Abbreviations: spell out words like review, editor, translator rather than abbreviate these words. Authors

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Modern Language Association (MLA), 8th Edition

Abridged from MLA Style Center

Changes because. . .

So many hybrid publications that make citing cumbersome

Ex., Song from 1940 listened to online
Noteworthy changes related to works cited page:

Abbreviations:  spell out words like review, editor, translator rather than abbreviate these words.
Authors: If a source has three or more authors, just name the first one, followed by et al   (Ex., Masterman, Julia, et al)

•When including the volume and issue for a journal, instead of writing 65.1,

write vol. 65, no. 1.

•Include month or season plus year.

Online sources:

•The URL for a web source must be included. No need for angle brackets <>.

•Whenever possible, cite the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) . DOI is usually connected with a peer-reviewed or academic article. The DOI is a permanent link to the source. Since links to articles on websites are subject to change, the reader can still access the material with the DOI.

•Access date is optional.

•"Placeholders for unknown information like n.d. (“no date”) are no longer used. If facts missing from a work are available in a reliable external resource, they are cited in square brackets (2.6.1). Otherwise, they are simply omitted.


  • Publishing:

• Publishers names written in full without the company name.

Ex. Random House (delete the word, Publishers).

• No need to include the city of publication.

•Page numbers in bibliography are preceded by p. or pp. (Ex., pp. 44-46).

•Reference works treated like other books.
•Medium eliminated unless needed for clarity.
•Little or no changes in intext citations from 7th to 8th editions.
OWL at Purdue suggests these key points on its page outlining the changes from 7th to 8th editions:

If you are already familiar with traditional MLA citation methods, continue to use them in a more simplified form. Since the eighth edition emphasizes the writer’s freedom to create references based on the expectations of the audience, consider what your readers need to know if they want to find your source.

  • Think of MLA style principles as flexible guides, rather than rules. Part of your responsibility as a writer is to evaluate your readers and decide what your particular audience needs to know about your sources.

  • Your goal is to inform, persuade, and otherwise connect with your audience; error-free writing, along with trustworthy documentation, allows readers to focus on your ideas.

  • In-text citations should look consistent throughout your paper. The principles behind in-text citations have changed very little from the seventh to the eighth editions.

  • List of works cited/works consulted needs to include basic core information, such as author’s name, title of source, publication date, and other information, depending on the type of source. Each entry should be uniform and simple, but should give enough information so that your readers can locate your sources.

  • These updated MLA guidelines are based on a simple theory: once you know the basic principles of style and citation, you can apply that knowledge widely, and generate useful documentation for any type of publication, in any field.

The attached pages include examples taken from The MLA Style Center of three different sources and a template of the 8th edition's core elements. If you collect your information with these core elements in mind (some elements may not be addressed in certain sources), you will have sufficient information to write your citations. You can use an electronic citation tool like EasyBib and follow the prompts to input the appropriate information.

All of these sources--MLA Style Center, OWL at Purdue, and EasyBib --offer simple format information and tips to writing and presenting an academic paper. When in doubt, look it up ( or come ask me).
MLA Style Center
OWL at Purdue
MLA Handbook, 8th Edition.  Modern Language Association of America, 2016.

    Price: $12.00.   

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