexican state. These developments will take place notwithstanding the fact that hydrocarbon-rich areas in Tamaulipas have been somewhat marred by a very violent conflict or war that involves the Zetas and its previous bosses, the Gulf Cartel, as well as the Mexican state.

Guadalupe Correa-Cabrera,

The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley
Jennifer Bryson Clark,

South Texas College

“Cartels, Coyotes and Traffickers: Risks for Migrants in the Two Mexico’s Borders”
This paper will present the preliminary findings of a grant project with the Trafficking in Person’s (TIP) Office of the U.S. State Department. The aim of this research is to understand the role of transnational organized crime in human trafficking along Mexico’s eastern migration routes, from Central America to Mexico’s northeastern border—particularly, the Texas-Tamaulipas border. In this region, drug traffickers are smuggling and trafficking unauthorized migrants in order to diversify their revenue streams. This research project will analyze the new role of Mexican-origin drug trafficking organizations—now known as transnational criminal organizations (TCOs)—in the trafficking of persons from Central America to Mexico’s northeastern border (focusing mainly on the two Mexico’s boders). Few if any studies have been conducted on the newly evolving relationships between human trafficking and Mexican-origin TCOs. This relationship is poorly understood by the law enforcement community and policy makers. This information will be relevant for several reasons: 1) it will improve government authorities’ interdiction of traffickers; 2) it will improve the identification of victims of trafficking, and 3) it will improve international and intra-national efforts to combat trafficking of migrants in Mexico. In summary, this research will further prevention, protection and prosecution of trafficking in persons along Mexico’s eastern migration routes.

Héctor Antonio Padilla Delgado,

Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez
“Mirada atrás: discursos y previsiones sobre violencia y militarización en Ciudad Juárez antes del 2008”
No Abstract

Hilda García Pérez,

El Colegio de la Frontera Norte/Nogales
Francisco Lara Valencia,

Arizona State University

“Neighborhood, Physical Activity and Women’s Health: A Multilevel Analysis in Hermosillo, Mexico”
The objective of this study is to estimate the effect of neighborhood’s physical and social characteristic in the levels of physical activity participation of women and the importance of physical activity in predicting objective and subjective health outcomes.  Data for this analysis come from a survey to women (25-54 years) residents in the city of Hermosillo and from publicly available information on the neighborhoods where they reported to have their regular residence. The survey is a cross-sectional study based on a probabilistic sample (n=1,306) using a systematic sampling procedure. Data were gathered through face-to-face interviews at the domicile of the respondents and through anthropometric measurements performed by medical personnel working for the Health Department of the State of Sonora. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate variations in low impact physical activity and overall physical activity, and the importance of physical activity levels in predicting individual health outcomes.  Living in the most socioeconomically deprived neighborhood was associated with a decreased likelihood of participating in overall physical activity.

Ilkka Liikanen,

University of Eastern Finland
“¿Borders in Post-Soviet Space - Return of the Cold War?”
In the context of the Ukraine crises, vocabulary typical to Cold war period emphasising divisions between East and West and ethnic communities is back in the centre of political debate. This has been reflected also in the academic discussions on borders and EU neighbourhood policies. One conclusion drawn from the Ukraine crisis has been the thesis of the return of the Cold War and traditional militarised security conceptions. Another reading has emphasised that the question is not simply whether militarised notions of territorial integrity that laid in the hearth of bi-lateral international order have returned or given room for new policies of soft power and regional cooperation. Instead of looking back to characteristics of the Cold War setting, it is vital to study the new kind of insecurity and unpredictability that characterises international relations today. Notably, questions of regime change and national self-government are no longer understood in terms of shared Cold War logic of non-interference in the internal matters of the other camp. This unpredictability has been directly reflected in political twists concerning the legitimacy of post-Soviet borders. In my paper I will analyse related changes in political vocabulary of EU documents of external relations.

Inocent Moyo,

University of South Africa
“Claiming Border Citizenship from below: The Case of South-Africa-Zimbabwe Border”
In the eyes of both the South African and Zimbabwean governments, border citizens do not exist, it is either there are Zimbabwean citizens to the north of the border or South Africans to the south. The practices by inhabitants on the both the South African and Zimbabwean sides of the Beitbridge border illustrate people, who were 'separated' when the border was drawn. Such inhabitants have always engaged in dynamic and agentive ways, which defy the existence of the border. After both countries attained independence, there has been a tightening of border controls and entry especially into South Africa, a reality which illustrates that both the South African and Zimbabwean governments have remained blind to the reality of border citizens who have always shared cultural, linguistic and other ties since time immemorial. Such border inhabitants have, against strict and successive regulatory regimes from colonial to post-colonial times 'defied' the border and continue to do so. Thy claim border citizenship form below, by rapturing the apparatus of border controls. This establishes a case for de facto border citizens who successfully challenge the inflexible territoriality of citizenship at both the South African and Zimbabwean borders.

Irasema Coronado,

University of Texas at El Paso
“Family Politics at the Border: Security policies that separate refugee and asylum-seeking parents”
Despite US immigration policies that claim to strengthen and unite families, refugee and asylum-seeking parents are often involuntarily separated from one another and/or their children. In the highly fragmented Department of Homeland Security (DHS), practices part ways from policy intentions to avoid family separation. This analysis will draw on in-depth interviews conducted in the central US-Mexico borderlands.

Irene Cabrera Nossa,

Universidad Externado de Colombia
“¿Todos para uno?: La Seguridad Fronteriza entre Colombia y sus vecinos en el posconflicto”
Después de más de 50 años de conflicto armado en Colombia, es preciso analizar en qué medida un acuerdo de paz entre el gobierno y las FARC puede transformar las dinámicas de violencia y criminalidad en las zonas de frontera. Sin duda, los efectos transfronterizos de la guerra han planteado múltiples desafíos para el gobierno colombiano y sus vecinos a la hora de desarticular grupos irregulares y al mismo tiempo, proteger a las comunidades fronterizas. Con todo, una eventual desmovilización de las FARC implica retos adicionales para la subregión en materia de seguridad fronteriza donde las instituciones marco (normas, entidades a cargo y prácticas socio-políticas) deben ser repensadas para el posconflicto con especial atención a los procesos territoriales y de vida de las comunidades fronterizas. De acuerdo con lo anterior, esta ponencia aporta un análisis cartográfico de la evolución reciente del conflicto armado en las zonas de frontera; adelanta un balance de las políticas de seguridad fronteriza de Colombia y sus vecinos a nivel unilateral, bilateral y multilateral; y no menos importante, indaga por el tipo de control territorial y gobernanza que busca fortalecer la subregión en un contexto de transición y posconflicto.

Isabel Carrera Zamanillo,

University of Washington, Seattle, WA
“Traditional Foods as a Form of Cultural Ecosystem, and the Use of Participatory Photography and Other Technologies”
This panel will discuss uses of Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) are used in work with migrants in different contexts. Following brief presentations by panelists, we will engage in conversation with the audience to elicit other uses of ICT in borderlands studies, in order to draw commonalities and salient differences in approaches, experiences, and results. The intent is to plant the seeds for an ongoing reflection in the role of ICT in borderlands studies, to be revisited and strengthened in future conferences.

Panelists include the following: Gómez and Vannini will present lessons from Fotohistorias, a project using participatory photography to document the stories of migrants at three different research sites (US-Mexico Border, Seattle WA., and in 2 Colombia communities). Second, Bayo-Urban will discuss the use of technology with migrant women from the project “Starting Where We Are: Latinas' (Re)framing of Digital Inclusion,” which examines digital inclusion efforts of women to better understand systems of inequities in digital spaces. Next, Carrera Zamanillo will discuss research addressing traditional foods as a form of cultural ecosystem, and the use of participatory photography and other technologies. Finally, Guajardo will discuss ongoing work with undocumented students known as DREAMers, and their use of technology.

Ivette Bayo-Urban,

University of Washington, Seattle, WA

“The use of Technology with Migrant Women”
This panel will discuss uses of Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) are used in work with migrants in different contexts. Following brief presentations by panelists, we will engage in conversation with the audience to elicit other uses of ICT in borderlands studies, in order to draw commonalities and salient differences in approaches, experiences, and results. The intent is to plant the seeds for an ongoing reflection in the role of ICT in borderlands studies, to be revisited and strengthened in future conferences.

Panelists include the following: Gómez and Vannini will present lessons from Fotohistorias, a project using participatory photography to document the stories of migrants at three different research sites (US-Mexico Border, Seattle WA., and in 2 Colombia communities). Second, Bayo-Urban will discuss the use of technology with migrant women from the project “Starting Where We Are: Latinas' (Re)framing of Digital Inclusion,” which examines digital inclusion efforts of women to better understand systems of inequities in digital spaces. Next, Carrera Zamanillo will discuss research addressing traditional foods as a form of cultural ecosystem, and the use of participatory photography and other technologies. Finally, Guajardo will discuss ongoing work with undocumented students known as DREAMers, and their use of technology.

James Gerber,

San Diego State University

Thomas Passananti,

San Diego State University

“The US Panic of 1907 and the Coming of the Mexican Revolution”
There is a large body of historical research that points towards the US Panic of 1907 and the subsequent recession as catalytic or even causal influences on the Mexican Revolution. This research recognizes strong Mexico-US economic ties, particularly in those northern regions that played a significant role in the revolution. Northern Mexico was the recipient of substantial US investment prior to the financial panic and was also the destination of many repatriated Mexican workers that were unemployed by the events in the US. Several historians have argued that this disgruntled group of workers returned to their homeland after having been unionized in the north, and were a source of significant revolutionary ferment. In addition to the integrative ties of returning migrants and foreign investment, the north was also a significant location of cross-border trade, both as a recipient of US goods and as a sender of commodities, particularly cyclically sensitive minerals. In this paper, we attempt to categorize the historical literature with respect to the degree of influence on the Mexican Revolution it grants the panic and recession, and to provide some empirical measures. We conclude that it seems unlikely that events in the US were significant.

Javier Martínez Romero,

Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez
Lourdes Ampudia Rueda,

Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez

“Technology and innovation outcomes of SMEs embedded in a weak network context: the case of metal-mechanic firms in Ciudad Juárez.”

The establishment of MNCs subsidiaries in the north of Mexico in the last four decades had created limited knowledge and technological spillovers towards the local environment. However, in Ciudad Juárez there is a group of locally-owned SMEs in the metal-mechanic sector which has benefited to some extent from the presence of those MNCs subsidiaries. Based on the Resourced Based View, the purpose of this work is to analyze the relation between organizational structures and strategic attitudes of these SMEs with their innovation outcomes. Based on a survey on the sector carried on in 2005-2006, this research shows how these SMEs stand in terms of technological capabilities and innovation. Although high degree of novelty in their products and services is not the rule, they exhibit some interesting patterns in terms of continuous improvement. The high standards required by MNCs in terms of quality, delivery and technical capacity require that these SMEs find new ways to deal with these demands. Mastering different capabilities is more and more a matter of establishing links with potential knowledge sources. However, these SMEs have limited links, and most of them are with clients. This lack of network building can hindrance the development of such firms.

Jennifer Bickham Mendez,

William & Mary College

Nancy A. Naples,

University of Connecticut

“Border Politics: A feminist, intersectional approach” 

We bring together theoretical insights from border studies, "Third World" and intersection feminist theoretical perspectives and social movement scholarship to analyze “border politics,” which we define as politicized struggles that challenge, transcend, or reinforce territorial or borders of identities and cultures or that contest “borders within” national territories and movements. Our approach sheds light on the complex ways in which movement participants appropriate, rework and deploy intersecting gendered, racial, national, and sexualized identities both to challenge and reinforce borders. We argue for a critical, feminist approach to border politics, that takes into account the ways in which movements are constituted by shifting power differentials at multiple scales—micro/meso, local/global, and national/transnational. Fully integrated into this approach is an intersectional conceptualization of power as multi-sited, shifting and contextual. A feminist, intersectional approach enables us to see power as not only external to social movements, but imbricated within the internal dynamics of struggles around literal and figurative borders.

John Thomas,

Quinnipiac University School of Law

“Borderland Lives: Social and Cultural Transformation of the Communities Living along the US/Mexico Border”
This paper derives from my findings that I uncovered in the course of my book and documentary film project, Solitude, Struggle, and Violence: A One Hundred Year Oral History of the Communities on Both Sides of the US/Mexico Border (American History Press, forthcoming 2016). (Website: This paper will center on my gathering of oral histories, mainly of members of the ranching families who have lived in the Mexican State of Sonora and the corresponding territory in the US that stretches from Tijuana on the California border to Agua Prieta on the Arizona border. In September and October 2015, I interviewed the elders in those families who recalled the tales that their grandparents told, providing a century of perspectives on the revolution in economics, culture, and drug trade that the area has witnessed. My goal is to illuminate how, by using the voices of older members of the borderlands communities as a prism, we can examine cultural transformation and gain an understanding of a century of life and death along the US/Mexico border.

Joni Virkkunen,

University of Eastern Finland
“Borders, Refugees, and Governance: Free movement or Return of ’the National?”
Migration from North Africa has become one of the greatest human, socio-ethical and political challenges of the European Union. During the last years, millions of migrants from different African and Asian countries, including conflict-torn Syria, Iraq, Somalia and Afghanistan, have decided try their luck in Europe. The strong images of suffering foreigners wondering from one border to another, with a clear aim to resettle in countries with compatriots, have caused an extensive public discussion all over Europe about the moral obligation of the European Union and its member states, human rights and the dignity of third-country citizens entering the ‘fortress Europe’, the European solidarity in sharing the thousands of newcomers and, recently, the mandates in border management. The European border management authority Frontex is been given increasing authority in the management of ‘European’ (EU) borders and the 'uncontrolled' character of migration has lead to a clear trend of rebordering in Europe, i.e. EU's member and neighbouring states preventing 'illegal' border-crossings by more comprehensive bordering and passport control. In order to correspond the demands in domestic politics, many of the Schengen signatory states such as Germany, Austria, and Sweden introduced temporary passport controls at the internal borders of the area.

Jorge Bitar Ramírez,

Universidad de Pamplona
“Desarrollo Territorial Integrado Desde La Frontera Cerrada”
El tema abordado es la expectativa de desarrollo territorial endógeno desde la perspectiva de la frontera cerrada y los efectos en el proceso de metropolización en el sistema de ciudades que conforma el área metropolitana de Cúcuta (Colombia) y sus municipios circundantes en cuanto a las dinámicas de la transformación de una economía informal a la formalidad laboral, revisando la implementación de los conceptos de gobernabilidad, gobernanza, descentralización, autonomía económica y autoridad. El área de estudio ha tenido relaciones irrompibles desde hace más de doscientos años en los social, económico, familiar, institucional, y cultural, con su par metropolitano de San Cristóbal, estableciendo lazos que contienen complejas dinámicas implementadas en espacios regionales, que aunque divididos por un límite político y gubernamental, participan de una dinámica común, hoy cercenada por las consecuencias de los conflictos internos de Venezuela. Se pretende a través de este ejercicio académico, visualizar el desarrollo endógeno del territorio sin la dependencia de la economía venezolana, partiendo de las potencialidades latentes en la región y elaborar una propuesta que permitan el desarrollo físico del territorio y la utilización del suelo, permitiendo el equilibrio urbano – rural.

Jorge Eduardo Mendoza Cota,

El Colegio de la Frontera Norte
“The role of cross-border economic organizations in the economic integration of US and Mexico: the case of San Diego-Tijuana”
Given the size of the economy of California and its increasing economic interaction with Baja California, the San Diego-Tijuana border has become one of the most important regions with cross-border economic relations. Within this context, the organizations that are dedicated to cooperation and governance in the region, based on public and private collaboration and social and cultural interaction have increased the economic and social integration of the two border cities. The goal of the paper is to gather information and analyze the vision, obstacles and achievements of the main stakeholders in the cooperation and governance of the San Diego- Tijuana region. The analysis uses both statistical estimations and semi-structured interviews of economic organizations to analyze the economic integration and the achievements of the cross-border economic organizations. The results showed that cross-border cooperation has been predominately controlled by federal and state governments on both sides of the border. However, the main achievements of cross-border economic cooperation have been accomplished by local private organizations. The main achievements have occurred in the area of development of economic infrastructure. The positive effect of these improvements is related to the facilitating of trade, investments and people flows between the two urban areas of the border.

Jorge Milton Matajira Vera,

Escuela Superior de Administración Publica Territorial Norte de Santander-Arauca
“Referentes conceptuales para un análisis de política pública educativa local en frontera: caso subregión suroriental del departamento norte de Santander”
El presente trabajo, busca articular los conceptos de educación, política pública y desarrollo local en una zona de frontera. El estudio asume desde un comienzo la perspectiva del desarrollo humano como el despliegue de habilidades y capacidades para superar las crisis o las situaciones adversas, en donde la educación a través de su diseño e implementación como política pública, es la que permite que se genere este tipo de desarrollo. Por ende la pregunta orientadora que guía este escrito es ¿Cómo articular desarrollo local, educación y política pública en zonas de frontera? Al respecto se resalta la idea de la educación como derecho y no como servicio, siguiendo los parámetros constitucionales nacionales y los acuerdos internacionales sobre la materia. De igual manera este acercamiento conceptual orientará el proyecto en marcha que el grupo ANTROPOLIS adelanta sobre la subregión suroriental del departamento Norte de Santander que comparte frontera con el vecino país de Venezuela.

José Alexandre do Couto Pereira Monteiro,

University of Minho
“The Selvagens Islands: the revival of an (un)settled dispute”
The archipelago of the Selvagens Islands has been a Portuguese territory since the 15th century, and is nowadays part of the country's Autonomous Region of Madeira. Due to their limited area and proximity to the Canary Islands, the Selvagens were claimed by Spain in the beginning of the 20th century, but this brief territorial land dispute was settled before the end of the Spanish Civil War. However, this proved insufficient for preventing further quarrels, as well as renewed violation and questioning of Portuguese sovereignty. Today, the issue at hand is not the sovereignty over the islands per se, which are mutually acknowledged as being Portuguese, but the International Law of the Sea and each country's jurisdiction over the waters surrounding the islands, particularly the limits of the exclusive economic zones, and submissions to the United Nations regarding the extension of their continental shelves. We aim to explain the origins of this geopolitical controversy, how the maritime border in the area was constructed and understood by both Spain and Portugal, and the latest developments on how each government has been shaping their policies and national claims.

José Guadalupe Rodríguez Gutiérrez,

Universidad de Sonora – Sede Nogales

“Mercado laboral transfronterizo de los odontólogos en la región Sonora-Arizona
La relación binacional que existe en la frontera México-Estados Unidos se puede analizar desde varias dimensiones: económica, social, cultural, geográfica. En este trabajo se analizará la relación económica enfocada al mercado de salud en el área odontológica, donde este servicio es utilizado por los residentes de que viven en las comunidades o ciudades del lado norteamericano, por el costo que tiene la atención medica en Estados Unidos. Los odontólogos que residen en las ciudades fronterizas del lado mexicano, se ubican en las inmediaciones del cruce fronterizo para atender un mercado recurrente por la población que cruza a estas ciudades en busca de cubrir sus necesidades dentales que en Estados Unidos no pueden cubrir sino cuentan con algún seguro médico que cubra sus necesidades de salud incluyendo las dentales. Este trabajo analiza el mercado laboral transfronterizo que tienen los odontólogos en la región Sonora-Arizona y que impacta en diferentes aspectos de esta relación económica en la frontera México – Estados Unidos.

José Miguel Nieto Olivar,

Universidade Estadual de Campinas
Flávia Melo da Cunha,

Universidade Federal do Amazonas

“Género y el gobierno de la frontera. Un estudio antropológico desde la triple frontera amazónica entre Brasil, Perú y Colombia”
Este trabajo se propone comprender cómo el gobierno de esta frontera es atravesado por, y es productor de, relaciones de género específicas. Prestamos atención empírica a las articulaciones entre las arquitecturas administrativas y gubernamentales, las dinámicas sociales cotidianas (afectivas, económicas, políticas) en las que sus agentes participan, y las formas como la población se relaciona y se apropia del Estado. En este sentido, el Estado es visto, como sugieren Sharma e Gupta (2006), como un proceso descentrado y profundamente vinculado con lógicas y relaciones sociales. Es importante llevar en consideración que el estudio de de las fronteras latino y suramericanas contemporáneas tiene relevancias particulares en el marco de los estudios globales de fronteras (Grimson, 2005). Este trabajo es resultado de una investigación etnográfica en las ciudades brasileras, peruanas y colombianas que componen esta triple frontera, enfocado en las relaciones entre género, sexualidad, violencia, economía y Estado en la producción y gobierno de la frontera. En ese marco, género, visto como un organizador empírico de relaciones (Strathern, 1990) y un operador de diferencia (McClintock, 2010; Brah, 2006), demuestra ser una herramienta fundamental para comprender como diversos actores gobiernan, cuidan, organizan, tensionan y aprovechan la frontera.

Jussi Laine,

University of Eastern Finland
Martin van der Velde,

Radboud University Nijmegen

“The Cold and the Beautiful, Revisited: The Image of Russia in the Finnish Public Consciousness”
History seems clear for it is written afterwards. Newspapers, however, provide an exceptional historical record, which details everyday life on a day-to-day basis. Based on an analysis of a Finnish newspaper Helsingin Sanomat, this paper explores the attitudes and understandings Finns express towards Russia. Relying on social semiotics, the paper seeks to investigate human signifying practices in the specific social and cultural circumstances of the region and explains meaning-making as a social practice. It evaluates the manner in which the public opinion has evolved and been affected by the broader changes that have occurred at the border. The recent (geo-) political events and Russia’s increased assertiveness are a prime example of this. Particularly the letters to the editor develop a stark black-and-white dichotomy pitting us against them; the ‘we’ group gets attributed with positives qualities while criticism and negative characterizations are leveled against the ‘them’ group. In this binational context, these groups collide with respective nationally groups, in so doing socially constructing national identities in much more mundane settings than the conventional accounts of national identity would inculcate.

Jussi P. Laine,

University of Eastern Finland
James W. Scott,

University of Eastern Finland

“Borders, Border Crises and the EU’s Political Identity”
The EU’s present crisis – comprised of a number of specific dilemmas – is at once a crisis of identity and of Europe’s borders. The erosion of solidarity within the Community as well as austerity politics have challenged the European Social Model. Lack of consensus regarding migration and policies towards asylum seekers has gone hand in hand with increasing Eurosceptic and xenophobic tendencies. Furthermore, massive contestations of the EU’s international actorness are evidenced through the actions of Russia, Turkey and other states. A major exceptionalist narrative of the EU has been the achievement of open borders within the EU as well the institutionalisation of permeable but secure borders with neighbouring states. These achievements are under threat as EU-member states clamour for a greater degree of local control and the EU is accused of losing control over its external boundaries. With this contribution to the panel, we will indicate how borders, as an interface between the local and global contexts, are always subject to change and transformation. We will specifically investigate what such transformations potentially mean for the identity (and hence future) of the EU as a political community. How might borders shape a future EU?

Kathleen Staudt,

University of Texas at El Paso
“Biopolitics in these Neoliberal Times”
Border fences and walls across physical territory interrupt the flows of migrants’ and borderlanders’ lives and movements.  Besides such interruption, security policies propel intrusions into people’s private lives and even their body cavities.  Such intrusion contradicts neoliberalism’s claims of limited government and US Constitutional 4th Amendment supposed protections against “unreasonable searches and seizures” in the name of the ‘border exceptions’.   The paper will examine documentary evidence for body cavity (anal, vaginal, intestinal) searches at the central US-borderlands in the constant and elusive official searches for illegal drug importation, analyzing the ways people have resisted the shame and humiliation associated with invasive searches. 

Kenmei Tsubota,

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
“Partition, Independence, and Population Geography in Bengal”
Emergence of international borders in Indian subcontinent in 1947 caused substantial migrations and changes in economic flows. In Bengal, East became East Pakistan and subsequently got independence as Bangladesh in 1971. This study quantitatively explores the changing population geography in Bengal, with particular focus on the events in 1947 and 1971 in relation to the international border. Based on census data from 1901 to 2001, it considers how trends in regional population growth evolved. As in Redding and Sturm (2008 Amer. Econ. Rev.), we employ Differences in Differences estimation and take the events in 1947 and 1971 to test. Estimation results show that there were shocks in each event but were different. In West Bengal, the change in the regional population trends happened in 1947 and remained similar. On the other hand, in East Bengal, it didn’t happen in 1947 but happened in 1971. Further robustness checks show that the impacts were not uniform with respect to the distance from the border. Overall analyses show that the emergence of international border has asymmetric impacts on both sides of population geography. The results suggest that changes in the population geography partly reflect the degree of the tensions over the border.

Kimberly Collins,

California State University at San Bernardino
“Globalization of Economies and Terror: A Feminist Response to Creating More Viable Border Security Institutions”
The term globalization brings forth the concept of goods, ideas, technology, and currencies moving across borders to improve the economic condition of workers and consumers across the world. It is promoted as a means to improve lives, yet, globalization has also led to stronger criminal networks, rise of terror, trading of weapons, and hate propaganda (Barber, 2000). This has led to a global “othering” by some and demands for increased protection and security from governments against those who pose a threat. We see this played in the public conversations with political leaders and citizens extolling the possible threats derived from the humanitarian crises of Central American and Syrian immigrants looking for a safe place to live. These crises are a direct result of globalization of economies and crime, with little consideration of basic human rights and the need for better institutions to manage these issues. This paper will explore a different perspective and make suggestions on how to change the paradigm through feminist theory. We can turn to the writings of Jane Addams, an early feminist writer who sought to bring the human experience into the management of organizations and democracy, for inspiration.

Kimberly Collins,

California State University
“Telling the Story of Life in Borders through Data and Indicators: Opportunities and Challenges”
There are issues with geopolitical and demographic differences, methodologies and assumptions by the agencies collecting the data, and bureaucratic priorities, especially during times of budget cuts. These are difficult obstacles to overcome, but with a community of researchers working on the problem of data collection and indicators in border regions a greater understanding of the comparative nature of the lived experience in border regions can be developed.

Environmental Behavior in a Binational Region: Insight into the Perceptions of Residents in Mexicali, Baja California and Calexico, California

Understanding why people live where they do is helpful in preparing environmental education programs and ultimately working toward a more sustainable region. Prugh, et al (1999) find the answer to developing a sustainable society in democracy and political action. Yet, in a community where few people understand the environmental contamination in their neighborhoods, developing a political action program is difficult, if not impossible. Therefore, for democracy to work, people need to be informed on the threats and challenges of environmental contamination, and the actions that can be taken to improve the local environment.

Laurence Armand French,

Western New Mexico University
Magdaleno Manzanarez,

Western New Mexico University

“North American Border Filters: The Economics of Security”
Since the advent of both North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994 and the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995, economics have dominated geopolitical relations in North America with the United States being the major player in these border transactions. Discerning between acceptable accommodations (people and commerce) and those situations deemed unacceptable often requires delicate filters so as to enhance desired (licit) intercourse while, at the same time, filtering out undesirable (illicit) peoples (undocumented aliens/terrorists) and commerce (drug trade). The challenges for stronger security came following the 9/11/01 terrorist attacks on the United States resulting in the creation of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2003 and the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI) in 2000. Clearly, these are US policies that strongly influences border security at both its northern border with Canada and southern border with Mexico. Most recent was the onslaught of thousands of unattended women and children seeking asylum from violence in Guatemala, Salvador, and Honduras. Efforts to curb this wave of undocumented Hispanics, most of Mestizos blood, included US-influence in having Mexico filter this flow through its southern border with Guatemala, hence further increasing tensions with the Indigenous peoples of the border state of Chiapas.

Lawrence Taylor,

El Colegio de la Frontera Norte

“B. Traven's The Treasure of the Sierra Madre and the continuing allure of "gold glitter" in the U.S.-Mexico borderlands region”
The novels of B. Traven, which have long been popular among German, Spanish, English and other audiences, are also noteworthy for their insightful remarks --some of them prophetic-- on a wide range of issues. Typical are those that abound in The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1927), whose plot really begins with a story-parable told by Howard, an old prospector, one of the novel's three principal protagonists, concerning the so-called Mina Agua Verde. The long-lost mine, located within the area of the present-day Arizona-Sonora border region, serves as the prime catalyst for the journey undertaken by Howard and two younger companions, Dobbs and Curtin, to the sierra region of Durango in search of a rich gold strike. In addition to probing the background to the "gold fever" as depicted in Traven's novel in its relationship to the U.S-Mexico borderlands, the paper considers the author's comments on wealth, greed, values, water, environmental degradation and other subjects that have had a continued relevance with regard to development patterns in the area. The search for gold and other minerals, for example, has had periodic resurgences over the years, while the demand for water for agricultural, urban and industrial uses remains critical.

Lidya Lestari Sitohang,

Nijmegen School of Management
“Cross Border Interaction in the context Kalimantan border development, the border between Indonesia and Malaysia”
This paper is part of my ongoing research on the cross-border interaction in the context of Kalimantan border development, Indonesia. Cross-border interaction with the Malaysian parts of Borneo, is interwoven in the daily lives of Indonesian borderlanders. The interaction dates from before the establishment of the two states. Currently the active cross border interaction of borderlanders is regarded as a consequence of the minimal development and degrading feelings of Indonesian nationalism on the one hand and the socio-cultural bonding of the borderlanders in the two states. Through this paper I examine the practices of extending and negotiation of the borderlanders as a contextual strategy, which has been stimulated by the socio-cultural ties between the borderlanders in both state. The border should not be understood as a static demarcation but rather as a fluid continuous process. The particular practices be seen as a strategy to sustain living in the border region. This research is part of the New Indonesian Frontiers project that aims to deliver policy-relevant concepts and tools to tackle or prevent socio-economic problems that pose formidable challenges to the desired combination of economic development, poverty reduction, and a diverse ecosystem.

Liliana Marcela Bastos Osorio,

Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga
Johanna Milena Mogrovejo Andrade,

Universidad Externado de Colombia

Jhon Antuny Pabón León,

Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander

“Las Diferencias políticas y sus repercusiones en la economía de la zona de frontera Colombo- Venezolana”
El impacto de la crisis binacional causado por la relación entre Colombia y Venezuela, hacen cada día más necesario el estudio y análisis de cómo estas coyunturas están impactando la economía de las fronteras de estos dos países, Norte de Santander y el Táchira. Este proyecto de investigación tiene por objetivo general medir el impacto económico de las coyunturas políticas Colombo-Venezolana que se han desarrollado a partir del año 2000 al 2014 sobre la zona de frontera del Norte de Santander y de Estado Táchira. Los objetivos son: Analizar las coyunturas políticas que afectaron la zona de frontera colombo-venezolano; examinar los indicadores económicos en la frontera del Norte de Santander y el estado Táchira; y Evaluar la incidencia de las coyunturas políticas en la economía de la zona de frontera de Norte de Santander y el estado Táchira. En el primer objetivo se destaca la línea de tiempo de la revisión de las coyunturas políticas y económicas entre Colombia y Venezuela. En el segundo se examinan los principales indicadores económicos de la zona de frontera, donde no solo se ha visto afectado del lado colombiano de la frontera los índices de empleo, de informalidad, de crecimiento y de intercambio comercial.

Margarita Grajeda Castañeda,

Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez
“La movilidad estudiantil, una construcción de ciudadanía internacional”
La movilidad estudiantil como estrategia de la internacionalización de la educación superior implica el choque cultural y la construcción del yo, del otro y de lo extraño, este encuentro intercultural no se puede evitar y es además deseable pues tiene el potencial de transformar la forma en nos vemos a nosotros mismos y al mundo que nos rodea. Los individuos incurren en la movilidad estudiantil para obtener conocimiento y/o credenciales que no están disponibles en su país de origen, la adquisición del prestigio de una institución extranjera y la posibilidad de un futuro laboral al exterior del país. El análisis micro del beneficio de los estudios en el extranjero resulta en un bien privado, sin embargo al ampliar el panorama es posible apreciar como la capacitación en el extranjero repercute en un bien público para el país, en el que es correcto invertir. La presente investigación analiza las estrategias utilizadas por las instituciones de educación superior mexicanas con programas de movilidad exitosos que han logrado superar las barreras y participar efectivamente en la internacionalización.

María Inés Baquero,

Universidad de Manizales
Marleny Cardona Acevedo,

Universidad de Manizales

“Capacidades humanas, procesos migratorios y condiciones de cuidado en Colombia”
En los habitantes de la frontera, la noción de buena vida es relacional, se trata de la búsqueda de posibilidades y de satisfacciones que potencian sus capacidades para actuar y ser en colectivo garantizando que la vida buena. Este un concepto que está latente en una gran variedad de discursos públicos, emanados tanto desde lo político, económico o social, puesto que la calidad de vida se transforma en el afán de buscar la realización compartida en sociedad. Las capacidades humanas están hechas de aspiraciones y libertades para la construcción de realidades en los individuos y colectivos que asumen vivir la frontera. Por eso, ¿qué sentido le da el migrante a la reconstrucción que hace de sus dinámicas de vida? Y Cuál es la capacidad de participación política en lado y lado de la frontera? En la ponencia se reflexiona sobre las formas de tramitar las aspiraciones y libertades como sujeto que migra, que adquiere una población cuando se es niño, joven y/o adulto frente a la vida y frente al trabajo formal e informal a lado y lado de la frontera.

Marina Sierra,

Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander
“Implicaciones Socioeconómicas del Cierre de Frontera Colombo Venezolana”
Colombia's border with Venezuela extends along a continuous international limit of 2,219 km2 and covers seven Colombian departments (Guajira, Cesar, Norte de Santander, Boyacá, Arauca, Vichada and Guainía). It is characterized by a series of dynamic and social, economic and security problems, which are exacerbated cycle through domestic situations of the two countries and the actual conditions in a zone of peripheral border in a developing country with problems of legitimacy, effectiveness and capacity of its institutions. Faced with a situation of existence of socioeconomic gaps caused by government neglect and the fulfillment of its constitutional purposes, it is necessary to identify the implications versus last border closure also represented a violation of human rights of Colombians expelled and deported by the Venezuelan government which is the main institutional challenge to generate constant effectiveness and to strengthen the state's presence in the Colombian-Venezuelan border capacity.

Marla A. Ramírez,

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

“Reparations Demands: Banished Survivors and their Families Speak up through

Oral History and Family Archives”
This paper examines the “Mexican Repatriation” program during the Great Depression (1920-1944) that resulted in the expulsion of approximately 1.5 million Mexicans, a starling 60% were U.S. citizen children. The study conducts archival research, oral histories, employs a legal analysis of border policies to understand the prolonged consequences of exclusion that continues to have negative ramifications on three generations. More specifically, it focuses on the participants’ policy recommendations for redress since nearly all involved local, state, and federal governments have remain inactive on the matter. California and Michigan are the only two states that passed a symbolic official Apology Act for the damages. Participating families not only shared their experiences of banishment. Instead, they also provided suggestions for redress. These recommendations ranged in scope depending on the specific experiences of each family. Their recommendations are significant in that they provide a diversity of needs for reparation based on specific experiences instead of the usual governmental assigned “blanket” solution. This paper will contribute to the discussion on building trust with oral history participants, constructing significant partnerships with the public to provide policy recommendations, and the importance of centering family archival records and oral histories to better understand history of marginalized communities.

Marta Zorko,

University of Zagreb
“Challenging border institutions and governance: the geopolitics of barbed wire in Europe”
In the case of European migration crisis two completely opposite border management concepts collided. First one was the security aspect of migrations and crisis itself, while the other one was the openness of the borders in human rights perspective. The politics of human rights prevailed over the national security policy mechanisms in only few cases and situations during the migration crisis in Europe. Securitization of an issue, in these case migrations, brings up models of defense policies within national security framework. Results of such reasoning could be seen in different approaches in foreign policy on national levels, as well as the lack of coherent politics on European level as well. The barbed wire as a border security mechanism and a consequence of such actions will be widely analyzed and discussed upon three similar but different case studies: Hungary, Slovenia and Croatia.

Martha Patricia Barraza,

Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez,
“The role of municipal authorities of Women in Mexico: The creation of the Juárez Municipal Institute in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico” / “El rol de las instancias municipales de la Mujer en México: La creación del Instituto Municipal Juarense en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México”
The record of "women's machinery" around the world has been mixed, with some successes in getting other government agencies to be accountable to women (i.e. to reduce violence against women, to increase loans to women in small business, to collect 'gender-disaggregated data’), but others have merely served to enhance the political party in power. In Ciudad Juárez, the Municipal President's commission on women in Cd Juárez is analyzed, focusing on its purposes, membership, challenges, including relationships with women's groups/movements/networks, and accomplishments.

Martha Patricia Barraza de Anda,

Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez
“Economic Interaction between Ciudad Juárez and El Paso and Transnational Flows” / “La interacción económica entre Ciudad Juárez y El Paso y flujos transnacionales”
The borders are characterized by a high human mobility. People cross border limits and jurisdictions, either for tourism, labor, trade, or family or cultural ties. In this round table, we will discuss the evolution of the patterns of economic interaction through border crossings (cars, pedestrians and trucks) Ciudad Juarez-El Paso. The discussion is performed considering the possible impacts of different moments of tension on both borders in recent years, such as insecurity, drug trafficking and terrorism. It is assumed that these events have influenced the intervention of the governments of both countries through the design and implementation of public policies that have affected the size of the border crossings, and consequently in the new patterns of economic interaction
Martin van der Velde,

Radboud University Nijmegen

“The Dutch-German border region as a BIG-region”
This paper will introduce the Dutch-German border regions in line with the central themes of the Borders in Globalization-project (BIG), culture, governance, flows, history, security and sustainability. The Dutch-German border has a long history of cross-border cooperation and strong cross-border institutions, which makes this region interesting for the purpose of comparison, as the BIG-project has at its core, for several reasons. To name but a few, The Euregio (Gronau-Enschede) is the oldest cross-border region in Europe and existed long before the Interreg-program, that targets cross-border cooperation the EU. The Euregio Rhine-Waal is the first public Dutch-German joint body (based on the treaty of Anholt) and offers interesting perspectives with regard to governance issues. The Euregio Maas-Rhine is located in tristate region and has to deal with three languages and cultures. Within the BIG-framework this study attempts to understand and question the bordering principles thatappear when culture, history, governance, flows, security or sustainability contribute tocontemporary (de)bordering processes.

Mohammad Golam Rabbani,

Jahangirnagar University
“Enclaves in the India-Bangladesh border: Exchange Process and Challenges”
The India-Bangladesh border demands special attention of the academics for various reasons viz. its ever zigzag line through densely populated agrarian areas and therefore cross border mass movement, barbed wire fence, border hat (bilateral market in the border) and informal trade, enclaves etc. Among all, the enclave issue has been a crucial issue in the management of India-Bangladesh border. As per last census, 55 thousand people of 162 enclaves in India and Bangladesh were stateless since 1947. However, through the exchange of enclaves between India and Bangladesh in July 2015 those people eventually got their state and national identity after 68 years. It is to be noted that in the process of exchange all enclave people were given liberty to choose citizenship of either states. They are now in the process of accessing citizenship rights and basic services. So, in what process the enclaves are being exchanged? Are there any dilemmas, crises, and uncertainty in the overwhelming process of citizenization? How would they be co-opted in the mainstream population? What are the challenges ahead? This paper seeks to shed light on these questions with a bird’s eye view.

Monica Verea,

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
“Changes in Mexican-U.S. migration patterns during the NAFTA”
The twentieth anniversary of NAFTA gives us an opportunity to reflect on the behavior of migration flows from México to the United States. The predicted growth of the Mexican economy that would occur with the implementation of NAFTA and hence diminish migration flows did not occur. Instead, migration significantly increased during the first 15 years of the agreement. Nevertheless, since the financial crisis in 2008 along with the unprecedented US reinforcement policy with hundreds of removals at the border and a record number of deportations at the interior, Mexican-U.S. migration patterns registered an important shift for the first time reaching a “Zero net migration flow” during the last three years. As a consequence, return migration constitutes a new phenomenon of hundreds of Mexican parents deported and their US Citizen youngsters left in custody or adapting to their new situation back in Mexico.

Naomi Chi,

Hokkaido University
“Growing Pains?: Foreign Brides in Japan and Korea”
As the number of immigrants rise in Japan and Korea, so are international marriages. In Japan, it is said that about 2% of marriages in 2014 were international marriages, while in Korea that number is about 9%. Yet the Japanese and South Korean self-identity of racial homogeneity dies hard, and the concept of “multiculturalism” or ethnic coexistence has yet to reach the stage where people can discuss how to integrate different cultural groups into a harmonious society and benefit from the diversity. Even today, many interracial couples and their family experience discrimination. Marriage among two people from the same cultural background can be an ordeal, let along those of two people from different cultural background. This presentation will look at the dynamics of international marriages in both countries, including the factors that bring foreign brides to the two countries, the difficulties in mainstreaming, the victimization of these women, and examples of support (both from the local community and government agencies) that their receive in their respective countries.

Ogunsusi Cecilia Enitan,

University of Ibadan, Nigeria
“Smuggled artefact and the challenges of depletion of cultural heritage in South West of Nigeria”
This paper interrogates cross border activities of smuggled artefacts, which are prohibited but made possible due to porosity of borders and resulting into in depletion of Cultural heritage. Previous studies have focused on contrabands that are smuggled with little attention paid to the activities of artefacts smugglers. This paper attempts to interrogate the drivers, the actors, mode of operation, and the complex web of connecting with other criminal network. The method adopted is both historical and case study of Seme and Saki border in South West that harbours several porous international routes that are unmanned. Building on this canal of argument is that there are limited documentation of artefacts recovered, but the trade is not reducing as a result of corruption, complexity of border officials and lack of awareness of the benefits of this works of arts. This could be addressed by tighter border control and a clear mandate on the categories of artefacts that are prohibited and cannot be taken off the shelf through international borders, this also includes enhancing institutional capacity to track, detain identified suspected smugglers.

Paul Fryer,

University of Eastern Finland
“The hybrid ‘homes’ of Central Asian labor migrants in Russian cities”
I examine the notion of home and its understanding by labour migrants, specifically how migrants identify themselves with multiple homes with variable characteristics in both home/ host country depending on their particular circumstances. Following the collapse of the USSR, the phenomenon of international labour migration of Central Asian citizens to Russia has been well documented and researched. While much of the literature emphasises the links that Central Asians have with their homelands, it also must be acknowledged that many Central Asians have established roots in Russia and no longer intend to leave. In increasingly mobile societies across the former Soviet space, migrants are spending increasing amounts of time abroad without cutting ties to their homelands – the question of ‘home’ has become complicated and can be a hybrid construct that is informed by changes in one’s environment or one’s specific needs at a particular time or place. This is especially true for citizens of Kyrgyzstan in Russia, who have been living in the ‘borderless’ space of the Eurasian Economic Union since membership in August 2015. Based upon interviews with Kyrgyzstani migrants in Kazan, I ask how do Central Asians labour migrants construct their home(s) in Russia? What constitutes such ‘hybrid’ homes?

Paul Richardson,

University of Manchester
“What is Eurasia to Us? Perspectives from Central Asia on the Eurasian Union”
This paper explores perspectives on how the Eurasian Union project is reconfiguring borders in Central Asia. The Eurasian Union was formed on the premise of the dematerialisation of borders and was framed explicitly on neo-liberal rhetoric and the setting up to institutions based on the European Union. However, the development of the Eurasian Union has also coincided with a resurgent civilizational discourse on Russian identity and a rehabilitation of themes associated with Eurasianism. Recent events in Ukraine and the annexation of Crimea by Russia have also heightened debates on borders and identity in post-Soviet space. In this context, this paper charts the multiple perspectives and understandings of this project amongst political and intellectual elites in Kazakhstan. Based on recent fieldwork in the region, it charts how the Eurasian Union, and its associated geopolitical visions and regional development strategy, is being received at different geographic scales. It traces how certain identity coalitions and interest groups in the region have interpreted this project, particularly in the context of recent integration initiatives put forwards by China.

Pedro Alberto Herrera Ledesma,

Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas (UAT)
Mónica Lorena Sánchez Limón,

Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas (UAT)

Diana Marien Escobar Angulo,

Universidad Autónoma de Tamaulipas (UAT)

“Desde el desplazamiento forzado de personas al refugio no reconocido. Los migrantes de Buenaventura Colombia en Antofagasta Chile”
Las dos ciudades están vinculadas por su población migrante, Buenaventura ciudad de la costa del Pacífico de Colombia y Antofagasta ciudad costera del norte de Chile. La violencia generalizada en Buenaventura producto de la lucha de dos carteles rivales ha generado un flujo intenso de personas desplazadas que se han refugiado en ciudades colombianas como Cali y Bogotá, no obstante la violencia en esas dos ciudades, ha motivado a la población desplazada a refugiarse de forma internacional, buscando como destino la ciudad de Antofagasta en el norte de Chile. Según Felipe Rojas ex gobernador de la entidad de Tarapacá en Chile, la mayoría de los bonaverenses llegaron tratando de acogerse a la ley de refugiados, esta ley establece que son refugiados quienes huyen de la violencia generalizada y de la violación masiva de los derechos humanos, no obstante la gran mayoría de quienes han inmigrado a Antofagasta sólo poseen la condición de inmigrantes. El aumento sostenido de estos refugiados no reconocidos ha generado fuertes tensiones en la ciudad de Antofagasta, lo que se aprecia en actos de rechazo a la población inmigrante, actos de carácter xenófobo y racista.

Rafael Arriaga Martínez,

Universidad Autónoma de Baja California
Lya Margarita Niño Contreras,

Universidad Autónoma de Baja California

Norma Garcia Leos,

Universidad Autónoma de Baja California

“Djihad, Islam e Inmigrancion: ¿Choque de Civilizaciones? ¿O Guerra de Dioses?”
En este trabajo consideramos la experiencia de los franceses de cultura musulmana a partir de dos visiones teóricas presentes implícitamente en el debate de la inmigración. La primera, asociada estrechamente a la figura de Samuel Huntington, postula como irremediable el conflicto entre las culturas y la dificultad en consecuencia de integración de los inmigrantes en las sociedades receptoras. La segunda, defendida en el marco del multiculturalismo y otras corrientes de pensamiento, sostienen por el contrario la posibilidad del diálogo, el entendimiento entre los individuos con culturas distintas y la integración de los inmigrantes como un proceso real que avanza al filo de las generaciones. Estas dos concepciones de la inmigración se han visto alteradas en su credibilidad con la ola de atentados terroristas sufridos en Francia. En el corto plazo, la credibilidad de la teoría de Huntington ha ganado. Con esta reserva en mente constatamos la existencia en Francia de una percepción cada vez más negativa tanto de los inmigrantes de cultura musulmana como de las poblaciones con las que se emparentan culturalmente estos inmigrantes.

Rafael Mauricio Marrufo,

Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez
Guadalupe Ortiz Esparza,

Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez

“Demanda de servicios de salud en Ciudad Juárez por residentes y ciudadanos de El Paso y otras ciudades de Estados Unidos”
El Departamento de Salud Pública de El Paso informó en 2014 que residentes y ciudadanos de este lugar cruzan regularmente hacia Ciudad Juárez para utilizar servicios médicos. A partir de esto, se diseñó esta investigación que tiene como objetivo conocer cuáles son las razones por las que personas de El Paso y otras ciudades norteamericanas deciden utilizar los servicios de salud públicos y privados instalados en Ciudad Juárez. La información se ha originado de una encuesta llevada a cabo en el mes de diciembre de 2015 en los puentes internacionales entre Ciudad Juárez y El Paso. Se seleccionaron aleatoriamente 1200 personas que viven en Estados Unidos y declararon hacer uso de servicios de salud en Ciudad Juárez. Se muestra también cuáles son los porcentajes de afiliación de estas personas a Medicare, Medicaid, seguro privado o carencia de seguro de salud.

Ramon Resendiz,

University of Washington
Rosalva Resendiz,

University of Texas - Rio Grande Valley

“From Colonialism to Post-colonialism: Indigenous Resistance on the Border”
In 2005 the U.S. Congress began enacting legislation for the purposes of building a physical fence along the U.S.-Mexico border. The proposed “border wall” sought to fence a total of 700 out of the 1,954 miles of the international boundary between Mexico and the United States. As of January 8, 2010 the Department of Homeland Security deemed the construction of the border fence complete, after erecting a seemingly arbitrary barrier spanning some 651 miles, at a taxpayer cost of roughly $2.8 million per mile. By and large the metrics for its efficiency remain vastly psychological and symbolic, with little data supporting its intended purpose to slow down illegal immigration, drug trafficking, terrorist activities, or, organized crime. As such, this digital media project foregrounds the story of Dr. Tamez, a tribal elder and retired colonel, and her Band in their fight for social justice, a fight that went to federal court, and spurred an inquiry and report by the United Nations Committee on the Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Although the fence continues to block access to ancestral remains, traditional medicine, and the river, this Indigenous group continues to fight for their rights.

Ramya Swayamprakash,

Lawrence Technological University
“Border as Infrastructure: Reconceiving the political border”
As old as human civilization, today, over 300 land borders divide over 200 states [Paa11]. The act of defining a border is rooted in the act of representation. Borders are ‘are essential to cognitive processes, because they allow both the establishment of taxonomies and conceptual hierarchies that structure the movement of thought’ [Mez13].  The border ‘in time can become a formless dynamic and complex condition. The indeterminately changing- in- time landscape becomes a useful conceptual tool to think about borders instead of the conventional model of order”[Mon07]. Bélanger understands landscape (and the processes and systems that inhabit it) as an operative infrastrucural ground [Bél10]. In my paper, I contend that a political border is, in fact, infrastructure. As the operative ground of territoriality, cross border flows, repository of culture and spatial container of a state’s sovereignty, a border is infrastructure. Rooted in materiality and historicity, as infrastructure, borders are malleable, historical and cognizant to longer historical and physical changes due to human and non-human process i.e. resilient. I argue that such a conception offers a new way of understand the border making and shaping processes.

Randy William Widdis,

University of Regina
“Greater New England as Cultural Borderland: A Critical Appraisal”
The idea of borderland is most often associated with the argument that land on either side of a border exists in a liminal condition; i.e., it has many of the traits of both regions and yet is different because of the hybridization resulting from the merging of the two regions within this particular space. Michael Dear (2013) identifies borderlands as alternative or third nations, spaces inhabited by people who identify with each other on a number of levels based on a shared history and geography and blurred cultures. Through exchange, it is argued, transnational cultures are created that are characterized by liminality and hybridity. It is culture, I believe, that many view as being most important in the idea or ideal of an Atlantic borderland, a transnational region sometimes identified as “a greater New England” (Wynn 1989).  Did diffusion in the Atlantic borderland produce a common culture that is unique to this part of North America? That is the larger question that guides this particular paper.

Ricardo Gómez,

University of Washington, Seattle, WA
Sara Vannini,

University of Washington, Seattle, WA

“Lessons from Fotohistorias, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.”
This panel will discuss uses of Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) are used in work with migrants in different contexts. Following brief presentations by panelists, we will engage in conversation with the audience to elicit other uses of ICT in borderlands studies, in order to draw commonalities and salient differences in approaches, experiences, and results. The intent is to plant the seeds for an ongoing reflection in the role of ICT in borderlands studies, to be revisited and strengthened in future conferences.

Panelists include the following: Gómez and Vannini will present lessons from Fotohistorias, a project using participatory photography to document the stories of migrants at three different research sites (US-Mexico Border, Seattle WA., and in 2 Colombia communities). Second, Bayo-Urban will discuss the use of technology with migrant women from the project “Starting Where We Are: Latinas' (Re)framing of Digital Inclusion,” which examines digital inclusion efforts of women to better understand systems of inequities in digital spaces. Next, Carrera Zamanillo will discuss research addressing traditional foods as a form of cultural ecosystem, and the use of participatory photography and other technologies. Finally, Guajardo will discuss ongoing work with undocumented students known as DREAMers, and their use of technology.

Rosa Alicia García Compeán,

Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez

“Administrative Corruption, Political Competition and Institutional Change in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua”
Corruption increasingly become an important issue for Mexico. It has been analyzed from different perspectives, trying to find an explanation for it and public policies to reduce or control it. This paper focuses on one of the most pervasive forms of corruption—administrative corruption, also known as petty or street-level corruption. The case study for the study of this kind of corruption is the transit police in Ciudad Juarez. The paper measures the frequency with which a citizen negotiates traffic fines with the police via petty corruption. Similarly, it explores how the political parties play a main role in perpetuating it through political competition, which prompts a test as to whether petty corruption increases or decreases depending on the political party in power and decisions made in regard to the transit police’s own performance. In the first part of the paper, interviews with key political actors are presented, to know their activities and performance and how it relates to petty corruption. In the second part, a citizen's survey results is presented divided into three parts designed to gauge their opinion in regard to administrative corruption and cultural images of it.

Rosario Torres Raines,

University-San Antonio
“Higher education resources on ambos lados of the U.S.- Mexico border. A focus on southwest borderlands studies: what college students know and don’t know”
This paper presents the results of a continuing investigation on the educational resources that characterize U.S.-Mexico borderlands institutions. It focuses on the outcomes of educational and research programs with regard to student degree programs, graduation rates of graduate and undergraduate studies, research publications, on-going research programs, and other educational outcomes. The study includes levels and types of communication that occurs between educational programs on both sides of the U.S.-Mexico borderline in institutions within 150 mile range from the border.

Sama’ila Abubakar,

Usmanu Danfodiyo University
“Border Policing, Power Networks and the Dynamism of Cross-Border Tokunbo Automobile”
Business enterprises in Africa are nowadays expanding their networks beyond the Colonial boundaries. African businessmen along foreign investors are actively engaged in opportunities created by African boundaries sometimes in contrast with the established rules of those who police boundaries. This is the paradoxical nature of boundaries especially in a situation of high demand amidst short supply. In Africa, power networks more often than not are used to finance and influence the activities of illegal cross-border traders by circumventing state policies. State policies mostly influence the individual actors to reappropriate the fluidities of local control over the border for their own particular uses and interests. Nigeria is the major market for Tokunbo automobiles in the entire West African sub-region with substantial part of the vehicles smuggled across the country’s land borders. This is because the trade is conducted largely through informal means as a result of the porous nature of the border area. It follow an elaborate and well-organized circuits and in most cases with the connivance of state’s officials. Since 2013 when the New Automobile Policy was introduced in Nigeria, the country’s land borders once again become the point of contest between the tokunbo automobile traders and the border officials.

Sean Anderson,

University of Sydney
Jennifer Ferng,

University of Sydney

“Failed Futures: Prefabricated Housing and the Negation of Shelter in Oceania”

From London’s Robin Hood Gardens to St. Louis’s Pruitt Igoe, the history of failure among architectural designs for urban housing was predicated not only isolating those who could not afford a better lifestyle but also on relegating less desirable populations to the periphery. Marked by modern affordability, prefabricated housing became a symbol of global shifts toward the industrialization of living. Such design solutions have been cast only positively, emphasizing lightweight structures, standardized components, and portability. Prefabricated units developed by architects and private contractors remain a convenient response to broader housing questions that have long plagued city planners. At offshore detention centres found on the islands of Papua New Guinea and Nauru, prefabricated units exacerbate living conditions of detainees induced by Australian immigration policies. Our paper argues that it is necessary to rethink definitions of modern housing in light of its more extreme examples found in Oceania. We seek to construct an alternative history of prefabricated housing that exposes the precarious nature of living among examples in which the use and meaning of shelter has been negated. Crossing international borders, the industrialization of housing as a system has triggered the adverse conditions that humanitarianism seeks to remedy.

Serghei Golunov,

Kyushu University

“Networks of practice vs border barriers: The case of Russian tourism to the Asia-Pacific”
The development of Web 2.0 potentially empowers even those categories of people whose representatives do not communicate to each other routinelly and under normal circumstances are hardly capable for organizing joint actions to defend their interests (Shirky 2009). When establishing online networks involves transferring practices and knowledge while ‘most of the members are unknown to one another’ such online communities can be conceptualized as `networks of practice` (Brown and Duguid 2000). Among all, such networks can give some hope to some categories of border crossers, including tourists. The proposed paper focuses on the role of online travel communities for empowering tourists taking as a case study discussions concerning those border issues that Russian tourists face while travelling to the most popular Asia-Pacific destination countries. The author concludes that online travel communities still fail to mobilize tourists for joint actions but, at the same time, they successfully supply tourists with a range of efficient practices on how to conduct dialogues with officials, on how to circumvent border barriers by logistical solutions and, if necessary, on how to cheat those who control their cross-border movement.

Silvia Leticia Figueroa Ramírez,

Universidad Autónoma de Baja California
Margarita Barajas Tinoco,

Universidad Autónoma de Baja California

Marisol Lara Maldonado,

Universidad Autónoma de Baja California

“Visión gerencial de casinos en el escenario de economías fronterizas (caso Mexicali, Baja California)”
En el marco económico acotado a la frontera México-Estados Unidos, se ha identificado un nuevo giro de actividad económica dentro del sector terciario, relativo a establecimientos de casinos de juegos de azar. El caso que se presenta corresponde al del municipio de Mexicali que es frontera con California, EE.UU. específicamente con las ciudades de Calexico, El Centro y parte de Arizona. La actividad económica que se describe contempla tiempo y contexto en que aparecen y se desarrollan dichos casinos; las características de su tamaño, dinámica e importancia se resuelven a partir de la apreciación de informantes clave. La metodología empleada se centra tanto en investigación documental como de campo, orientándose la primera a búsqueda y recopilación de información histórica y normativa y la segunda, centrada en entrevistas a tres gerentes que laboran en esos lugares. Una de las síntesis de esta actividad económica refiere a que desde la visión gerencial este giro económico tiene potencial y no costos sociales.

Silvia Nuñez,

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

“Feminist, Women and Gender Studies at the Institute for North American Studies, UNAM”

This analysis will provide an overview of research at CISAN focused on women, gender, and feminist studies at CISAN. It will also examine the number and significance of studies over time along with the likelihood of more attention in future research.

Sonia Bass Zavala,

Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo
Melba Elena Muñiz Martelón,

Alianza para Colaboraciones Fronterizas AC., Ciudad Juárez

“Los efectos de los sistemas de salud de México y Estados Unidos en la migración internacional”
Las diferencias fundamentales entre los sistemas de Salud de México y Estados Unidos está fuertemente influenciado por la composición de su capital (publico/ privado), el grado de regulación del Estado y la organización especifica de sus instituciones. Estos elementos repercuten en la cobertura que ofrece cada uno de los sistemas de salud. En México, la atención a la salud es un derecho constitucional de acuerdo al Artículo IV “Toda persona tiene derecho a la protección de la salud. La ley definirá las bases y modalidades para el acceso a los servicios de salud y establecerá la concurrencia de la federación y las entidades federativas en materia de salubridad general” (Constitución Mexicana, 1983). En el caso de Estados Unidos la salud no es un derecho constitucional sino un privilegio, por ello el gobierno federal, a través del Departamento de Salud y Recursos Humanos DHHS (por sus siglas en ingles), se encarga de administrar programas para el cuidado de la salud y servicios sociales como el Medicare y el Medicaid, mientras que los estados se encargan de regular los servicios de salud. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar las causas y los efectos que provocan estos dos sistemas de salud en la migración internacional.

Steve Mumme,

Colorado State University
“Equity and Diplomacy in the Colorado River Salinity Crisis, 1961-1973”
This paper examines the rhetoric and practice of equity during the U.S.-Mexico dispute over the salinity of the Colorado River from 1961-1973. Over its course, the decade-long Salinity Crisis saw both countries defend their diplomatic positions as equitable interpretations of their obligations and entitlements under the 1944 U.S.-Mexico Water Treaty and international law. Drawing on extensive archival research and secondary sources, the paper provides evidence of an evolution in the equity thinking on both sides the border, the results of which contributed to the actual settlement of the dispute in 1973 and established a precedent for understanding equity in the management of the Colorado River as well as the practice of international customary law related to conflict resolution on transboundary rivers.

T. Mark Montoya,

Northern Arizona University
“The Study of Monsters: Arizona’s SB 1070 and HB 2281”
On July 31, 2003, The El Paso Times reported on sightings of a Bigfoot-type creature in Horizon City, Texas. Weeks earlier, the leading Ciudad Juárez newspaper El Diario reported on rumors of Chupacabra activity in a nearby rural area. For years, Bigfoot and Chupacabra legends have entered the mythos of American popular imagination. Like other monster stories, Bigfoot and Chupacabra legends might reveal the complexities of fear on and of the U.S.-Mexico borderlands. The unknown can certainly be cause for fear; and for most Americans the U.S.-Mexico border remains dangerous and unsecured, and citizenship remains Anglo-American. This is because borders are exclusive—often at the expense of conquest, colonization, and imperialism. Such is the case of Arizona. Arizona’s SB1070 was the country’s strictest anti-illegal immigration law. HB2281 effectively banned Ethnic Studies curricula in Arizona public schools. Collectively, the bills sustain an odious politics for many of the state’s citizens. Given the monstrous conditions of Arizona, how should we talk about anti-immigrant sentiment and racism? Linking power to citizenship, we see that identity formations—including race, class, and gender—all factor into the conception of citizenship, particularly in terms of who is granted full citizenship rights and who is not.

Tetsuro CHIDA,

Hokkaido University
“Disaster Recovery on the Borderland in the Small Aral Sea (Kazakhstan)”
The paper deals with the disaster recovery process in the Small Aral Sea, located in the territory of Kazakhstan on the Kazakhstan-Uzbekistan borderland. During the perestroika period, the Aral Sea disaster became internationalized. International organizations like UNEP, World Bank and foreign donors (Denmark, Japan, Germany etc.) have tried to contribute to the mitigation of negative consequences of the Aral Sea disaster since that time, which gave some positive results. However, the real disaster recovery occurred only after 1999, when Kazakhstan economy overcame hardships in times of the transition to a market economy, which enabled the Kazakhstan government to realize some gigantic projects like the closure of the Small Aral Sea by constructing Kokaral Dam in 2005, attracting financial supports from the World Bank. The recovery of the Small Aral Sea enabled locals to revive vocational fishery, which afterwards industrialized and globalized at an accelerated pace under the influence of European capital and technology. The paper focuses upon interactions of actors of multiple scales (local, national, regional and global) on the disaster recovery process, especially on the reconstruction of fishery, in the Small Aral Sea region, with considering transactions with peoples in the Uzbekistan side of the Aral Sea.

Tony Payan,

Rice University and Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez

“Security Issues in Mexico and in Ciudad Juárez. Ciudad Juárez Today: Discussion on the Pre- and Post-Violence Period”

In 2010, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, across from El Paso, Texas, was considered “the most violent city in the world.” That year, it reached the highest murder rate in the world—well beyond San Pedro Sula, Honduras; Caracas, Venezuela; and several others. Slowly, the city has returned to still-high but relatively normal levels of violence—similar to those of 2006. This panel evaluates the efforts of the Mexican government to restore public safety and security in the city and assesses whether the variables that spun the city into chaos have been resolved altogether or whether the city remains vulnerable to a setback in the future. It focuses on the economic conditions, the public safety and security, the political environment, and the recent efforts to improve its image both in Mexico and across the border.

Verónica Guajardo,

University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
“Undocumented students known as DREAMers, and their use of technology”
This panel will discuss uses of Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) are used in work with migrants in different contexts. Following brief presentations by panelists, we will engage in conversation with the audience to elicit other uses of ICT in borderlands studies, in order to draw commonalities and salient differences in approaches, experiences, and results. The intent is to plant the seeds for an ongoing reflection in the role of ICT in borderlands studies, to be revisited and strengthened in future conferences.

Panelists include the following: Gómez and Vannini will present lessons from Fotohistorias, a project using participatory photography to document the stories of migrants at three different research sites (US-Mexico Border, Seattle WA., and in 2 Colombia communities). Second, Bayo-Urban will discuss the use of technology with migrant women from the project “Starting Where We Are: Latinas' (Re)framing of Digital Inclusion,” which examines digital inclusion efforts of women to better understand systems of inequities in digital spaces. Next, Carrera Zamanillo will discuss research addressing traditional foods as a form of cultural ecosystem, and the use of participatory photography and other technologies. Finally, Guajardo will discuss ongoing work with undocumented students known as DREAMers, and their use of technology.

Victor Konrad,

Carleton University

Anne-Laure Amilhat Szary,

Universite Grenoble-Alpes

“Border Culture: A Critical Framework for the Borders in Globalization Project—Ontario”
Border culture is no longer culture at the margins but rather culture at the heart of geopolitics, flows and experience of the transnational world. Increasingly, culture and borders are everywhere yet nowhere. Accordingly, this paper offers an extensive and critical vision of border culture on the move, in bridging border studies and culture theory as it provides insights drawn from the Ontario portion of the Canada-US border in the context of the Borders in Globalization Project. Border culture is situated in border and cultural theory, border imaginaries are linked to cultural production, national narratives and counter narratives are evaluated at the border, facets of border crossings are assessed, and borders are viewed within transnational culture. The aim of the paper is to interrogate many of our assumptions and murky explanations of the intersection of borders and culture, and enable a new broadly based dialogue about border culture. Recent debates on the refugee and border crisis as well as diversification of cultural production through new media confirm that more than ever culture is being politicized. Not only is it located in metaphorical third or in-between space, but borders play an increasing role in understanding the politics of culture. This opens the ground for border studies to address questions raised by cultural theory and engage a wider participation in exploring and understanding the interplay of culture and borders.

William B. Pederson,

Northern Arizona University
“A Multitheoretical Approach to Social Work Practice along the U.S. Mexico Border”
A variety of complex issues exist along the U.S. Mexico border: poverty, education, health, unemployment, migration, trafficking, militarization, and the environment. These issues require social workers to use multiple theoretical perspectives to guide their planned change process with all micro, mezzo, and macro level clients systems in the borderland region.

Xavier Oliveras González,

El Colegio de la Frontera Norte
“La reconfiguración global de las ciudades mexicanas: la migración calificada de Europa del sur a Monterrey / The global reconfiguration of Mexican cities: Southern Europe high skilled migration to Monterrey”
Se presentan resultados de un proyecto de investigación centrado en la inmigración de alta calificación originaria de Europa del sur a México. Se identifican las motivaciones, las trayectorias y movilidad laborales, la construcción de redes, las cotidianidades y las formas de dar sentido de este colectivo en el nuevo país. En una situación de creciente globalización económica y de desfronterización de los Estados-nación vinculada a las dinámicas geoeconómicas, emergen ciudades que se resitúan como polos de atracción a escala global de capitales e inmigrantes de alta calificación. En este contexto se observa un aumento de la movilidad y migración calificada de los países tradicionalmente desarrollados a los países en vías de desarrollo (migraciones Norte-Sur). Un ejemplo de ello lo ofrece la población calificada de España e Italia que, en unos momentos de crisis económica en el sur de Europa, ejerce la posibilidad y capacidad de inmigrar a las ciudades mexicanas emergentes, como Monterrey, Nuevo León.

Yasunori Hanamatsu,

Kyushu University
“Border tourism and changing borderland society in Japan: The case of Tsushima-Busan cross-border tour”
While Japanese jurisdiction covers a wide range of oceanic area around the territories, Japan has not necessarily yet settled maritime delimitation in all border areas with the neighbouring countries such as China, Korea and Russia. Even in such a situation, however, the maritime border area between Tsushima, Japan and Busan, Korea is the most stable in the sea areas surrounding Japan. The borderline of territorial waters and EEZ between Tsushima and Busan has already been delimited by bilateral fisheries agreement. Owing to the fixed borderline, in recent years, a large number of Korean tourists are travelling to Tsushima from Busan by jet-foil, over 200,000 people every year. It indicates that Tsushima may become the first border area in Japan where “border tourism” is successfully put into practice.This paper will introduce the changing situation in Tsushima from the perspective of border tourism. Despite a number of Korean tourists are coming to Tsushima growingly, local government, local people, and Japanese national government have not necessarily coped with a rapid increase in foreign tourists. It will examine some reasons and contexts of the problem, and also show some ideas that will promote border tourism and the stimulation of local economies in Tsushima.

Zhiding Hu,

Yunnan Normal University
Victor Konrad,

Carleton University

“Narrating Territory and Security in Remote Border Places: The Kokang Dispute and the Evolving Borderlands between China and Myanmar”
In 2015, the remote border region of Kokang in Myanmar experienced armed conflict that was reported around the world. Many of the estimated 100,000 refugees from the conflict crossed the border to China while hostilities continued from February through August with temporary truces punctuating the fighting. Unlike the other ethnic minorities fighting the Myanmar government all along the extensive, mountainous border with China, the Kokang are Han Chinese with a well established and nurtured relationship with China. Based on more than 400 interviews of Chinese and Kokang, media reports, and official government releases, this paper explores the varying imaginaries of territory and security in remote Kokang, by the residents of the cross-border region as well as the analysts viewing the conflict from afar. The study offers a lens through which border studies may view the multi-scalar and extended geopolitics of nation-states and their peripheral sub-national components. It reveals how borders are utilized creatively by territorial inhabitants, their neighbors and their governments, how borders work in remote places, and how cross-border culture operates even in conflict situations to mediate borders. The study enlarges our understanding of evolving borders in simultaneous globalization and localization.

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