African and african american studies

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Monica S. Gallamore,

University of Central Oklahoma
Melissa Langley Biegert,

Austin Community College

Melissa Biegert,

Austin Community College
Monica Gallamore,

University of Central Oklahoma

“Roundtable Discussion: Teaching College History in the 21st Century”
This roundtable discussion will engage the audience in techniques and issues related to the teaching of college history in today's world, including effective strategies for web-based course design, project-based learning, and critical thinking skills for tomorrow. Audience members will be encouraged to share some of their own experiences in this area.

Lindsey Churchill,

University of Central Oklahoma
“Apoyamos lucha del Pueblo Uruguayo: Cuban Perceptions of the Tupamaros and the Left in Uruguay”
Despite frequent references throughout Latin America about the pro-violence leftist group the Uruguayan Tupamaros, scholars have tended to focus primarily on Cuba as the romanticized country for leftist organizations in the United States in the 1960s and 70s. Indeed, despite more nuanced studies of US-Latin American relations in recent years, most of these works focus largely on the impact and importance of Cuba.  Undoubtedly, the Cuban Revolution had a significant impact on the radicalization of the Uruguayan left and the Tupamaros. Furthermore, while some scholars have examined the connections between leftists in Latin America and those in the U.S., limited research has been performed concerning issues of solidarity and alliances between Latin American revolutionaries.  Instead of focusing on how the Cuban Revolution inspired the Uruguayan left, this paper explores the ways in which the Uruguayan left influenced Cuban politics and culture. While no major works to date have explored this relationship, Uruguay had a significant impact on the Cuban Communist press and people.

Cliff Egan,

University of Houston
“The Decline and Eclipse of Brigadier General S.L.A. Marshall, 1960-1977”
Samuel Lyman Atwood Marshall (1900-1977) was a renowned journalist, lecturer, consultant, analyst of American military operations from World War II to Viet Nam, historian, and best selling author.  From the 1940s to the mid-1960s, Marshall was at the peak of his career  with a syndicated column in the Detroit NEWS, many widely read books (THE RIVER AND THE GAUNTLET, PORK CHOP HILL, NIGHTDROP) and appearances on television.  It would be no exaggeration to state that Marshall was the most influential if not well known American focusing on military affairs into the 1960s.  By 1970, however, Marshall's star was dimming and his influence diminishing. Utilizing Marshall's writings (including his memoir BRINGING UP THE REAR) and his personal papers housed at the University of Texas at El Paso, this paper will examine the decline and eclipse of a one-time well-known and very influential figure  focusing on the factors behind his descent into obscurity.

James Gigantino,

University of Arkansas
“Redefining Loyalty in Revolutionary America”
Loyalty and perceptions of loyalty remain vital to understanding the progress of the American Revolution. This paper examines the question of loyalty in New Jersey, a state literally under-siege by enemy forces for the war’s entire duration as neighboring New York City became the focal point of British power in North America. With British power so close, Patriot New Jerseyans struggled with defining loyalty as many men and women quite easily shifted their allegiance based on time, place, and their own relative situation. This paper explores that struggle over defining loyalty, specifically examining how the state’s contested border position encouraged even hardened Patriots to engage in activities that supported the British, mainly by participating in the rapidly growing illegal trade network that supplied the enemy in New York from the Patriot New Jersey countryside.  This reality ran afoul of many of the state’s Patriot leaders who surprisingly saw participation in illegal trade to be an ideological fault instead of emanating from a search for profit in a rapidly deteriorating economic environment, the motivation many who participated in the trade cited. By examining the divergent beliefs that the state leadership had on why residents participated in the trade (ingrained loyalty to the King versus profit motivation), I argue that loyalty became a constantly contested space whereby Patriots saw utility in continuing to use ideological concerns to justify deeming specific actions as “loyalist,” especially those that they had themselves worked with in the Patriot government. In a state precariously balanced on the edge of obliteration due to its proximity to the battlefront, the deployment of this anti-loyalist ideology allowed New Jersey’s Patriots to justify the confiscation of their Patriot neighbors’ property and thereby make profits in seemingly legal ways from that ideological construct.

Cecilia Gowdy-Wygant,

Front Range Community College
“Barbara Ward and the Lopsided World: One Economist's Fight for Environmental Justice”
Internationally acclaimed British economist Barbara Ward was one of the most influential women of the 1970s. Ward saw the world as lopsided, a world of rich and poor, industrially developed and those still developing, of those who are hopeful and those who are hopeless. Ward argued those divisive issues complicated environmental protection and sustainability planning.  Ward influenced the policies of presidents Kennedy and Johnson and encouraged Americans to consider new perspectives on the consequences of industrial development in the global south. As the environmental movement focused on regional issues, Ward published dozens of books and challenged the field as a “pioneer” of sustainable development, drawing attention to the needs of the developing world. She further attempted to internationalize the male-dominated movement to see a broader perspective of “mother” earth that included issues such as population, poverty, healthcare, and faith as parts of a intersectional agenda for environmental justice.

Bernadette Grondin,

Front Range Community College
“Women in The Terror: The Writers of Bloodshed and Equality”
While the French Revolution changed the whole of Europe, the grimmest part of that period is the Reign of Terror. Many historians examine how the Terror affected those in Paris and the world after it; but they often neglect how it affected the women of that period. The Terror emotionally ruined all those who were close to its blood running exploit; yet, history focuses on the men who instigated the start of the Terror. This paper will view the Terror and its affects on the women of France as they gained the ability to speak their opinions through public writing and ultimately equality in the French Revolution.  By looking at the first-hand accounts of these women who lived through such a period of painful revolution, a different perspective of the Terror emerges. The paper examines writers such as Mary Wollstonecraft, who attempted a more objective outlook towards the Revolution, and Olympe de Gouges, who wrote about equality throughout the Revolution at the cost of her life. The women of France found their voice and power to stand up for their equality through writing, participating in revolutionary endeavors, and for some, lost their lives during the Reign of Terror. The Terror changed the world that the women of France lived in as much as they assisted in the change that continued for the centuries that followed. In full-fledged Terror, the women of France stood up for those whose voices were silenced in hopes their sacrifices would not be made in vain.

Duncan Knox,

Texas Tech University
"Ripe for Mischief": Contemporary Response to the Suffolk Resolves
Before Lexington and Concord, glimmers of revolutionary thoughts and ideas existed in the American colonies; however, a document known as the Suffolk Resolves, written in mid-1774, crystallized these divergent ideas into a more formal response to troubling British policies. The Suffolk Resolves signaled to the First Continental Congress that segments of the American populace, while still loyal to George III, were willing to raise a militia to protect their rights from Parliamentary actions that they deemed harmful to American interests. The Continental Congress’ endorsement of these resolutions shifted the momentum in favor of more radical elements and hardened positions in both Britain and the colonies. This paper explores contemporary responses to the passage of these Resolves from both published and private sources. These sources include a variety of newspapers in both the British colonies and home country to explore how these resolutions specifically increased tensions between Great Britain and their American colonies.

Luke Koran,

North Dakota State University
“A Journey from Frontiersmen to Historian: The Letters of George Northrup”
Known as the “Kit Carson of the Northwest,” George Northrup accomplished everything he set out to do in his short twenty-seven years of life. After eight years spent as a notable frontiersmen in Minnesota and Dakota Territory, Northrup entered a new chapter of his life by volunteering in a Minnesota cavalry regiment during the Civil War in 1861. While partaking in the Northwest Indian Expedition of 1864, which was a direct response to the rebellious nature of the Dakota peoples two years prior, Northrup provided a valuable skillset and perspective. His greatest contribution were his numerous correspondences to the Saint Paul Daily Press and to his family and friends. The knowledge and life experience he acquired across the frontier of the Upper Midwest and battlefield of the Deep South allowed Northrup to act as a desired informant and qualified historian on the present issues of the 1864 trek. George Northrup’s dispatches present evidence of the transitioning of his life and identity from a bold and daring voyager and frontiersmen to a reserved chronicler and historian who relayed his wisdom and observations for the benefit of public knowledge and consumption.

Sahara Mobers,

Front Range Community College
“Most Haunted: Britain, Scotland, and Ireland”
Britain, Ireland, and Scotland have no shortage of haunted castles. The importance of the haunted castles in the Celtic world cannot be fully understood without first examining their history. History is often neglected for thrills and chills, even though it is an integral part of why a place is haunted. This paper will solve this problem by showing readers what historical events led to spiritual activity in three places in the Celtic world. I will cover the history and hauntings of the Tower of London, Leap Castle, and Edinburgh Castle. For example, had it not been for her tragic and possibly wrongful death Anne Boleyn might not be wandering the halls of the Tower of London holding her severed head. There is more to these places than spirits and scares. Any haunted building would not be so if it wasn’t for a rich and at times, grisly history. Are these places truly haunted? That is for you to decide after reading this paper. If nothing else, hopefully you will have learned something new as a reader and possibly as a historian of haunted places. All in all, whether or not you believe in the supernatural there is no denying that the history of the Tower of London, Edinburgh Castle, and Leap Castle lend themselves well to the paranormal.

Robert Niebuhr,

Arizona State University
“From Peasant to Patriot: Chaco War and Veteran Mobilization”
When Bolivia entered the Chaco War in 1932, the country still languished in a prior political mentality. Political elites ruled over an overwhelmingly illiterate, pre-modern, and agricultural society. The little gainful economic activity centered on tin mining, which had brought a few tremendous wealth while creating the conditions for a popularist uprising among disenfranchised and disgruntled miners. Politicians in the 1920s had begun to incorporate modern ideology into their campaigns and political rhetoric but the inherent instability of the Bolivian state rendered little progress. Successive leaders of the Andean republic struggled to really improve the country thanks to a virtually nonexistent tax base, a dreadful system of education, and a dispersed and disconnected populace. That all changed, though, with the advent of the Chaco War, when Bolivia’s last caudillo president, Daniel Salamanca, launched his state heedlessly against neighboring Paraguay over the desolate Chaco boreal region of Eastern Bolivia/Western Paraguay. Necessities of war demanded that the Bolivian army conscript thousands of rural peasants and urban poor and send them almost 1,000 miles to the front in what was South America’s first truly modern war. This widespread enlistment of Bolivians exposed them to not only the rigors of war but also helped forge a sensibility about their own Bolivian identity. By the end of the conflict, the veterans of the Chaco War had formed a powerful organized voice that changed Bolivian politics for good. On the one hand, the veterans effectively dictated politics in the country for the remainder of the 1930s through their vocal and active agitation displacing, in fact, that role formerly held by miners and on the other hand they served as the example for future revolutionaries who learned well the lesson that popularism relied on organization. This paper then traces that history of how the landless poor became the lifeblood of a political movement and a modernization campaign to bring democracy to the far reaches of Bolivia.

Ellen L. Paul,

Fort Lewis college
“Harvesting the Green Gold: Youth Hops Brigades in Czechoslovakia, 1960-89”
In the hops regions of the Czech lands, there is a long tradition of youth and community brigades at harvest time going back to the late 19th century, at least. Village adults, including their teenage children, would rally together and pick the ripe and delicate hops. During the communist era, whole classes of secondary school youth from neighboring cities were called in late August or early September to help bring in the year’s hop harvest. Although these class excursions served both economic and ideological goals, they also bonded pupils together and created unforgettable memories. The focus of this paper is on the production expectations and reception of these student brigades by some of the communities that hosted them during the harvest period, 1960-1989. Main sources include the main communist daily newspaper, Rude Pravo, as well as news articles in regional dailies or weeklies.

Taylor Pollock,

St Mary's University
“The New Malaysian: The Rise of Popular Culture in Malaysia and the Fall of the Government Ideals during the 1980s and 1990s”
The development of the popular culture in Malaysia grew in the1980s and 90s alongside a homogenous, government-mandated culture that would eventually fail in comparison to the heterogeneous popular ideals. This cultural phenomenon occurred after a period of unrest following independence in 1959. Malaysia’s population was far more diverse than the government calculated. The demographics were not favorable to the government’s homogenous, indigenous, Islamic Malay ideal. The diverse nature of Malaysia led to the failure of the state’s epitome and allowed for the growth of a popular culture that developed from the people rather than the government. Existing scholarship examines the development of Malaysian popular culture, but does not examine the entire process in one work as of yet. These sources prefer to focus on one particular area, music for example, and explain that facet in particular. I will be uniting these various points in my paper, which includes government documents and newspaper articles and several academic works, in a comprehensive documentation of the rise of Malaysia’s popular culture in comparison to the fall of the government ideals.

Colleen Sawyer,

Front Range Community College, Westminster, CO
“Letters from World War II: A Love Story”
The letters that were sent during World War II made a significant contribution to the outcome of the war. They boosted morale and gave the servicemen a reason to fight and to come home. The GIs and their loved ones sent billions of letters across the oceans, and the letters changed the course of history. George Sawyer and Jane Remer were one couple who met, courted, and developed a romance through the mail during 1943-1945. Their story is typical of couples who were "wooing from a distance," and gives us a picture of war from the front and the homefront. The research presents primary sources of letters, envelopes, V-Mail, censorship, and photographs to support the premise of the impact of mail on World War II.

Jeffrey Smith,

Front Range Community College, Westminster, CO
“Franklin Roosevelt’s One Hundred Days and a New Deal for America”
Franklin D. Roosevelt assumed the presidency in March of 1933, as the nation entered its third year of an economic depression. Armed with an electoral mandate, Roosevelt came to Washington with a campaign promise of change and a “New Deal” for America. This research explores the unprecedented and transformational first one hundred days of Franklin Roosevelt’s time in office, the implementation of the New Deal, and the social change it created. The main focus of this paper will look at the policies, programs, and the people that aided Roosevelt in his effort to combat the growing economic and social crisis. Also examined are the effects of the New Deal and the enduring legacy created by it. Roosevelt knew he needed to deliver on his lofty promise of a “New Deal” and pull a weary nation out of the worst economic downturn in its history. The tireless efforts of Roosevelt were not enough to end the Great Depression during the first one hundred days or the New Deal. However, these efforts laid the groundwork for economic recovery, gave renewed hope and spirit to the downtrodden American people, and established a permanent social contract between the federal government and the people.

Richard A. Voeltz,

Cameron University
“Hollywood and the British Occupation of Libya: The Post Empire Film Bengazi (1955)”
The American film Bengazi is one of the few films set in the historical period of the British Military Administration of Libya from 1945 to 1951.  The film is part of the cycle of post-imperial films from the 1950s dealing with the demise of the British Empire.   Bengazi, though a lesser film technically and artistically, offers unique qualities of its own.  To begin with it marks the cinematic journey of the actor Victor McLaglen from The Lost Patrol (1934) to Bengazi (1955), his career encapsulating the beginning and end of the Hollywood British Empire film genre.  The film attempts a rather shoddy homage to not only The Lost Patrol , but the silent epic Desert Nights (1929),To Have and Have Not (1944) and even the classic Casablanca (1942).  In a familiar trope Bengazi has a dramatic journey into this time around the deserts of Libya.   In Bengazi a daughter from Dublin searches for, and finds, her long gone, dissolute, immoral Irish father (McLaglen} who now owns a bar in Bengazi.   Then there is a prolonged search for gold stashed by Bedouins in a remote desert mosque led by a greedy ex-patriot American soldier played by Richard Conti. And of course there will be the requisite battle against those  unseen Bedouins.   The film has a redemptive ending.  This relatively unknown film reveals much about the genre of post-imperial films set in an area of British administration in Libya that has not been greatly studied, as well the characterization of Arabs in  Hollywood films.  The film reveals a typical ambivalence toward colonialism that characterized many of the American and British Empire films of the 1950s.   Bengazi also centers on former soldiers who cannot adjust to civilian life back home who either stay in the desert, or die in it.  It also offers an interesting contrast in character between the swaggering American (Conti) and a dogged police inspector and servant of the British empire played by Richard Carlson, a trope that is found in many British empire in decline films from the 1950s and 1960s.  An interesting epilogue/postscript involves  some comparisons with two recent American films Rock the Kasbah (2015)  and 13 Hours:  The Secret Soldiers of Benghazi  (2016).

Derek Ystebo,

North Dakota State University
“Destiny’s Dreamers: U.S. Soldiers and the Occupation Press Corps in Mexico, 1846-1848”
The Mexican War proved to be a defining period for U.S. perceptions of Mexicans within the racial hierarchy that underpinned American society in the antebellum period. While the domestic press covered the Mexican War in a manner reflective of their political agendas, the soldiers in Mexico had a more intimate experience with Mexicans than readers back home given the frequency of interactions between the army and the people of Mexico. While concepts such as Manifest Destiny and Anglo-Saxonism remained largely ideological and theoretical concepts for civilians at home, enlisted members and officers in Mexico actively wrestled with the ideas these concepts proposed given their experiences interacting with various segments of Mexican society. The U.S. army brought a press corps with it to Mexico, printing in both English and Spanish, hoping to introduce American ideas of a racialized society to Mexico. While the press corps was largely unsuccessful in cultivating a submissive Mexican populace, the ideas the press corps and the larger body of American soldiers espoused came to permeate American society after the Mexican War and defined U.S. views of Mexico and Mexicans through the Civil War. By studying the role of the U.S. army in Mexico and their interactions with Mexican society, the racialized views of politicians find actualization in the perceptions of Mexicans that the enlisted members and officers developed throughout the War.


Ignacio Medina-Núñez,

Universidad de Guadalajara, México
Jesús Ruiz-Flores,

Universidad de Guadalajara, México
Armando Aguilar-Ávalos,

Universidad de Guadalajara. México

Jesús Ruiz-Flores,

Universidad de Guadalajara. México

“Selection and education labeling in Latin America as sociological process”
This paper explores theoretical approaches and empirical work in the perspective of the sociology of education seeking insights into the phenomenon of educational selection that occurs during the school career. The structure of text is developed to answer the following questions: Why only some have opportunity to study university? What determines the success or failure in higher education? What are the conditions for some decide to study or not university? Finally, the conclusions focused on the importance of the attitude of students to go to university, the teacher's role in the success or failure of students and mediation of social background on achievement to overcome the obstacles of admission and retention in higher education.

Luz Eugenia Aguilar-González,

Universidad de Guadalajara. México
Gilberto Fregoso-Peralta,

Universidad de Guadalajara. México

“Algunos principios para el análisis, planeación e investigación en la Didáctica de la Lengua y la Literatura”
Se presentan algunos principios, dimensiones y categorías que definen un acercamiento a la Didáctica de la Lengua y la Literatura (DLL), producto del análisis y sistematización de datos del currículum actual de la educación básica y media superior del Sistema Educativo Mexicano; de libros de texto y de producciones académicas de estudiantes de estos niveles educativos. Es una primera propuesta para articular el curriculum, la formación docente, la práctica educativa y el aprendizaje de la lengua y la literatura. La DLL surge de la intersección entre la lingüística, los estudios literarios, la pedagogía, la psicología y la sociología, con el fin de cubrir la formación para la comunicación en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje. Es un espacio donde confluyen los procedimientos de enseñanza y formación de los hablantes y sus capacidades de comunicarse con los demás en distintos contextos sociales. El sujeto, como ser social, ya está inmerso en procesos comunicativos; en la escuela, aprende los propios de espacios académicos y a desarrollar procesos metacognitivos que le permitan desenvolverse mejor en su vida diaria. Asimismo incrementa sus capacidades cognitivas basadas en el lenguaje. Bajo estos criterios, un primer desglose de este proceso sería el estudio de: (1) El desarrollo de las competencias comunicativas de los hablantes (2) El incremento reflexivo de la capacidad de comunicación en distintos contextos sociales y (3) El desarrollo de competencias lingüísticas. De ellos se desprenden las siguientes áreas de estudio de la DLL: el desarrollo de los procesos cognitivos y el desarrollo del aspecto lingüístico en sus procesos comunicativos para comunicación más eficiente. Por el lado de los estudiantes se deben considerar distintas teorías del aprendizaje y desarrollo de la lengua; por el de los profesores, sus saberes lingüísticos, literarios, sobre didáctica y teorías del aprendizaje.

Luz Eugenia Aguilar-González,

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