Accommodations and Modifications: Differentiating Instruction and Promoting Staff Implementation in the Era of High Standards



Download 3.56 Mb.
Page3/15
Date08.12.2018
Size3.56 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   15

Guided Student Practice

  • It is not sufficient to present a lesson and then ask students to practice on their own.
  • Least-effective teachers with lowest student achievement
    • present an entire lesson
    • pass out worksheets
    • tell the students to work the problems
  • Many students are confused and make
  • errors on the worksheets.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • Guided Student Practice
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • The most-effective teachers -- teachers whose classes made the greatest gains, -- teach differently.
  • Present only some of the material at a time, i.e., small steps
  • Then use guided student practice as a model, e.g.
    • teacher works a few problems at the board
    • discusses the steps out loud
    • asks students to come to the board and work problems then discuss their procedures
    • others students see the modeling of problem solving

Teachers Guide Practice by:

  • CHECKING the answers of the
  • entire class in order to see whether
  • some students need additional
  • instruction.
  • ASKING students to work together,
  • in pairs or in groups, to quiz and explain the material to each other.
  • Timing: May occur when a teacher questions and helps a class with their work before assigning independent practice.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

“Getting the Gist”

  • The Goal of Instruction and Cognitive Processing
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • Gist Construction Errors
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • Are attempts to be logical with weak background knowledge
  • Without a knowledgeable “guide”-- danger of student misconceptions!
  • Solution: Limit development of misconceptions
    • by guiding practice
    • after teaching small amounts of new material
    • with frequent checking for student understanding
  • Gist Construction Errors
  • Who Make Gist Construction Errors Most Frequently?
  • Billy Dolores Bruce
  • “Humiliation Protection” Affects Coping Skills 
  • The number one step in effective support of students with learning differences/disorders
  • The student must feel entirely safe from humiliation and its lethal effects
    • excessive negative comments
    • conspicuous negative comments
    • policies that openly expose or stigmatize
  • Learning Strengths Project
  • “Humiliation Protection” Affects Coping Skills 
  • Negative practices result in serious complications
    • behavioral
    • motivational
    • affective
  • …AND THEY DON’T WORK!
  • Diana Browning Wright, DCS 2002
  • Learning Strengths Project
  • Guided Practice Instructional Strategy Matches Cognitive Processing Findings
  • During cognitive processing activities, designed by the teacher, the student organizes, reviews, rehearses, summarizes, compares, contrasts
  • Most-effective teachers”—use activities to check the understanding of all, provide opportunity for processing for all
  • Least-effective teachers” —ask a question, call on one student to answer, assume everyone learned the point
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • Summary:
  • Most-Effective Teachers
  • Present smaller amounts
  • of material at any time
  • Guide student practice as students worked problems
  • Provide for student processing of the new material
  • Check the understanding of all students
  • Attempt to prevent students from developing misconceptions
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

Most-Effective Teachers Provide Extensive Practice

  • Cognitive processing research’s conclusion - students need extensive practice in order to develop well- connected networks.
  • Assure practice takes
  • place only after
  • sufficient guided practice,
  • students then don’t practice
  • errors and misconceptions
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.

“Cognitive strategies” defined:

  • “Cognitive strategies” defined:
    • Guiding procedures to help students complete less-structured tasks, e.g., reading comprehension and writing.
  • III. Intervention Studies on Teaching Cognitive Strategies
  • Students were taught cognitive strategies to apply to their learning

“Well-Structured” Academic Tasks

  • Tasks can be broken down into a fixed sequence of subtasks with steps that consistently lead to the same goal.
  • Steps are concrete and visible.
  • A specific, predictable algorithm can be followed.
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • “Well-Structured” Academic Tasks (continued)
  • Enables students to obtain the same result each time they perform the algorithmic operations.
  • Taught by teaching each step of the algorithm to students.
  • Research on teacher effects helps us learn how to teach students algorithms they can use to complete “well-structured tasks.”
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.
  • Termed: “higher-level tasks”
    • Examples: reading comprehension, writing, and
    • study skills cannot be broken down into a fixed sequence of subtasks and steps that consistently and unfailingly lead to the goal.
  • No fixed sequence as in “well- structured” tasks.
    • Can’t develop algorithms students use to complete these tasks.
  • Contrasting “Less-Structured” Tasks
  • J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in educating students with disabilities.



Share with your friends:
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   15


The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2019
send message

    Main page