Academic Integrity, Plagiarism, & Citation Style



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Academic Integrity, Plagiarism, & Citation Style

  • Your Name Here

Learning Objectives

  • You will understand the ethical use of information in an academic environment. You will be able to:
  • Explain what is meant by academic integrity
  • Describe potential consequences for plagiarizing at CSU, Chico
  • Determine what information needs to be cited
  • Demonstrate ability of cite a source in one of the citations formats

Sample Syllabi Statement, CSU, Chico

  • “Students caught cheating or plagiarizing will not be warned. Instead, they will be given a failing grade for the semester”
  • English 232 – Ela Thurgood

Sample Syllabi Statement, CSU, Chico

  • “Academic honesty is an issue of serious concern here at CSU, Chico. Faculty expect students to maintain a high standard of academic integrity. When faculty suspect students of cheating, they may bring formal charges, and a pretty unpleasant process is set in motion. If charges are proved, the consequences are severe, ranging from failure in an individual course to expulsion from the University and denial of a degree.”
  • Marketing 272 Bill - McGowan

Sample Syllabi Statement, CSU, Chico

  • “Programming assignments and homework assignments are to be an *individual* effort. Anyone who as determined by the Instructor/TA has copied any part of another students work will automatically receive a grade of "F" for the course. Anyone cheating on an exam will receive a grade of "F" for the course. Anyone who alters their exam answers after receiving the exam back will receive a grade of "F" for the course.”
  • Computer Science 151 - Melody Stapleton

CSU, Chico Takes Academic Integrity Seriously

  • CSU, Chico’s Academic Integrity Statement
  • “ The students, faculty, administrators, and staff of CSU, Chico are committed to a culture of honesty in which members of the community accept responsibility to uphold academic integrity in all they say, write, and create.”
  • Why students should take academic integrity seriously.
  • Why students should take academic integrity seriously.
  • Why students should take academic integrity seriously.

What should be your main areas of concern?

  • Cheating on tests/quizzes
  • Helping another to cheat on test/quiz, assignment, etc.
  • Falsifying data
  • Working in groups when prohibited
  • Writing: plagiarism, misuse of sources, paraphrasing

What is plagiarism?

  • Our Campus Definition:
  • “…when a [student] deliberately uses someone else’s language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source.”

What might cause a student to plagiarize?

Student plagiarism: Possible reasons

  • Have problems with writing and/or research
  • Procrastination
  • Easy and quick to cut & paste
  • Pressure to maintain high grade point average
  • Didn’t keep track of where the information came from
  • Believe it doesn’t hurt anyone
  • Believe they won’t get caught
  • Don’t like the assignment
  • Don’t like the teacher
  • See if they can get away with it
  • Cultural differences
  • Haven’t been taught how to cite correctly
  • Don’t know they are plagiarizing

You honestly didn’t know you were plagiarizing

  • Misuse of Sources “…carelessly or inadequately citing ideas and words borrowed from another source…”
    • You made a legitimate mistake or you didn’t understand

Ways to Avoid Being Accused of Plagiarism

  • Learn how to conduct college level research and select good information [Information Literacy]
  • Give yourself time to research and write your paper
  • Take good notes while researching which include full bibliographic citations
  • Understand what it is meant by plagiarism, paraphrasing, quoting, and, summarizing
  • Understand how to cite your sources

Using APA Format to Document Sources

Why Cite Information?

  • Three Important Reasons
  • So the reader can locate and read the exact same sources
  • To give credit to the original author
  • To give you credibility as a writer and protect you from being accused of plagiarism

More on Why we Cite

  • The correct citation of your sources
  • is serious business!
  • If you plagiarize, even inadvertently, you may flunk your class or be expelled
  • Plagiarism in your professional career can result in being sued, fired, and publicly embarrassed

Where Do I Find APA Format?

  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed.
    • Library Call Number: REF BF76.7 P83 2001
  • Websites
  • http://www.apastyle.org/faqs.html
  • http://www.csuchico.edu/lref/newciting.html
  • AS Bookstore

APA Style: Two Parts

  • Parenthetical Citations
    • in the body of the paper
  • Reference Page
    • at the end of the paper
  • When Should You Use Parenthetical Citations?
  • When quoting any words that are not your own
    • Quoting means to repeat another source word for word, using quotation marks
  • When Should You Use Parenthetical Citations?
  • When summarizing facts and ideas from a source
  • When paraphrasing a source
    • Paraphrasing means to use the ideas from another source but change the phrasing into your own words
  • When Do You Cite?
  • Don’t fall into the trap of plagiarism!
  • If the idea or information you are using did not originate in your own mind . . .
  • CITE IT!

Paraphrasing activity

  • Work in pairs

Example #1

  • During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.
  • Original: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.

Example #2

  • During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced. (Rang et al, 1999)
  • Original: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.

Example #3

  • “During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.” (Rang et al, 1999)
  • Original: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.

Example #4

  • In the 4th edition of their textbook Pharmacology (1999), Rang, Dale and Ritter state that: “During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.” Such a bold assertion understates the ongoing threat posed by microbial infection. It is estimated, for example, that worldwide there were over 8 million cases of tuberculosis in 1998 (WHO, 2000).
  • Original: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.

Example #5

  • The development of safe and effective drugs to deal with bacterial infection has dramatically reduced the death rate arising from microbial diseases.
  • Original: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.

Example #6

  • During the post-war years, the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infection has transformed medical treatment, and death and illness resulting from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.
  • Original: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.

Example #7

  • The availability of antimicrobial compounds has transformed healthcare in the period since the second world war. People are far less likely to die or even be seriously ill than they had been prior to the introduction of these drugs.
  • Original: During the last 60 years the development of effective and safe drugs to deal with bacterial infections has revolutionized medical treatment, and the morbidity and mortality from microbial disease has been dramatically reduced.

Paraphrasing

  • To paraphrase is to put ideas expressed by someone else into your own words.
    • Should not simply replace words with synonyms
    • Should not follow the same sentence structure of the original
    • Must be cited or accompanied by an in text reference to the original source even if the source is in your bibliography
  • Keys to Parenthetical Citations
  • Readability!
  • Keep references brief
  • Give only information needed to identify the source on your reference page--cross-referencing!
  • Do not repeat unnecessary information
  • Handling Quotes in Your Text
  • Author’s last name, publication year, and page number(s) of quote must appear in the text
  • Caruth (1996) states that a traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (p.11).
  • A traumatic response frequently entails a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth, 1996, p.11).
  • Handling Parenthetical Citations
  • Sometimes more information is necessary
  • Example: more than one author with the same last name
  • (H. James, 1878); (W. James, 1880)
  • Example: Two or more works in the same parentheses
  • (Fussell, 1975; Caruth, 1996; Showalter, 1997)
  • Example: Work with six or more authors
  • (Smith et al, 1998)
  • Example: Specific part of a source
  • (Jones, 1995, chap. 2)
  • Handling Parenthetical Citations
  • A reference to a personal communication:
  • Source: email message from C. Everett Koop
  • Citation: (C. E. Koop, personal communication, May 16, 1998)
  • A general reference to a web site
  • Source: Purdue University web site
  • Citation: (http://www.purdue.edu)
  • Handling Parenthetical Citations
  • Recently, the history of warfare has been significantly revised by Higonnet et al (1987), Marcus (1989), and Raitt and Tate (1997) to include women’s personal and cultural responses to battle and its resultant traumatic effects. Feminist researchers now concur that “It is no longer true to claim that women's responses to the war have been ignored” (Raitt & Tate, p. 2). Though these studies focus solely on women's experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions originating in Fussell (1975) and Bergonzi (1996).
  • However, Tylee (1990) further criticizes Fussell, arguing that his study “treated memory and culture as if they belonged to a sphere beyond the existence of individuals or the control of institutions” (p. 6).
  • Handling Quotes in Your Text
  • There are many different combinations and variations within APA citation format.
  • If you run into something unusual, look it up!
  • Example of a Reference Page
  • Shell Shock 36
  • References
  • Fussell, P. (1975). The Great War and modern memory.
  • New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Marcus, J. (1989). The asylums of Antaeus: Women, war,
  • and madness—is there a feminist fetishism? In H. A. Veeser (Ed.),
  • The New Historicism (pp. 132-151). New York: Routledge.
  • Mott, F. W. (1916). The effects of high explosives upon the
  • central nervous system. The Lancet, 1, 331-38.
  • Showalter, E. (1997). Hystories: Hysterical epidemics and
  • modern media. New York: Columbia University Press.

Reference Page

  • A list of every source that you make “reference to” in your paper
  • Provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any sources cited in your essay
  • Each retrievable source cited in the essay must appear on the reference page, and vice versa--cross-referencing!

Reference Page Details

  • Starts on a new page
  • Type the word “References” centered at the top of the page
  • Use hanging indent form.
    • The first line of each reference is set flush left and subsequent lines are indented on half inch.
  • Arrange alphabetically, not by format of publication (ex.. Book, journal, etc.)
  • What to Include in a Reference Citation
  • Most citations should contain the following basic information:
  • Author’s name
  • Title of work
  • Publication information
    • book: date, place, publisher name, etc.
    • article: date, volume, page numbers, etc.
  • Book
  • Shay, J. (1994). Achilles in Vietnam: Combat trauma and the undoing of character. New York: Touchstone.
  • Article in a Magazine
  • Klein, J. (1998, October 5). Dizzy days. The New Yorker, 40-45.
  • References: Some Examples
  • A newspaper article
  • Tommasini, A. (1998, October 27).
  • Master teachers whose artistry glows in
  • private. New York Times, p. B2.
  • A source with no known author
  • Cigarette sales fall 30% as California tax rises.
  • (1999, September 14). New York Times,
  • p. A17.
  • References: Some Examples
  • Web page citations need 2 additional pieces of information:
    • URL
    • Accessed (retrieved) date
  • Poland, D. (1998, October 26). The hot button. Roughcut. Turner Network Television. Retrieved October 28, 1998 from http://www.roughcut.com

APA Citation Activity

  • Book
  • Newspaper article
  • Full-text article from a library database
  • Web site

How would you cite this book?

Citing a book

  • LaFollette, M.C. (1992). Stealing into print:
  • Fraud, plagiarism, and misconduct in
  • scientific publishing. Berkeley: University
  • of California Press.

How would you cite this newspaper article?

Citing a newspaper article

  • McCall, B. (1999, November 14). The dog
  • wrote it. New York Times Book Review, p. 7.
  • OR:
  • McCall, B. (1999, November 14). The dog
  • wrote it. New York Times Book Review, p. 43.

How would you cite an article from a library database?

Citing an article from a library database

  • Plagiarism: The Internet makes it easy.
  • (2004, September 1). Nursing Standard,
  • 18, 40-43. Retrieved November 16, 2004,
  • from Academic Search Elite database.
  • OR
  • Plagiarism: The Internet makes it easy.
  • (2004, September 1). Nursing Standard,
  • 18, 40-43.

How would you cite this WWW page

  • NOTE: The author lists his name and last up-date near the bottom of the page: Bruce H. Leland 01/29/02

Citing a WWW page

  • Leland, B.H. (2002, January 29). Plagiarism and the
  • web. Retrieved September 21, 2004, from
  • http://www.wiu.edu/users/mfbhl/wiu/plagiarism.htm

Final Reference List

  • References
  • LaFollette, M.C. (1992). Stealing into print: Fraud, plagiarism, and
  • misconduct in scientific publishing. Berkeley: University of
  • California Press.
  • Leland, B.H. (2002, January 29). Plagiarism and the web. Retrieved September 21, 2004, from
  • http://www.wiu.edu/users/mfbhl/wiu/plagiarism.htm
  • McCall, B. (1999, November 14). The dog wrote it. New York Times
  • Book Review, p. 7.
  • Plagiarism: The Internet makes it easy. (2004, September 1). Nursing Standard, 18, 40-43. Retrieved October 21, 2004,
  • from Academic Search Elite database.
  • The Reference List: Final Words of Advice
  • There are many different types of materials you could cite
  • If you run into something unusual, look it up!

Final words of advice

  • Realize that plagiarizing is always the worst solution to any academic problem
  • When in doubt, ask for help.

People and places and things that can help you

  • The Writing Center
  • http://www.csuchico.edu/uwc/students/index.html
  • Your Instructor
  • The Librarians
  • http://www.csuchico.edu/library/ask.htm
  • A Style Manual

Reflection

  • I DID: Think about your own academic integrity and ethical use of information in the past
  • I SHOULD: Think about ways you could demonstrate academic integrity or more ethically use information in the future
  • I WILL: What are you really going to do?


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