Indian scientists have discovered a pill form of insulin treatment, so nowdiabetes patients would be spared from the pain of jabbing themselves with a needle every day.
The process to transform delivery of this therapy from a shot to a pill was a challenge because body’s digestive enzymes that are so good at breaking down food also break down insulin before it can get to work. Besides, insulin doesn’t get easily absorbed through the intestine into the bloodstream.
To overcome these hurdles, scientists combined two approaches to shield insulin from the digestive enzymes and then get it into the blood.
They packaged insulin in tiny sacs made of lipids, or fats, called liposomes, which are already used in some treatments. Then, they wrapped the liposomes in layers of protective molecules called polyelectrolytes.
To help these “layersomes” get absorbed into the bloodstream, they attached folic acid, a kind of vitamin B that has been shown to help transport liposomes across the intestinal wall into the blood.
Diabetes suppresses the production or use of insulin, which is a hormone that helps blood glucose or blood sugar become absorbed into cells and gives them energy.
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body doesn’t make enough insulin, and type 2 diabetes occurs when the body doesn’t make or use insulin very well, causing glucose to remain in the blood, which can lead to serious problems.
Ms. Usha Sangwan: The first woman managing director of LIC
December 24, 2013
The Government of India appointed Ms Usha Sangwan as the first woman managing director of Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) and Vijay Kumar Sharma as an MD and chief executive officer of LIC Housing Finance. With these appointments, LIC is set to function at its full strength of four MDs. These are S B Mainak, Sushobhan Sarkar, Usha Sangwan and V K Sharma.
As per the norms, LIC can have four MDs, and a chairman, as part of its top management.
About Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC)
Indian state-owned insurance group and Investment Company.
Founded: 1 September 1956.
Current Chairman: SK Roy
Offers a variety of insurance products to its customers such as insurance plans, pension plans, unit-linked plans, special plans and group schemes.
First human artificial heart transplant executed in France
December 24, 2013
An artificial heart that can give patients up to five years of extra life has been successfully implanted for the first time, at Georges Pompidou Hospital in Paris,France. The equipment designed to overcome the worldwide shortage of transplant donors was produce by French Biomedical firm Carmat, a start-up funded by the Dutch-based European Aeronautic Defense and Space Company (EADS).
The robot’s capabilities include voice and speech recognition, natural language processing, speech synthesis and telecommunications, as well as facial recognition and video recording. Kirobo is specially designed to navigate zero-gravity environments and will assist Commander Wakata in various experiments.