A study of the Anti-Hero Element in Hindi Cinema with Respect to contemporary makers like Anurag Kasyap’s Films


The Auteur and his themes: Anurag’s take on Every Film



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The Auteur and his themes: Anurag’s take on Every Film

One way of looking at an auteur is that at a certain level ‘he is making the same movie again and again with slight modifications’. He has pet themes that he is exploring. If we look at Anurag’s body of work we find that this is probably true. Anurag goes from the micro to the macro, from the self to the nation and back again. And at a deeper level from the outside world into the inside world.

Revenge seems to be an important part of the dramatic hook of many of his films including Black Friday, Gulaal and his recent Gangs of Wasseypur. Revenge is a crucial element of popular genre storytelling and in fact was one of the main themes for the ‘western’ genre in Hollywood. So many Hindi formula films are based on revenge. But ‘revenge’ here may also be looked at with more depth besides being a popular formula to tell a story. Not to make a simplistic reading of personal life and its relationship to his films but Anurag has been the underdog and a lot of his films have the spirit of revolt as a rebel an involute revenge may be of sort. However, his films are not a glorification of revenge but mostly rise above to question its very existence. Revenge is also a basis of establishing anti-hero shades to the characters and protagonist, while showing a flashback into the lives of his hero, his struggles which validates his negativity and anti-social behavior throughout the film.

The filmmaker is not self-indulgent but concerned, raise pertinent questions about the world around him and as a true artist should, is searching for the truth. His first feature film Black Friday made in 2004 but released in 2007 three years later due to censorship trouble is a film based on Mumbai’s Black Friday – The True Story of the Bombay Bomb Blasts, based on a book by S. Hussain Zaidi about the 1993 Bombay bombings. Realism and social, political concerns take centre stage in this film and begins the career of this filmmaker but the concerns and issues raised in this film never really seems to leave him but only get reinvented on his journey. The film begins and ends with a quote by Mahatma Gandhi “An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind”. The film ends with the bomb blast recreation and then text title cards. Anurag wanted to make an honest film and raise questions about the state of politics and the legal system and our society at large.

The end credits appear with the Indian Ocean Song ‘Bandeh’ which ends the film on a poetic note of lament but never pessimistic rather urging the audience to wake up. It’s a film where there is anger and he wants the audience to acknowledge that justice is not done and wants the audience to question the state of justice in our country.

Through black Friday, all his characters, be it the accused or the policemen had equal shades of grey and negatives. While watching the film, despite their crime committed we feel sympathetic attitude towards Badshah Khan, or even while the scenes of interrogations when the characters are brutally beaten up.

With his film Gulaal (2009) where the canvas is now the state of Rajasthan he continues his lament of the nation and urges us ‘to save India’ and at a larger level to save this world. Production on Gulaal began in 2001, when Anurag Kashyap was listening to songs from Pyaasa and his film Paanch was struggling with the censors. The film is inspired (and gives credit to) by the song ‘Yeh Mahlon, YehTakhton, Ye Tajon ki Duniya’ By Sahir Ludhanvi from the film Pyaasa.

If Black Friday was more of an angry voice which was symbolized by Anurag then Gulaal is now more grief and lament which seems stronger, but there is still the use of the strong red color which is symbolic of power and danger. Also the characters of Prithvi Bana and Ardhanareshwar take the film to mythical realms.

Returning to the Theme of Revenge with the film Gangs of Wasseypur (Part 1), the film speaks about revenge at various levels and in its very existence laments the current state of our country and contemporary society. What now hits you hard with this film is that ‘revenge’ a primordial emotion is so strongly still prevalent in our society today and the film seems to be questioning our evolution as a species. The filmmaker like in his earlier films here more than ever is drawing on newsreel and documentary footage and attempting to weave the story of India’s independence with the story of this personal epic saga spanning generations which succeed in revealing, the fact that free India is not really free even today and shows us that prevalent level of lawlessness and bloodshed is so paradoxical in an apparently democratic India. ‘Might is Right’ which is something of the cave man era is still so prevalent in our 21st century, Kashyap does not spare the viewer from confronting this brutal truth nor does he dilute harsh reality with candy floss.

Violence and revenge are intertwined and thus become a very important part of his cinematic vocabulary, violence being mostly external and visceral but also speaks about internal violence especially in one of his more personal films That Girl in Yellow Boots and No Smoking. Dev D also at one level is about revenge where Devdas is on a mission of self-destruction.

The Auteur and Realism as a treatment:

Anurag says that he makes films about things as he sees it. In fact the appeal of a lot of Anurag’s films are his realism which seems raw to a lot of viewers. Here raw for me refers to the unadulterated truth and not a work that does not treat the raw reality. As art and an artist does not present to your life as experienced in real life as raw and personal but by the process of his art and craft he makes your experience richer, makes you reflect and offers you a space to experience the apparently raw reality which he has treated with the processes of filmmaking. Also an interesting observation of a lot of viewers after seeing a Kashyap film is that they could not emotionally identify with the characters and that the researcher would say is revealing as it seems that the filmmaker does not passively want you to get sucked into the emotional life of the story but remain detached enough to be an active viewer and participate in its unfolding. Also what makes Anurag’s films special is the Realism in them. But what the researcher mean by realism is like what you would feel in a film by Satyajit Ray who has observed life and character’s closely and brings them alive in each scene nuances, uniqueness and an authentic truth which connects with the viewer (however the researcher not suggesting here that the experience of an Anurag film is close to the experience of a Ray film, far from that).

The Auteur and the writer:

A very important aspect of an Auteur would be a director who is part of the conception and script of the film and in this regard Anurag is very closely involved in the creation of his work. In fact he started his career as a writer writing scripts in Mumbai (he wrote the script of Auto Shankar overnight which was loved by Sriram Raghavan and Shivam Nair) and got famous and recognized with his script Satya which he wrote for Ram Gopal Verma. Black Friday, his first feature film, was based on a book but the screenplay was by none other than Anurag. Now another dynamic sets into play, Anurag as an Auteur is not (or is not supposed)to be the sole originator of his work, it has in fact always been a practice that auteur directors including Truffaut have associated with other writers for the script and screenplay, sometimes to keep away from personal indulgence and many times because the idea or story is initiated or bought to the director by someone else who then with that merit being the best person who knows the world of the story should be present to be a partner in scripting the project. The film Gulaal has Raj Singh Chaudhury as a co scriptwriter. It was Raj Singh Chaudhury who bought the story to Anurag based on his experiences of college ‘ragging’ and its consequences. Raj says the story idea was his (and he also suggested the film be set in Rajasthan) but the script and screenplay was by Anurag. No doubt Anurag connected with the story as he recalls in an interview to Tehelka in 2005 ” Scindia (school in Gwalior) was hell for me. The sexual abuse continued there for years. I hated myself. I couldn’t understand why it was happening to me. I was often picked out, beaten, and then taken to the toilets. To save myself from the beatings, I’d give in to the abuse,”. Another fascinating aspect of Anurag’s script collaborators is that all of them are actors. Raj Chaudhury was also an actor and had in fact written the story keeping himself in mind. Anurag felt he would fit the character perfectly and in spite of other popular actors keen to play the role he cast Raj as one of the lead actors, Raj says he also helped in the scripting of No Smoking.

Dev. D is a collaborative effort too. The film was developed from a concept that Abhay Deol( who plays Dev, the main protagonist in the film) narrated to Anurag. “Core idea came from Abay, Abhay told me this idea of a boy lost in a strip bar in LA and this triggered off a lot of ideas I had in mind and showed the possibility of adapting Devdas.” “ …. The idea was to try and explore that adjective(Devdas) that it has become and through which I wanted to talk about the youth , I wanted to talk about how they look at love, life, relationships, in today’s day and age, the age of fast cars, fast cash, fast food, instant gratification. Does it really happen that people are longing for one woman for the rest of their lives because I don’t see that happening today? It has changed. So it was trying to explore all that by using Devdas as a medium.” Vikramaditya Motwane(assistant director of Sanjay Leela Bhansali and latter Anurag produced and co-wrote his debut film Udaan) was asked to write the first draft of the script and Anurag said he would take his draft and add his bits to it (From Eros extra features). Also what would be an important touch to the film would be that Anurag understands very well and has experienced being depressed and lost like the character Dev, of course for other reasons, a young boy who enters science and takes up zoology at the University of Delhi, dissatisfied with his choice, confused and depressed he takes to drugs and alcohol.

How do you measure popular mainstream cinema – it’s by the stereotypes and clichés that it adopts in its telling.

Dev D is backed by a major corporate house, who is encouraging alternate cinema catering mainly to the multiplex audience but not limited to them. Dev D is a modern reinterpretation to the classic Devdas (which has 12 film versions made of the Bengali novel written by Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay). So the first rule that Anurag breaks from the popular cinema standard is ‘romanticizing’ the hero Devdas and he makes him into a very real practical contemporary youth of today. He also breaks the backbone of the character who epitomizes self-pity to giving up drinking, discovering that love is not romantic ideas and does not die for Paro but chooses Chandramukhi instead and starts a new life. This is in fact one of Anurag’s rare films which has a positive, if we can call it, a happy ending, but never the less, seems real and not romanticized.

The sexual frankness given to the characters including the female characters is unlike popular formula films and the women are strong and determined not passive and docile. And the self-sacrificing Chandramukhi (played by Kalki Koechlin) that became the epitome of the character mold of the prostitute with a golden heart in Hindi cinema over the years was also broken, in fact her past life is also contemporary in its origin and is taken from a real incident and inspired from newspaper headlines.

His recent film Gangs of Wasseypur (Part One) seems to have a long list of writers Zeishan Quadri, Akhilesh, SachinLadia, AnuragKashyap. But it was Quadri who bought the story to Anurag. Quadri’s deal was simple. He’ll write the script and play the character Definite, a key character in the second part of the two-part film.

“Though I was born in small town in northern India, I migrated to the city to make films, the city got to me and I went deeper in exploring its effect on me through my films until I met Zeishan. Zeishan was from Wasseypur and a few things that he told me about this place dragged me back to my roots, my backyard, my growing up and my tryst with Bollywood and the politics of my region. The few anecdotes that Zeishan shared with me of this place then went on to be retelling and an analysis of the history of the place explaining its evolution as a burning inferno and it’s fight for coal to the way battles were fought. From digging coal to killing someone over an innocuous brawl to vengeance being inherited. Part One of the film gets to the roots of the people and explains why they are the way they are.”(Anurag’s own words - GOW official website)

The Auteur and his influences from cinema:

What has been the influences on Anuarg as an auteur besides his personal experiences, and here cinema itself plays a very important role. In his recent film Gangs of Wasseypur he mentions the influence of Tamil cinema, infact dedicates the film to ‘the 3 musketeers Ameer, Bala and Sasikumar, the sons of Madurai’ as he calls them. He says “I realized that these filmmakers are making their films in a milieu that’s so much familiar to them. This made me feel that even I have lots of stories to tell which belong to the place I belong to.” (Interview by Sethumadhavan.N featuring on the website www.madaboutmoviez.com).

But it was in 1993 in a film festival (which he was urged to attend by his friends) when he witnessed ‘A Retrospect of Vitterio De Sica Films’ (Bicycle Thieves is the film that influences him the most among the 55 films of De Sica), it was “an epiphany” he says which changed his life and he runs away from home with Rs 5,000 in his pocket and decides he wants to make films. The Screening of the film Taxi Driver by Martin Scorsese (on a tv screen in the office of Shivam Nair, Shriram Raghavan during his struggling years in Mumbai) was the beginning of another interesting phase. Pic Posters of Bicycle Thieves and Taxi Driver

Seeing films like Fun, De Sica’s Films, Taxi Driver he says gave him confidence to make cinema as his voice was similar and other hindi films he saw he could not relate to, they were films not about him but some other people. Also the attraction to noir is that its about him too. Anurag says “Noir might mean different things to different people, but for me its an environment and a story of the underdog. We don’t pay attention to the people on the streets and just pass them by.” He thought cinema could be about that too. “I wanted to tell those kind of stories and these films gave me confidence.”

However Anurag ‘s work includes the influence of Bollywood, and in a post modern sense. Gulaal has for its inspiration a song from the Hindi classic film Pyaasa but the film builds on the original and adds a new dimension to it. In Gangs of Wasseypur Bollywood referencing is integral to its plot and characters – the film explores this revenge saga through the socio-political dynamic in erstwhile Bihar (North India), in the coal and scrap trade mafia of Wasseypur, through the imprudence of a place obsessed with mainstream ‘Bollywood’ cinema. This has a direct link to his childhood, when as a young boy in UP he was attracted to Hindi cinema from a very young age and repeatedly saw films (often visited the open air theatre or the Government theatre next to his house) like Kora Kagaazand Aandh iand latter Do Badaan in his college days.

The Auteur and acting:

Another influence as a director is that Kashyap was an actor before being a director and a distinct quality of his film is strong and powerful performances which bring the film to life and seem real and truthful. Acting was something that he did while he was struggling to find his voice, he joins a theatre group Jana Natya Manch and performs street plays. This also helped him to meet people and its not therefore a coincidence that a lot of his collaborators specially his scriptwriters are actors who are attracted to work with him. He says “Instead of the actor performing for the camera, I let the camera capture the people….” A little known fact is that Manoj Bajpai was responsible for suggesting Anurag’s name to Ram Gopal Verma as a young scriptwriter for the film Satya (which got him a lot of fame) and Anurag does not forget to return the favour by casting Manoj in his recent big budget film Gangs of Wasseypur (which has helped Manoj bring back his acting career to the top after a low phase). Anurag like the rest of his team has been quite loyal to many of his characters like Kay KayMenon and Kalki but without compromising the film at any cost.

Conclusion:

Where does Anurag Kashyap go from here – the real world and the world of cinema meet in his films, will one dominate the other – and how – and to what effect? What form will his colour palette take on now, are the three primary colours going to be repetitive and boring or are they going to help telling a story and increasing its complexity of visual vocabulary ? Will the distinctive style of the songs in his films take on newer dimensions and reinvent themselves or will its novelty die out? Will the plot of revenge be a continuing fascination and lead to deeper insights? Will the commentary of Indian politics and society be allowed to freely express itself, will it continue to cause a stir in the conscience of the youth? What will Anurag Kashyap discover about himself and the world around him is what we the audience will have to wait and watch to see soon with his upcoming film Bombay Velvet which yet again is a dark and realistic take on the ancient city of Bombay. Anurag’s films are like a silent scream – real yet not raw, disturbing yet not deafening, shocking yet not depressing, violent yet not ugly, a hope hidden in a lamenting

Filmography of Anurag Kashyap:



Films as Director-

1. Black Friday (2004)

2. No Smoking (2007)

3. Return of Hanuman (2007)

4. Dev D (2009)

5. Gulaal (2009)

6. That Girl in Yellow Boots (2010)

7. Gangs of Wasseypur (2012)

8. Bombay Velvet (2014) (in post-production)

Writer:

Satya (1998)

Nayak: The Real Hero (2001)

Yuva (2004)

Black Friday (2004)

Water (2005)

Meridian Lines (2007)

Honeymoon Travels Pvt. Ltd. (2007)

Dev D (2009)

Gulaal (2009)

Producer

Udaan (2010)



As an Actor:

Black Friday (2004) ISI Man

No Smoking (2007) Man on right of John Abraham in lift at the start of song “Jabbhi cigarette jalti hai”

Luck by Chance (2009) Writer (as himself)

Dev.D (2009) The Guy who is leaving from Chanda’s place when Dev enters.

Gulaal (2009) Guest at election win party

I Am (2010)

Research Design



  • Statement of problem- To study the anti-heroes of Hindi cinema and what is the audience’s response to it



  • Aim: To study and Research the Anti- Hero element in Hindi Cinema with respect to director Anurag Kashyap’s Films.



  • Research Question-

  • How has the anti-hero element played a very integral part in Hindi cinema?

  • How Anurag Kashyap does represents the anti-hero element in his films?



  • Hypothesis: The Anti- hero characters are prominent in all Kashyap’s films and also in Hindi Cinema for Decades.

  • Objective of study-

  • To study how the anti-hero characters in Hindi cinema has influenced and change the film making process and its impact on the audience.

  • To study the Anti-Hero element in Anurag kasyap’s Films and what role has he played to bring about a change in Hindi Cinema.

  • Research methods- It is a theory based research as well as a case study on the Director Anurag Kasyap and his influence and impact on Hindi Cinema. And a research and finding done on the anti-hero elements in the Hindi cinema and is films. For which the research has read and seen many articles and write-ups on the internet, as well as read the official blog of Anurag Kasyap to trace his journey as a film maker in cinema. Under the guidance and training of the tabloid Mumbai Headline and Head Editor in Chief Santosh Mishra (crime, cinema, politics) the researcher was fortunate enough to interview a series of contemporary directors, upcoming film talents and also trade analyst like komal nahata. The research also got an opportunity to ask a few questions to Director Anurag Kasyap at a P.C held for the Completion of his Latest venture Bombay Velvet. Apart from that many research papers were read for an in depth study of the Anti-Hero Element in Cinema.

  • Tools of Data Collection- In-depth interview through questionnaire, reading research papers, taking one on one telephonic as well as personal interviews with various people from the industry are the only method used by researcher to collect data.

  • Data Processing- the data collected through research methods was manually processed by researcher.



  • Limitation of study-

    1. The study is only based upon the data available on the internet, interviews, case studies, blogs etc.

    2. The element of anti-heroes in Hindi cinema is very limited in its scope to study as there are very limited amount of films and characters that have been portrayed on screen.

    3. It is only based upon secondary information, the primary source of information, i.e. Director Anurag Kasyap, couldn’t be traced down for an interview due to time constrains and his busy schedules.



  • Utility of research:

This study will be helpful and useful to all those cinema lovers who follow and study cinema and its various aspects very closely. It also gives us an insight into a better understanding for the anti-hero characters in Hindi cinema. It also makes the reader aware about the whole filmography of director Anurag Kashyap with a different outlook, which will make us more learned and sensitive towards his films and craft. And finally this research will be Helpful to all those students who are willing to write and do research upon Hindi Cinema in the future.

Findings and Observation

Questionnaire from the interview with Film analyst and Critic Komal Nahata:


  • How has Hindi Cinema according to you evolved in the last few decades?

According to my experience and observations in this industry, bollywood has evolved into a much more co-corporate and professional setup. Which has evolved into a better place for newer and better films, and given a chance for new filmmakers from various backdrops to make films with better content and Stories.

  • Please elaborate the changing face of Hindi cinema in the past decade?

Bollywood From a long time has been blamed and pointed out for its typical cliché kind of films and masala movies. It has been lashed out my critics for bringing out money spinners, 100 200 crore films. But today the scenario is different, now we have directors like Anuag kasyap, anurag basu, vikram Aditya motwani, dibaker Banerjee, who are wanting to experiment with its content and make meaningful script oriented stories. Today the world recognize our films for it content, direction and story. So we are on the right path towards a bright future.

  • Describe Anurag Kasyap as a film maker? How good do you find his craft and style of film making?

Anurag is a very intelligent and sensitive filmmaker. His personal struggles that he has had in his life, can be see them through his films. All his films have been extremely inspiring and has brought a huge amount of change in the way Hindi cinema is made today. He has increased the level of Hindi cinema a notch higher, with his films like black Friday, gangs of wasseypur, devD, and many more. He is one film maker who has blurred the line of art and Bollywood cinema. More power to him and his films.

  • What do you have to say about the anti-hero element in his films?

Anurag portrays his heroes with negative shades and elements in all his films. He never shows his actors to be having the good boy image. He wants and believes in the power of pain and struggle behind all his characters, which can be seen in all his films at large. And the audiences love and connect themselves to the hero and his struggles behind his negativity. The anti-hero in Anurag’s films are a rear view mirror to the common man in our society.

  • How would you see Hindi Cinema evolve in the coming future?

Hindi cinema has a very prosperous and bright future ahead. The world market is slowly and steadily opening up to new avenues. This is a golden period of hindi cinema where more and more new filmmakers are coming in with meaningful stories to tell. Bollywood will grow to newer and better heights, as time passes by.

An Abstract from the Press Conference with Anurag Kashyap for his upcoming film Bombay Velvet:-

While this media interaction that the researcher had with the film maker, Anurag was looking anxious, excited, and playful and relieved on the completion for his shoot of ‘Bombay Velvet’. At the press meet and wrap up party we also saw Actor Ranbir Kapoor and Film-Maker Karan Johar at the event, who were at their animated best. Here are the questions asked at the event:-



  • How do you feel after completing the shoot of Bombay Velvet?

Relieved and happy that it’s finally over. Now the film is into post-production and the real work of editing has begun. I cannot say much about the film at this stage, but yes it has been a satisfying experience and we as a team have worked very hard for it.

  • How was it directing Ranbir Kapoor for the very first time?

Ranbir is a fabulous person to work with, He has given himself away to me for this film. I have always admired his work and it was a great opportunity to work with him

  • You create all your characters with an anti-hero element to them, elaborate why?

And does this film will have the same feel to the characters as your previous films?

I make every film and every character individually and based on the story and script I write. No two characters or heroes are similar. Yes my heroes do have an element of negative or grey shades to them, but its naturally because of my instinct if of the angry young man, I can’t see my characters to have the typical good boy image, because even in reality nobody has that good boy image. So my characters are like that.



  • What can your fans and audiences expect from Bombay Velvet and your future projects?

They won’t be disappointed, for what they watch my films, and even I am eagerly waiting for my audience’s reaction to my film. I hope I have done a good job with it.

Concluding Note: After Meeting Anurag Kasyap in this PC, it was evident to see the passion and dedication that this filmmaker has for his films. He states his mind very clearly and is honest with his interactions. He has become much happier calmer and politically correct as we can put it, while talking to the media and others in general. His upcoming film Bombay Velvet, starring Ranbir Kapoor, Anushka Sharma is a leap ahead for him as for the first time he will be working with Popular Bollywood actors in mainstream cinema. We will have to wait and see how grey or negative his protagonist will be this time around.

Observations:

After Researching and studying Hindi cinema, Director Anurag Kasyap and his film’s portrayal of the anti-hero element, the researcher found that the characters in cinema are somewhere inspired by the society and its people on a whole. Anti- Hero characters are nothing but a reflection of the common man who is angry with the system, with his struggles, and his grief to make his ends meet, on a daily basis. How the common man fights every single day with the system, with the price rises and with the authorities. Anurag’s films are like a silent scream – real yet not raw, disturbing yet not deafening, shocking yet not depressing, violent yet not ugly, a hope hidden in a lamenting. He brings about his film’s characters alive on screen, it is a voice of the common man that he brings about and conveys through his characters.

While interviewing Bollywood trade analyst and critic Komal Nahata, the researcher found a new and close take to Hindi cinema as a whole. He spoke about the various dynamics of Bollywood and its stars, and how the new breed of contemporary filmmakers are bringing in new fresh stories that are more meaningful than ever. He being a film critic and being in this industry for long, had the knowledge and experience to help and show the researcher how films are made and how filmmakers are in constant pressure to perform and deliver. As today the audiences have become much smarter than ever.

This research has given the researcher an inside view into Bollywood and Director Anurag Kasyap as a whole. The characters were understood better and film making as a process has a lot of difficulties, struggles and stories behind what we are really shown in the films.

Thus Anurag Kasyap films give us a realistic view to life and characters as a whole, and they show us the real face of our society, and not just the rosy picture to it. His films are not just a mere source of entertainment to a view and mirror to the happenings and ugly truth to our system, society and its villans for real.

Conclusion

The anti- hero element in films have for long been a very integral part of cinema experience and Hindi Cinema as a whole. We have been growing up seeing Amitabh Bachchan beating up ten people at one time and we applaud and clap seeing him do so. We like our heroes to be strong, suave, rugged, angry and fighting on screen. We crave to see the pain and struggle of our characters and the back story behind every character, as to why he has become the way he has. Anurag Kasyap’s films are no different, as he showcases and portrays his heroes to be strong, dark, silent and angry and various shades of grey. Anurag Connects a cord with its audiences and makes them believe that you too can be a part of his cinematic experience, Be it black Friday, where he showcased the struggle of the Bombay 1993 blasts accused , or whether it was Devd where he showed a drunk alcoholic lover who has lost meaning and interest in his own life, after his lover left him and married somebody else, or be it gangs of wasseypur where he showcased the mafia wars between the Hindus and the Muslim community of Bihar and Jharkhand and how they killed each other in the name of blood and revenge. Revenge has always been the core to every anti-hero character, because it is only revenge and the war of eye for an eye that gives rise to wars and grey shades to a character, which Anurag brings out very well in all his films.

He makes us see the harsh reality of our society through his medium of cinema which is full of raw, red passion and flowing with crude emotions. Anurag Kashyap the filmmaker makes no bones about the fact that he makes films for himself and his love for cinema and storytelling, and then for his audiences, who naturally connect and understand his form of cinema. His Heroes are the Real heroes, the common man, who behaves , acts ,reacts , who resides in the villages and the small towns, who is very much a part of our society, and hence we as a viewer are able to relate to such characters, time and again , in the films that we see.

We as an audience love to see the pain and grief of another person, so that we can make ourselves feel less of the problems that we face or have in our daily lives.Our cinema is a perfect example for this, and our Heroes make us want to be them.

Scope for future research

For further research and findings one can research on the other aspects of Hindi cinema and how they impact and affect the audience’s psyche. One can also study upon other Directors and Filmmakers who have explored the concept of Anti-Hero in their film at large. This research gives us a knowledge of Bollywood and this film industry, which is 100 years old, and it is a very large entity to be examined and studied for its various facets. Therefore there is a lot of scope and information to be studied upon this topic as a whole.

Bibliography


  • http://otago.ourarchive.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10523/4751/LenihanPetra2014MA.pdf?sequence=1 (Rethinking Indian Cinema a Research )

  • odpress.com/2012/08/08/anurag-kashyap-an-auteur-demystified-an-indepth-essay-by-oorvazi-irani/orvazifilmeducation.wor

  • (Feb 13th 2007 http://anuragkashyap.tumbhi.com/uncategorized/black-friday-introspecting-156 )

  • https://etd.ohiolink.edu/rws_etd/document/get/muhonors1209924713/inline

  • http://filmsnoir.net/what-is-film-noir

  • http://english.learnhub.com/lesson/7614-anti-heroes-in-literature

  • http://www.inter-disciplinary.net/critical-issues/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/sarmafmpaper.pdf

  • http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/2360/1/Wright,_Neelam_Sidhar.pdf

  • http://www.dishumdishum.com/BollyPresentation/GLOBALIZATION.PDF

Appendix


List of Respondents:

  • Mr. Komal Nahata ( Film Critic and Trade Analyst)



  • Mr. Arurag Kashyap ( Director and Film maker)



  • Mr. Santosh Mishra ( Senior Reporter Mumbai Headlines)



  • Mr. Munish Pandey ( Senior Reporter at Aajtak )



  • Team at Mumbai Headlines:

Mr. Yash Mishra (Reporter Bollywood)

Mr. Arpit Tiwari (Reporter Bollywood)



  • Mr. Himanshu Pandey ( Bollywood Actor)

Annexure:



Questions Asked in the Interview with Komal Nahata:

  • How has Hindi Cinema according to you evolved in the last few decades?

  • Please elaborate the changing face of Hindi cinema in the past decade?

  • Describe Anurag Kasyap as a film maker? How good do you find his craft and style of film making?

  • What do you have to say about the anti-hero element in his films?

  • How would you see Hindi Cinema evolve in the coming future?

An Abstract from the Press Conference with Anurag Kashyap for his upcoming film Bombay Velvet:-

  • How do you feel after completing the shoot of Bombay Velvet?



  • How was it directing Ranbir Kapoor for the very first time?

  • You create all your characters with an anti-hero element to them, elaborate why?

And does this film will have the same feel to the characters as your previous films?

  • What can your fans and audiences expect from Bombay Velvet and your future projects?



1 Harry Potter Poster signifies the Real Hero portrayed in films.

2 Oliver Queen is a good example of the Dark Hero in films.

3 Sherlock is an adaption from the Sherlock Holmes books. It’s a modern day take on it and completely justifies the anti-hero element in cinema.

4 Loki of Asgard the Marvel Character is a good example of Sympathetic Villain.

5 Kate Argent from Teen Wolf, while probably less known than many Villains, is a good example of a Villain.

6 Sanjay Dutt won a National Award For the film Vastav (1991) where he portrayed a role of a gangster.

7 Interestingly Super Star Sharuk Khan Started his career with negative anti-hero roles, and he was appreciated a lot for his characters, which can be seen in films like Darr, Bazigar, and now Don.

8 Ajay Devgn’s Role in once upon a time in Mumbai as the local don Sultan Mirza was loved and liked by the critics and audiences alike, another very good example of anti-heroes in films.

9 The poster collage contains all of Anurag’s films like, No Smoking, DevD, Gangs of Wasseypur, yellow boots.

10 A Quote from Anurag Kashyap given in an article during the release of his film No Smoking.





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