African and african american studies



Download 2.25 Mb.
Page20/22
Date30.04.2018
Size2.25 Mb.
#42936
1   ...   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22

SLAVIC STUDIES

Sponsored in Part By: The National Association for the Study of

East European and Eurasian Studies
Robert Niebuhr,

Arizona State University

Maria Grazia Bartolini,

Milano State University
“The discourse of Martyrdom in Late Seventeenth-Century Ukraine. The ‘passion-sufferers’ Boris and Gleb in the Homilies of Antonii Radyvylovs’kyi”
This paper investigates the rhetoric of martyrdom that developed in seventeenth-century Ukraine. My focus is limited to the discourse of Orthodox martyrdom as it is developed by Ukrainian Baroque preachers recounting the life and death of the martyrized princes Boris and Gleb. In particular, I focus on two exemplary cases, Antonii Radyvylovs’kyi’s “Slovo pervoe na sviatykh strastoterpets kniazei Borisa i Gleba” and “Slovo vtoroe na sviatykh strastoterpets kniazei Borisa i Gleba” (Kiev, 1676). In tracing the contours of ideologies of martyrdom that arose in the specific cultural setting of seventeenth-century Kiev, I shall tackle the problem of inter-confessional encounters, in particular of those taking place along the Orthodox-Catholic divide, by evaluating the impact of the “martyrological revival” experienced by post-Reformation Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. However, the image of the Eastern Slavic Orthodox martyr as it emerges from the homiletic sources will be seen not only within the context of the international (Counter-Reformation) influences, but also within the context of the refiguring of the Ukrainian religious landscape after Petro Mohyla’s reforms.

Mark A. Cichock,

University of Texas at Arlington
“Symmetrical or Asymmetrical Cyber Security Policies: Comparing Baltic and Russian Goals”
As studies of cyber security become more common there is an assumption that cyber security follows distinct patterns from state to state.  There is also an expectation that from one state to the next cyber security policies will reflect the approximate generally-held value orientations and national interests of state actors.  Practical assessments seem to indicate otherwise: while the Baltic and Russian states may take pathways typical to many states, there is a considerable differential built into each state's policies based on factors including size, defensive capabilities, institutionalism, resources, and the propensity of leaders to employ defensive or offensive strategies.  This study assesses the cyber security policies of the Baltic and Russian states to determine where that differential occurs within the approximate space of these states’ decision-making processes.  In the process it seeks to understand how cyber security policies are valued as instruments for achievable results or as more comprehensive prioritizations of a state's sovereignty and independence.

Evguenia Davidova,

Portland State University
“Nineteenth-Century Balkan Journeys: The Case of Eastern Orthodox Clergy”
The paper focuses on the spatial mobility of various representatives of clergy—from monks to priests to bishops—and sheds light on social and ethnic interactions and everyday life of local communities. While some of them performed hajj, others traveled around the Balkans, Russian, and Habsburg realms in order to collect alms, accomplish political missions, or escape persecutions. The paper’s argument revolves around the idea that those journeys were framed within traditional religious itineraries and social functions but also acquired secular components that enabled new social, political, and cultural practices. In short, clerical mobility illuminates connections between church, state, and society, each in flux. Clergy not only physically moved within vibrant imperial and national environment but also observed it, and in some cases, changed it. The paper is based on various primary sources: correspondence, wills, diaries, as well as newspapers, autobiographies, memoirs, and travelogues.

Thomas Davis,

Rowan University
“Russification and the Red Army: A force of Russian Hegemony over the Slavic Peoples”
Mass conscription by the Soviet Union was a means to russify the Slavic populations of Eastern and Central Europe. Josef Stalin hoped that by bringing different ethnic groups, countries and nationalities into the Red Army he would successfully be able to russify certain Slavic populations. The mass deportation of other non-Slavic populations such as Volga Germans, Chechens and others strengthens the russification program of the USSR. One way in which Stalin carried this out was by mass conscription in a Russian speaking army that had brutal discipline for all those outside of the “party lines.” By looking at the ethnic make-up of different Red Army units and the discipline practices used to ensure conscript and unit coherence, it is apparent that Stalin, himself a russified Georgian, hoped to bring some sort of Russification to the units in the Red Army. There was little room in the Red Army for non-Slavic peoples, but unlike Hitler, Stalin acted out of pragmatism and not a sense of racial superiority. If a group of people could possibly swear allegiance or devote anything less than their “full measure” to the Soviet Union then there was no room for them in the Red Army.

Nataliia Kasianenko,

University of Nevada, Reno
“State-controlled Media and Nationalism. Evidence from Russia and Ukraine”
Recently, nationalism has become a potent phenomenon in Eastern Europe. With the conflict between Ukraine and Russia, nationalist sentiments in both countries have been rising. This research explores how a government may use media in order to intensify nationalism and receive public support in the two countries, Russia and Ukraine. The paper incorporates saliency theory to understanding nationalism. The argument put forward in the research is that nationalism can be intensified if the elites emphasize the salience of certain issues important to voters and incorporate these issues into their nationalist rhetoric. However, nationalism will not be picked up by the masses if there is no unifying basis for national identification in a country. Therefore, historical and cultural context matters when it comes to the success of political elites in advancing nationalism. The research paper uses qualitative methodology to analyze print and television media at the national level in Ukraine and Russia. The research addresses the following questions: What determines the success of political elites in promoting nationalism from the top in Russia and Ukraine? What salient issues are associated with nationalism? Did nationalist rhetoric change with the conflict between the two countries?

Joseph Kellner,

UC Berkeley
“As Above, So Below: Astrology and the Soviet Collapse”
My dissertation is a cultural history of the Soviet collapse, focusing on the spirited and highly visible search by many educated urban Soviets for meaning after the discrediting and disappearance of state ideological control.  This search led its seekers beyond conventional political philosophies or the USSR’s traditional faiths towards more radical conceptions of the world and the place of humans within it.  For observers of the era's culture, astrology has become shorthand for this larger transformation—it was the brightest star in a constellation of new ideas, discussed and propagated widely in the press and enduring to the present day.  To more skeptical observers, the astrology boom was puzzling—neither the Soviet Union nor Tsarist Russia had a notable tradition in astrology, and no foreign groups were invested in its success.  By locating and assessing astrology's roots in the postwar Soviet Union, this paper suggests that the discipline’s logic and spiritual content are in fact quite compatible with the official Soviet culture that long sought to discredit it.  

Tom Koritschan,

Stanford University
“Uranium on Trial: Mines and Minds in Czechoslovakia, 1946–1951”
This paper analyses the trial of a uranium–mine’s management in Czechoslovakia in 1951. The

main defendants were found guilty of sabotage and treason and charged with death and

lifelong prison sentences. At first sight, the case looks like a number of other comparable trials

of the time across Eastern Europe, serving its function to create a monopoly of power for the

communist party and stabilize the new political system. A closer examination reveals that

there was much more at stake. It is the only trial where the accused were working with

uranium. In addition to the Erzgebirge in the GDR, the Soviet race for the bomb went hand in hand with the development of Czechoslovak uranium. The Jachymov mine trial has not yet been analyzed by any historian. Based on trial documents published in 2004 and meeting transcripts of the Czechoslovak communist party in the Hoover Archive, I will try to answer how this trial sheds light on the workings of the Czechoslovak State Security (StB) and why it was made public in the first place; both Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union must have had a vital interest not to draw attention to their uranium production.

Lynn Lubamersky,

Boise State University
“The Memory of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth and its significance Today”
The memory of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth might appear, at first glance, to be a rather irrelevant topic in the year 2016.  After all, how can there be any point fighting over the memory of a state that ceased to exist over 200 years ago?  But the recent conflict in Ukraine has highlighted the memory wars that underscore the actual war now taking place there.  Putin’s Russia is a revisionist power, since it is the first state to re-draw the boundaries of post-World War II Europe by annexing Crimea.  It prepared the groundwork for this annexation by engaging in memory warfare.  Putin’s Russia has re-written the history of the recent and more distant past by, for example, rehabilitating Stalin to frame him heroically as the liberator of Europe and rationally as a great modernizer of the state in the tradition of Peter the Great.   More sinister for Lithuania and the lands of the former Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth, Russia’s current political elite views history as a tool of domestic and foreign policy.  This paper examines the memory of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth from the perspective of those in the successor states as well as the use of that memory by Russia.

Jesus Madrigal,

UC Berkeley
“Art for the New World: The Soviet and Mexican Avant-garde (1920–1940)”
In 1938 Leon Trotsky wrote, “In the field of painting, the October Revolution has found her greatest interpreter not in the USSR but in faraway Mexico.” The man he had in mind was the Mexican muralist Diego Rivera.  Trotsky was not just flattering his benefactor who had helped him gain asylum in Mexico. He was recognizing the shared spirit of the groups of artists who had dedicated their lives and work to the first two revolutions of the twentieth century.  This paper will focus on moments of encounters between the two avant-gardes: Mayakovsky’s visit in 1925, Eisenstein’s filming of Que Viva Mexico, and Siqueiros’ attempt to murder Trotsky in the name of Stalin.

Robert Niebuhr,

Arizona State University
“Yugoslav Foreign Policy and Tito’s Twilight”  
This paper examines the moods in Yugoslav foreign policy during the 1970s, or the time of Tito’s twilight.  During the prior decade, the Yugoslav government enjoyed the glory of leading the Non-Aligned Movement but by 1968 things changed.  No longer in command of a global movement, the Yugoslavs searched for a meaningful foreign policy that could still aid in the construction of a domestic legitimacy.  First, this paper explores the global observations of Yugoslav policymakers in the wake of these changes and takes a particular interest in Yugoslav perceptions of China.  Second, this paper attempts to situate these moves in light of the general return to European concerns, with Tito’s involvement in the Helsinki Accords.  

Sabina Pachariz,

Marmara University, Istanbul
“The Migrations of Bosniaks from Former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to Turkey in the Period 1945-1974: the Case of Sandzak”
The subject of this study is the migrations of Bosniaks from the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) to Turkey in the period 1945-1974.  More specifically, such emigration was widespread amongst Bosniaks from the Sandzak region, while such emigration occurred only sporadically amongst those from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Sandzak was distinctive for its specific economic and socio-political situations, which seriously disadvantaged the populace and which were the central driving force of emigration. Due to the long-established historical bonds, the migrants tended to perceive Turkey as their “original” homeland, particularly since they were primarily concerned with preserving their religious and cultural identity. As a result of various administrative and international regulations that came into effect at the time, the emigrants bound for Turkey had to transit through Macedonia, often with a lengthy stay in Macedonia. Over time, this came to have a pronounced and long-lasting effect on Macedonia’s ethnographic composition.  While questioning the widely promoted official SFRY ideology of “Brotherhood and Unity,” this study examines the effects of the policies of the ruling SFRY regime, and highlights the importance of a fuller appreciation of the role of religious and national identity within a multi-ethnic communistic country in the Balkans.

Natalia Reshetova,

Stanford University
“Chronology and Scope of the Great Russian Famine of the early 1920s”
When did the famine typically associated with the early 1920s really start? How long did it last? Recent Western and Russian historical scholarship states that before the famine of the early 1920s there was a large-scale famine during the early years of the Russian Civil War, to which historians have not paid much attention. Was there one famine or did two famines co-exist? Was the famine All-Russian?  This paper addresses these and other questions and concentrates on new archival materials that support analysis of chronology of the first purely Soviet famine, as well as its scope, geography (famine regions) and distinctive features, which are not, to date, adequately reflected in historical scholarship.  I argue that the unfinished famine of the period of the Civil War, both in the form of chronic hunger and absolute starvation, was overlapped by the new famine, which was already apparent in the fall of 1920. The consequences of this famine had not fully disappeared in 1924-1925. In conclusion, this project, by closely examining a wide variety of historical sources, sheds new light on the highly relevant issue of the mass famine as a socio-political and economic process that lasted several years.

Kyeann Sayer,

University of Hawaii Manoa
“‘The German Yoke,’ Lutheranism, and Anna Ivanovna’s Court: Russia and Pan-European Interdenominational Struggle in the 1730s”
Throughout the 1730s, the Russian court remained a locus of interdenominational cross-fertilization and conflict, integrated into pan-European interdenominational struggles.  In 1732 the Duke of Illyria, previous Spanish envoy to the Russian court, published the inflammatory text Examen Veri with the help of Russian Orthodox clergy, denouncing Russian Empress Anna Ivanovna's Lutheran-dominated regime and castigating Lutherans and Calvinists. The text's publication evoked the contentious period of Peter I’s church reforms in the early eighteenth century, as well as the Jansenist controversy. During Peter I’s reign, as influential Baltic Germans became integrated into the elite as a result of the Great Northern War, Peter wrested autonomy from his church and created a new blend of sacral authority among the elite. Accusations of Lutheran sympathies emerged during Peter’s time and bubbled up again through Examen Veri as Baltic Germans became prominent during Anna Ivanovna’s reign. That Anna Ivanovna’s decade, often associated with the “German yoke” of Baltic and Westphalian advisors, was also to some degree portrayed as a “Lutheran” yoke reveals continuity with Russian and Ukrainian criticisms of Peter’s church reforms.  

Joseph Schlegel,

University of Toronto
“Andrei Bely’s Nekrasov: Aesthetic Reappraisal of a Civic Poet”
The Russian Symbolist poet, novelist, and theoretician, Andrei Bely, dedicated his second collection of verse, Ashes (Pepel’, 1909), to an unlikely figure: the mid-nineteenth-century civic poet and publisher, Nikolai Nekrasov. Additionally, one of Bely’s influential essays, “Lyric Poetry and Experiment” (“Lirika i eksperiment”), written in the same year, arranges Nekrasov as the primary example for each of Bely’s innovative techniques of metrical analysis. In this paper, I analyze Bely’s appropriation of Nekrasov in both poetry and theory. Bely’s extended treatment of Nekrasov within the context of poetic theory offers a range of aesthetic possibilities, which Bely explores artistically within the partnered poems of Ashes. Bely relinquishes the content-driven approach to Nekrasov’s work in order to effect a dramatic shift in tone through the adoption of Nekrasov as an aesthetic model of poetic form. The impact of Bely’s reappraisal of Nekrasov is apparent in the work of later modernist writers, including Kornei Chukovsky, Boris Pasternak, and Vladimir Nabokov.

Walter N. Sisto,

D'Youville College
“Sergius Bulgakov: Sophiological interpretation of Ascension of Jesus Christ into Heaven”
In recent years scholars of Russian Religious Renaissance and Russian Sophiology have begun to examine the theological thought of one of the most remarkable thinkers, Sergius N. Bulgakov. This paper contributes to that growing body of literature on Bulgakov’s theology, particularly examining his mature theology authored in the last years of his life. This paper will examine an important aspect of his eschatology that has been overlooked, his theology of the Ascension of Jesus Christ to heaven. I will argue that Bulgakov’s sophiological interpretation of the Ascension provides unique insights on the Parousia as well as helps to explain how God is in the world and the world and God, and the implications the Ascension for what Bulgakov calls “churchly living.”

Tatyana Sochiva,

Saint Petersburg State University
“Image of Apocalyptic Whore in ‘The Book of Interpretations and Morals’”
A topic of my paper is Image of apocalyptic whore in “The Book of Interpretations and Morals” by protopope Avvakum.”“The Book of Interpretations and Morals” is exegetical didactic and polemic work, created in the 17th century by an outstanding Russian writer and spiritual leader of the old believers, protopope (archpriest) Avvakum. 17th century in Russia was known for destruction of old cultural traditions and deep schism that were perceived by Avvakum and other old believers as apocalyptic signs. Many researchers, including well-known American Slavists Serge A. Zenkovsky and Priscilla Hunt, wrote about apocalyptic motifs and eschatological views in Avvakum's works. But there is no yet research devoted to apocalyptic images in “The Book of Interpretations and Morals.” The purpose of the report is to analyze the main symbol of the book —apocalyptic whore—in connection with the problem of the ideological and artistic integrity of the book.

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

Pete Martini,



Heidelberg University
Mauricio J. Alvarez,

University of Nevada, Reno


Lindsay Perez,

University of Nevada, Reno


Susanne Martin,

University of Nevada, Reno


James T. Richardson,

University of Nevada, Reno


“Historical Triggers of Uncertainty and Its Relationship to Support for Violent Activism in the United States”
The experience of uncertainty has been linked to stronger support for radical or extremist groups. The majority of experimental research on this link relies on individuals’ idiosyncratic experiences to trigger uncertainty. That is, individuals are primed with uncertainty by being asked to recall circumstances in which they felt uncertain. This project sought to expand the literature on uncertainty and extremism by using two specific historical events as potential triggers of uncertainty: the beginning of the Great Recession in 2008, and the 2008 election of Barack Obama. The Great Recession could represent a trigger for uncertainty due to its impact on individuals’ economic stability. The election of Barack Obama could represent a trigger for uncertainty because for the first time, a non-White individual became president of the United States. Participants recruited via Amazon.com’s Mechanical Turk. First, participants were randomly assigned to recall one of these two events, to recall one instance in which they felt uncertain about their future, or to recall one instance in which they felt certain about their future. Following this, participants completed a measure of support for peaceful and violent activism, and provided demographic characteristics (age, gender, political affiliation). Implications of this project for uncertainty theory and the understanding of radicalization processes are discussed.

Jacob Blackard,

University of Nevada, Reno
Colleen Murray,

University of Nevada, Reno


“Risk and Benefit Perceptions, Affinity for Technology, and Attitudes Toward Drones”
Civilian use of unmanned autonomous vehicles (drones) has quickly grown to include first responders, business, media, and recreationalists. The public is expected to weigh perceived risks and benefits in forming their attitudes toward drones. However, risk and benefit perceptions may be colored by one’s affinity for technology, resulting in attitudes that differ from what perceived risks and benefits alone would predict. A national sample of 706 participants (ages 18 to 75) was collected via Amazon Mechanical Turk during June-July 2015. The online survey required 25 to 40 minutes to complete. Most participants had no direct experience with drones (only 7 owned a drone, 8 had jobs that utilized robots or drones, and 13 had hobbies using drones or robots). Most participants were ages 18 to 44, and overall attitudes toward drones did not differ across those ages. For the overall sample risk and benefit perceptions were negatively correlated (r = -.172). Multiple regression analysis found significant main effects for the three variables, but there were no interaction effects (R square = .386). Overall attitude toward drones (the dependent variable consisting of a single Likert item with a range of 1-7) was positively related to perception of drone benefit and affinity for technology, and it was negatively related to risk perception. Affinity for technology did not serve as a moderator of attitudes, but had an effect independent of risk and benefit perceptions.  

Marisa Crowder,

University of Nevada, Reno
Markus Kemmelmeier,

University of Nevada, Reno


“New insights into the assessment of U.S. honor culture: Convergent measures predict divergent outcomes”
Distinct regional patterns in self-inflicted and interpersonal violence across the United States have long been the focus of research on U.S. honor culture. Honor culture refers to a cultural formation that prizes individuals’ social reputation and sanctions potentially aggressive action in defense of this reputation. Researchers interested in studying honor culture in the U.S. typically use Gastil’s (1971) Southerness index or Cohen’s (1998) dichotomous classification of U.S. honor versus non-honor states. Although which measure is preferred typically depends on the academic discipline (psychology, sociology, and criminology), even within the same discipline authors sometimes use different measures across different studies. We suspected that the two measures do not tap into the same construct, implying that findings obtained with these two measures are not comparable. Though the measures are correlated with each other, we found that Cohen’s classification and Gastil’s Southerness index did not predict the same outcomes when controlling for other culturally relevant variables. Rather, they differentially predicted patterns of violent crime and suicide rates, some of the most frequently studied outcomes associated with honor culture. This challenges many findings of culture research, which links the high suicide and murder rates to the violent culture of honor. Implications and future directions will be discussed.

Laverne DaCosta,

Arizona State University
“Extreme Violence in Classrooms: Why Not Leverage Cell Phone Use Instead?”
This conceptual work is an exploration of psycho-social theories that help to frame pedagogy. The discussion comes to focus on questions of philosophical beliefs about teaching and learning, power, and the use of technology. While there is a push to integrate digital technology in American classrooms in the effort to become competitive in a digital world, many schools have instituted policies that prohibit students from using personal digital devices on their campuses. Despite these rules, students continue to use personal cell phones for text messaging, to search for information, and for the myriad other reasons for which young people use their cell phones in classrooms all across America. Situated in critical pedagogy, I examine the taken-for-granted educational discourses of creativity, community, and collaboration and call for a more participatory environment where teachers should consider leveraging cell phone use in classrooms given the inevitable.

Alicia DeVault,

University of Nevada, Reno
Monica K. Miller,

University of Nevada, Reno


“Gender and Attitudes Toward Transgenders as Predictors of Transgender Adoption Rights”
While transgender rights have received widespread media attention, research is still scarce. Negative attitudes lead to more discriminatory behavior; furthermore, men and women might have differing attitudes toward transgenders. Consequently, a survey was conducted which examined whether attitudes toward transgenders, gender of the participants, and the interaction between these two variables significantly predicted transgender rights to adoption. It was hypothesized that (1) there will be a main effect of gender such that women will be more likely to support transgender rights to adoption, (2) there will be a main effect of attitudes such that more positive attitudes lead to more support for transgender rights to adoption, and (3) there will be an interaction between gender and attitudes toward transgendered individuals such that men will have more negative attitudes than women and demonstrate less support for transgender rights to adoption. After controlling for political and religious affiliations, hypotheses were partially supported. Attitudes toward transgenders and the interaction between attitudes and gender of participants were significant predictors; gender was not a significant predictor. More research is needed to determine if these results exist after experimental manipulation (e.g., manipulating the gender, age, and race of the transgender person seeking to adopt a child).

Yousueng Han,

Indiana University-Bloomington
“Conceptual Bases of Individual Accountability”
Accountability research needs to reflect the distinction between organizational and individual level accountability. Based on previous literature, individual accountability is defined as expectation that my decision or action about rules should be explained to salient audience(s), with the belief accompanying rewards based on evaluation. Conceptually distinguishable five-sub dimensions builds up the formal definition of individual accountability. Relevant theoretical framework linking organizational accountability and individual accountability is made for future research. Each component and integrated construct need to be also empirically tested.

Ann E. Jones,

University of Nevada, Reno
Marta Elliott,

University of Nevada, Reno


“Social Desirability in Measures of Religion and Spirituality: A Bogus Pipeline Study”
A primary concern in the psychology of religion is the distinct possibility that responses to empirical assessments of individuals’ degree and type of religiosity and spirituality are exaggerated owing to social desirability bias. In spite of increased secularization in American culture and a growing distrust of organized religion, religious involvement, personal religiosity, and spirituality are still viewed as highly desirable characteristics. This study estimates the extent of social desirability biases that affect self-reports of religion and spirituality by utilizing a bogus pipeline procedure. In this procedure, participants are convinced that experimenters can detect disingenuous responses to individual items on questionnaires through the use of physiological measures, although no physiological data are actually collected. If the self-reports of participants in the bogus pipeline condition indicate greater religiosity or spirituality than those in the control condition, self-report bias is indicated. The bogus pipeline procedure has been used in other areas of study to increase veracity of self-reports when social desirability effects are present (such as reporting sexual behaviors or prejudice). The results indicate that social desirability biases influence multiple constructs including religious orientations, religious coping, and daily spiritual experiences. Implications for future research relying on self-reports of religion and spirituality are discussed.

Michael J Kwiatkowski,

University of Nevada, Reno
Gwen Hullman,

University of Nevada, Reno


“Freedom to express or privacy of one’s identity: A comparison of two models to examine identity presentation within Internet usage”
How individuals present themselves while online is a growing concern with regards to issues of privacy, information, and association. As such, people may balance issues of expression/association with issues of privacy in an effort to present themselves in the manner they see fit. This balance between protecting one’s identity and expressing the identity needs to be examined as individual continually and increasingly utilize the Internet to present their identity. This study attempts to model attitudes toward freedom of expression and freedom of association as a representative of identity presentations, specifically representing being able to do so without restrictions to who the identity is shared with or how it is shared. As such, two SEM models were constructed and tested to determine the relationships within the larger construct of identity presentation. Further studies are planned and discussed based upon the results.

Michael J Kwiatkowski,

University of Nevada, Reno
Gwen Hullman,

University of Nevada, Reno


“Negotiating a deal or negotiating our conversation: A dyadic, experimental approach to the impact of suspicion upon changes in conversational goals within a negotiation”
Negotiations are inherently at least two person interaction. To appropriately deal with the interaction, a dyadic approach to the desired outcomes, or conversational goals, within the negotiation provides insight into how goals may change when in conflict with another person. In addition to conversational goals, being suspicious of the other person in a conflict may change how the conflict unfolds and is resolved. The experimental manipulation of suspicion for the interdependent roles within a negotiation provided insight into how suspicion impacts conversational goals. Gender, resolution of the conflict, and other factors were examined along with suspicion. Two models were utilized to examine the dyadic nature of the data: a multi-level model and an actor-partner structural equation model.

Brian M. Lee,

University of Nevada, Reno
“Religious Freedom in Europe: An Analysis of Article 9 Violation Cases in the European Court of Human Rights”
The tragic events of World War II led to the establishment of the Council of Europe and the European Convention of Human Right and Fundamental Freedoms. Article 9 of these fundamental freedoms guarantees religious freedom. After the break-up of the Soviet Union, numerous nations wanted to affiliate with the Council of Europe, which contributed to the European Court of Human Rights enforcing Article 9 for the first time in 1993 in what other researchers consider a “pilot judgment”. Since then, numerous cases involving potential Article 9 violations have come from many states within the Council of Europe. However, some previous research has suggested that there may be an unequal treatment of cases before the European Court of Human Rights between cases that come out of original member states and states which joined later in history. This paper examines the outcome of cases involving allegations of Article 9 violations, and contrasts the outcomes between original member states of the Council of Europe, and states which joined later, as well as capitalist countries compared to post-communist countries. Implications of the findings will also be discussed.

Samuel Lindsey,

Adobe Systems, Inc.
Victoria Springer,

Adobe Systems, Inc.


Stephanie Vezich,

Adobe Systems, Inc.


Peter Merrill,

Adobe Systems, Inc.


Mark Nichoson,

Adobe Systems, Inc.


“Art in algorithms: Results of a hu(man) vs. machine test of creative outputs”
Can you tell the difference between an artistic creation made by a human from one made by a program? If the origin was masked, would you prefer artistic creations made by a professional creative artist or a computer algorithm? Across two studies, this research explored the ability of humans to detect artistic differences originating from a creative human versus a computer algorithm. A crowdsourced sample of 200 respondents in the United States, watched a series of two comparative videos that were made using the same media assets (i.e., photos, video, audio) but artistically assembled differently based on creative decisions manually made by professional video artist and ‘decisions’ automatically generated by a computer algorithm. Algorithmic rules were based on information the algorithm was programmed to learn from the media assets. Respondents were asked which video they preferred, and then told one video was created by a human professional video editor and another video by a computer algorithm. Participants answered which video they thought was generated by the computer. Results revealed participants preferred the algorithm-generated video or had no preference more than 50% of the time, and up to 65% of respondents incorrectly guessed or could not discern if the videos were created by computer algorithm. The findings suggest that art is not only an expression of human creativity and imagination, but can also be perceived as an expression of machine-generated creativity.

Lisa Maletsky,

University of Nevada, Reno
Aubrey Etopio,

University of Nevada, Reno


“Green Dot Bystander Intervention Pilot Program Baseline Evaluation Results”
Preventing relationship abuse (i.e., bullying, interpersonal and romantic-based violence, sexual assault) on high school campuses has become an increasingly important social issue. Green Dot is a bystander intervention program that teaches youth safe ways to intervene in active or impending situations of violence, and was created based on the social psychological constructs of diffusion of responsibility and pluralistic ignorance. An evaluation was planned to examine the impact of a Green Dot pilot intervention at a Washoe County high school. Although previous surveys have documented youth’s reports of intentions to intervene in violence, in actual situations of violence youth rarely act, making these self-reports unreliable. A baseline survey was constructed based on the program’s logic model and the underlying theory of the program, and asked students to rate both themselves as well as perceptions of their peers on several parallel items. Results indicated that youth were highly positive in their ratings of willingness to intervene in situations of violence but that they were significantly less likely to rate their peers as willing to intervene. The discrepancy in reports of personal behavior versus peer behavior may highlight why bystander intervention behaviors are actually uncommon in practice. Implications for the pilot program as it moves into the implementation phase are discussed.

Pete Martini,

Heidelberg University
Victoria Springer,

Adobe Systems, Inc.


“Americans, Religion, and the Justifiability of Violence”
The perceived increase in gun deaths over the past decade has many looking at the nexus of religion and violence. In the past year alone, several high profile acts of violence have strong ties to religion. Many lay observers foster beliefs that some religions, like Islam, simply condone violence to a greater degree than Christianity. The present study sheds light on the complexity of the issue. Amazon’s Mechanical Turk was utilized to obtain a sample (n = 3,189) of Americans who were asked a variety of questions on religious denomination and the justifiability of violence. Results suggest that, broadly speaking, individuals identifying as Muslim see violence as more justifiable. However, follow-up analyses indicate that this effect has little to do with religiosity but more likely related to political ideology. Implications and future research will be discussed.

Christine M. McDermott,

University of Nevada, Reno
Monica K. Miller,

University of Nevada, Reno


“Impact of Judicial Instructions and Belief in Memory on Perceptions of a Case Involving Eyewitness Testimony”
There are many problems associated with eyewitness identifications; however, this type of evidence is compelling for jurors (Leippe, 2009). The persuasiveness of eyewitness testimony has contributed to wrongful convictions and incarcerations. In fact, 75% of the wrongfully convicted persons released by DNA evidence were convicted based on eyewitness testimony (Innocence Project, n.d.). New Jersey has created new judicial instructions in an attempt to educate jurors (State v. Henderson, 2011), but previous research questions the efficacy of judicial instructions (c.f., Lieppe, 2009; Loftus, 1996). The current study examined if judicial instructions and pre-existing belief in the fallibility of memory impacted perceptions of the eyewitness or defendant in a case involving eyewitness testimony. University students (n = 206) participated in a 3 (instruction type: no instruction, instruction only, instruction plus verdict form) x 4 (eyewitness conditions: ideal, poor lighting, cross-race, excessive confidence) experimental design. Result indicate that judicial instructions did not significantly impact assessments of the eyewitness, the defendant, or verdicts. However, belief in fallibility of memory significantly reduced assessments of eyewitness credibility under flawed conditions. Pre-existing belief in fallibility of memory also significantly decreased perceptions of defendant guilt. These results have implications for academics and legal practitioners.

Dara Naphan,

University of Nevada, Reno
Marta Elliott,

University of Nevada, Reno


“Women, Identity and Persistence in Engineering”
In the current study, we explored factors that predict women’s persistence in college engineering, a field in which women have been historically under-represented. Through a survey, we measured 400 women’s 1) perceptions of micro-aggressions and discrimination against them as women in engineering, 2) the importance of their identities as women and as engineers, 3) the degree to which they felt those identities conflicted with one another, 4) strategies for coping with being a woman in a male-dominated field, 5) sense of belonging, 6) self-efficacy and 7) perceived likelihood of persistence. Focus groups were also conducted with groups of women who had higher and lower levels of perceived persistence in engineering, and with women who switched out of an engineering major. We found that the importance of being a woman negatively predicted persistence, while the importance of being an engineer positively predicted persistence, as did sense of belonging and self-efficacy.

Jenny Reichert,

Heidelberg University
Monica K. Miller,

University of Nevada, Reno


“Social comparison processes and adults' judgments of children's weights and intentions to control children's weight”
Childhood obesity rates are increasing in the United States, partly because adults, especially parents, are unable to recognize overweight and obesity in children. This could be in part because social comparisons allow parents to compare their child to other overweight children and rationalize that their child is “normal”. This study assessed the accuracy of adults’ judgments of children’s weights and investigated whether social comparison manipulations affect how parents judge their child’s health status based on the child’s weight, the health status of another child based on the child’s weight, and their intentions to control their children’s weight. An experimental manipulation provided parents with a photograph of a fictional child that served as a social comparison to their own child. The children varied in gender and age, and were either slightly underweight (upward comparison), normal weight (control comparison), or severely overweight (downward comparison). Participants completed a survey measure in which they judged the subjective health status of the child in the photograph based on the child’s weight. Parents provided the height and weight of their own child and then judged the subjective health status of their child based on their child’s weight. The child’s BMI was calculated in order to create an objective measure of the child’s health status to compare to the parent’s subjective judgment of the child’s health status. Overall, only 22.8% of all participants correctly identified the weight status of the fictional child, and only 26.39% of parents correctly identified the weight status of their own child. Results reveal that parents were unable to accurately judge the health status of the downward comparison in the photograph when compared to the control comparison and the upward comparison. Further, parents are less accurate in judging their child’s weight (i.e., correctly identifying their child’s weight status) when given an upward comparison than when given a control comparison. This lends support to the notion of vicarious social comparisons, according to which parents can vicariously personally experience the cognitive effects of a comparison made between their child and another child, rather than a comparison made between the self and another. Social comparison did not affect parents’ intentions to control their child’s weight. Addressing children’s weight requires helping parents recognize when their child is overweight or obese, but parents’ accuracy may rely on comparisons between their child and another child rather than on objective measures of health. This research can be used in the development of programs designed to increase recognition of overweight and obesity in children to slow rising obesity rates.

Marcella Shrout,

The University of Nevada, Reno
Daniel Weigel,

The University of Nevada, Reno


“Should I Stay or Should I Go? Understanding Partner’s Decision-Making Process Following Infidelity”
Infidelity is one of the most serious problems that arise in relationships, and it is one of the leading causes of divorce. The extant research on infidelity focuses on understanding why partners engage in unfaithful behaviors or reconciling the relationship through marital therapy. The present paper, however, focuses on the noninvolved partners’ decision-making processes associated with relationship maintenance or dissolution after infidelity. This paper integrates theoretical concepts from social norms, biased information searching, attribution theory, and forgiveness to develop a conceptual model for understanding how noninvolved partners decide to stay or leave an unfaithful relationship. We propose that once an infidelity becomes known, the noninvolved partner’s social norms establish expected behaviors about staying or leaving the relationship. To comply with these norms, the partner searches for information that supports a situational or dispositional attribution about the infidelity. Once an attribution is made, the partner assigns blame to the unfaithful partner or to the situation, leading to high or low forgiveness. Depending upon the level of forgiveness, the partner then decides whether to stay or leave the unfaithful partner. Infidelity is estimated to occur in 20% to 60% of marriages in the United States, and up to 75% of college students have reported engaging in unfaithful behavior. This paper helps understand why some noninvolved partners stay while others leave the relationship.

Theresa B. Skaar,

University of Nevada, Reno
Kathryn A. Herzog,

Metropolitan State University


Kerry S. Kleyman,

Metropolitan State University


“The Curmudgeon Effect: The Relationship Between Perceived Age and Conservatism”
The common stereotype in research in the area of political ideology identifies physical age as an indicator of a conservative leaning. However, much of this literature notates age as secondary or demographic descriptions, instead of focusing on the complexities of developmental influences. Further, in the literature, there is conflicting evidence on the influence of age and conservatism. One camp focuses on the attitudinal stability or change, while the other focuses on the age-related rigidity. Thus, the current study investigated the relationships between age, perceived age, and hypothesized conservative leanings. It was further predicted that perceived age is a stronger predictor than physical age, and that there would be differences in social vs. economic conservative ideology amongst these age differences. A cross-sectional sample was recruited from urban areas in Nevada and Minnesota. A self-directed instrument was utilized, and included measures of perceived life expectancy, and social and economic political ideology, while controlling for dispositional optimism, depression, and self-rated health. The results indicated support for perceived age as a stronger predictor of overall conservative ideology than physical age itself, and further, that social issues (vs. economic issues) are more likely to differ between said age differences. What this seems to indicate is that conservative ideology shifts in a more predictable way, as we perceive our age placement within society. Understanding age and perceived age differences through the lifespan on political ideologies is an important piece of the puzzle, considering the proportion of the population of people aged 65 and older is rising. The discussion is focused on the need for continued research on developmental influences in the area of political cognition and behavior.

Victoria Springer,

Adobe Systems, Inc.
Stephanie Vezich,

Adobe Systems, Inc.


Samuel Lindsey,

Adobe Systems, Inc.


“Barriers to creativity: Why the way we see ourselves matters”
Do you think of yourself as a creative person? Do you aspire to be more creative regarding the things you make in your personal life – for family, friends, and loved ones? This study explored these types of self-cognitions and probed for barriers that might hinder personal creativity. That is – are there things that are keeping you from being as creative as you want to be? Conducted with an online crowdsourced sample of over 500 respondents in the United States, this study revealed that 4 out of 5 everyday creators (non-professionals) felt at least ‘somewhat’ creative. Just as many also aspired to be more creative. When asked what being more creative meant, respondents communicated a desire for more ways to express themselves, increased proficiency and skill, as well as more passion and inspiration. Despite this desire to be creative, 2 out of 3 of these same respondents felt that they experience barriers to their creativity. One of the most common was their thoughts or feelings about their own creativity. Difficulty getting started and insecurity about being ‘good enough’, lacking inspiration, and not ‘feeling creative’ all played a role in challenging creativity. Respondents shared experiences of discouragement, self-consciousness, and inadequacy. When asked what would help them feel ‘good enough’, they expressed a hopeful desire for positive feedback and encouragement, as well as gaining more experience and skill. This suggests that our own cognitions have the ability to create barriers to creativity, but also holds the key to removing them.

Victoria Springer,

Adobe Systems, Inc.
Stephanie Vezich,

Adobe Systems, Inc.


Samuel Lindsey,

Adobe Systems, Inc.


“Creativity at work and play: How context shapes our thoughts on creativity”
What comes to mind when you hear the word ‘creativity’? What does it mean to be ‘creative’? For some, these words conjure images of artistic talent and inspired genius. For others, creativity may represent novel and imaginative thinking. This study was intended to investigate the characterization of creativity and the extent to which context influenced its meaning. Conducted with an online crowdsourced sample of over 500 respondents in the United States, this study explored how people think about creativity as it relates to their personal projects, in contrast with what it means to be ‘creative’ at work or school. When it comes to personal projects, respondents used expressive language, associating creativity with imagination and art. When asked what creativity meant in the context of work and school, predominantly cognitive and instrumental language emerged including words such as think, solutions, different, and ideas. Despite the differences in what it means to be ‘creative’, we found remarkable consistency in what people found most satisfying about the types of projects they completed in each context. ‘Accomplishing what I wanted to do’ was the most satisfying outcome of both personal and work / school projects, followed by ‘making something with my own hands’, ‘the personal value of what I make’ and its ‘uniqueness’. This implies that satisfaction with what we make is not dependent on the context of creation. Taken together, this work suggests that though creativity is a multifaceted, context-dependent construct, it is underpinned by a common sense of satisfaction with creation.

Stephanie Vezich,

Adobe Systems, Inc.
Victoria Springer,

Adobe Systems, Inc.


Samuel Lindsey,

Adobe Systems, Inc.


“Social aspects of creativity: What it means to share and build creative communities”
Is the desire to create intrinsically linked with the desire to share the things we make? Why do we share, and how does feedback from our social peers influence our creativity? What does it mean to be part of a creative community, and what are its defining features? Drawing from a review of academic and syndicated research, we outline best practices related to fostering active and creative communities, which we organize into three stages: 1) Creating an inviting environment, 2) attracting the right users, and 3) treating those users well. The strategies we cover have been tested with groups ranging from astrophysicists to children at summer camp to examine the extent to which the effects are generalizable. We also walk through specific examples of online creative communities to assess how well they embody these best practices. We then apply these principles in a study on photographers in creative communities. Using a combination of survey and qualitative interview methodologies, we examine why a variety of photographers ‘from hobbyists to professionals’ join creative communities, what they hope to achieve in doing so, and why they sometimes abandon those communities. Our findings map onto the best practices identified in our literature review and provide suggestions for future communities in this creative domain.

Emily F. Wood,

University of Nevada, Reno
Monica K. Miller,

University of Nevada, Reno


“Relationship between Individual Differences and Attitudes toward Immigrants in a Student Sample”
The number of immigrants living in the United States has increased steadily over the past few decades. Negative attitudes toward immigrants, which might lead to prejudice and discrimination, can have adverse effects on immigrants in the realms of the legal system, workplace, healthcare, and education. The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences and attitudes toward immigrants in a student sample. Participants (n = 539), who scored higher on attributional complexity (i.e., tend to make more complex attributions) had more positive attitudes toward immigrants and individuals who tend to make dispositional attributions for the causes of crime had more negative attitudes. Students who identified as Democrats compared to Republicans and Independents had more positive attitudes toward immigrants. Faith in intuition was nearing significance (p = .051); higher faith in intuition scores were related to more negative attitudes toward immigrants. Need for cognition and legal authoritarianism were not significantly related to attitudes. Attributional style, cognitive processing, and political affiliation were related to attitudes explaining 24% of the variance. As immigration continues to be a salient topic in public and political discourse, it is important to understand what contributes to individuals’ attitudes toward immigrants. Implications are discussed.



Download 2.25 Mb.

Share with your friends:
1   ...   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2022
send message

    Main page