A I bukdan the outside edge of a piece of folded paper

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WEŠELEMBI to catch with a wešen

WEŠEN a net for catching deer, roe, rabbits, etc.

YA 1. which? what? 2. a clause particle expressing doubt 3. evening vapors that arise right after sunset

YA BA what place? what kind of place?

YA DE where? whither?

YA GESE how much? how many?

YA HACIN what sort of? what kind of?

YA JAKA what sort of thing?



YA SI YA JEO I ALIN I HONIN the Asian goat

YABA where?

YABE ya plus the accusative particle be

YABI boards or reeds laid on the rafters before tiles are put on a roof

YABILABUMBI caus. of yabilambi

YABILAMBI to lay the boards or reeds (yabi) on which the tiles rest

YABSA Siberian whitefish

YABSI how very . . .

YABSI BALAI YABUHA how very carelessly he acted

YABŠAHŪ eagle owl

YABUBUMBI 1. caus. of yabumbi 2. to put into effect, to carry out 3. to approve

YABUBUFI BURE KUNGGERI an office of the Board of Works in charge of supplies


YABULAN a type of owl

YABUMBI 1. to go, to walk, to leave 2. to act, to perform, to carry out, to put into effect 3. to serve (at a post)

YABUHA BA a curriculum vitae

YABUHA BAITA something that has occurred

YABURE FELIYERE imperial tours away from the capital

YABURE KŪWARAN field camp, military unit on the march

YABUN act, action, performance

YABUN FACUHŪN actions are in a confused state, in a confused condition

YABUN HALAI FUDASI perverse and rebellious in his actions

YABUNDUMBI/YABUNUMBI to go together, to have comings and goings with one another

YABURELAME 1. on the way 2. walking a while, resting a while

YACI ya plus the ablative particle ci, from where?

YACI JAKA where did all these things come from?

YACIHA the name of a black fruit about the size of a finger that comes from Annam--when dried it can be made into a kind of liquor

YACIHIYABUMBI caus. of yacihiyambi


YACIKAN blackish, rather black

YACIKE a small sparrow-sized bird with black cheeks

YACIN black, dark

YACIN BOSOI MAHATUN an ancient-style hat made from black cloth

YACIN BULEHEN a dark gray crane

YACIN DOBI a black fox

YACIN FEKŠUN a dye concocted from the leaves and stems of the plant wence moo

YACIN GARUDAI a black phoenix

YACIN GARUNGGŪ ILHA a deep blue exotic flower the buds of which resemble the garunggū bird

YACIN HONTOHONGGO GU a dark blue gem used during sacrifices in ancient times

YACIN SAMSU a type of fine dark

blue cloth

YACIN ŠEMPI black grained leather

YACIN ŠOŠONTU an ancient-style scarf for the hair made from black cloth

YACIN ULHU a dark gray squirrel

YACIN ŪN CECIKE black hawfinch (Euphona migratoria)

YACIN WEIJUN a pure black crow

YACIN YARHA a black panther

YACINGGA dark, somber

YACISU one name for the cormorant; cf. suwan

YADAHŪN 1. poor, wretched 2. sparse (of pocks)

YADAHŪN FUSIHŪN poor and humble

YADAHŪŠAMBI to be hungry

YADALI CECIKE song thrush (Garrulax canorus)

YADALINGGE weak, feeble

YADALINGGU weak, soft, feeble

YADAMBI 1. to be poor, to be wretched, to suffer want 2. to be weak on one end (of a bow)

YADAN sapped of enthusiasm, lacking in confidence

YADAN CECIKE a type of small light-brown bird

YADAN OLIHA shy and retiring

YADANA whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus)

YADANA ILHA the name of a flower that blooms at the beginning of spring and resembles a swan

YADANA UJUNGGA FUKJINGGA HERGEN a style of Chinese calligraphy

YADARAKŪ undetermined, unforeseeable

YADE where? whither? to whom?

YAFAGAN see yafahan

YAFAHA same as yafahan

YAFAHALABUMBI caus. of yafahalambi

YAFAHALAMBI to walk, to go by foot

YAFAHAN pedestrian, on foot


YAFAHAN COOHAI UHERI DA General Commandant of the Gendarmerie, GH 797

YAFAHAN GENEMBI to go by foot

YAFAHAN GŪSAI DA commander of the banner infantry

YAFAHAN ISIBURE HŪSUN an errand boy at a post station

YAFAHAN ISIBURE KUNGGERI a section of the Board of War

YAFAHAN KŪWARAN I FIYENTEN office of police affairs at the headquarters of the Manchu General-in-Chief at Mukden

YAFAHAN UKSIN armored infantry

YAFAN garden, orchard

YAFAN I DA chief gardener

YAFASI gardener

YAGI see yahi

YAHA 1. charcoal, coal 2. smoldering embers, charcoal fire

YAHAI TEBUN an iron container for burning charcoal that can be hung from a chain

YAHANA sorghum ears that do not develop grains and turn black

YAHANA COKO turkey; cf. hogi

YAHANA MOO a wood from the South Seas that leaves no ash when it burns

YAHANAMBI 1. to become coal, to become charcoal 2. to turn black and not develop grain (of ears of grain)

YAHARI 'charcoal fruit'--the name of an exotic fruit

YAHI embezzlement, fraud

YAHILAMBI to swindle, to embezzle

YAI one one hundred-billionth

YAK (onom.) the sound made by a whip

YAK SEME 1. hard, painful (of falling or tripping) 2. choked off (of the voice) 3. hard, heavy (of things striking)

YAK SEME SIBUHA choked up (of the voice)

YAK SEME ŠUSIHALAHA beat hard with a whip

YAKA someone, who?

YAKAJAMBI to become dull (the teeth when chewing)

YAKCA demon, yaksha

YAKI case for a quiver

YAKILAMBI to put a case or cover on a quiver

YAKSA a place on a riverbank where the earth has caved in


YAKSARGAN woodcock (Scopolax rusticola)

YAKSIBUMBI caus. of yaksimbi

YAKSIGAN a thin board that is placed vertically on the main beam of a roof

YAKSIKŪ bolt of a door

YAKSIMBI to close, to shut, to bolt

YAKSITAI bluntly, decisively, definitely

YAKŪNGGA peculiar, bizarre, out of the ordinary

YAKŪNGGA MUDAN a peculiar sound, a strange melody or intonation

YAKŪNGGALAMBI 1. to act in a peculiar manner 2. to sing; cf. yangkūnggalambi

YALA truly, indeed

YALAKE truly, indeed, in fact

YALANGGI true, genuine

YALDARGAN one name for the kestrel; cf. baldargan

YALGA see yalgan

YALGAN a type of a crow that nests in wild areas and has speckled wings

YALHŪ a large wooden tub with four

handles and four legs

YALI meat, flesh

YALI BELHERE FALGARI meat department of the Court of Banqueting

YALI HAFIRAKŪ the flexible part of the elephant's nose

YALI I BOO meat section of the palace kitchen

YALI JOKSON thin, skinny (of livestock)

YALI JUN NARHŪN the wood fiber is fine

YALI MISUN meat paste, meat condiment

YALI MONGGON esophagus, food pipe

YALIHANGGA fleshy, fat, adipose

YALINAMBI to form flesh

YALINAHA DOLI the meat of a melon

YALINGGA fleshy, fat

YALITU a fat person


YALU the boundary between two fields

YALUBUMBI caus. of yalumbi

YALUKŪ 1. rider 2. an animal for riding 3. a boundary

YALUMBI to ride (an animal)

YALUME ETEMBI to overcome the resistance of a horse by riding, break (a horse)

YALUNABUMBI caus. of yalunambi

YALUNAMBI to go to ride


YALUNJIMBI to come to ride

YAMAKA 1. seemingly, apparently, probably 2. some, any

YAMAKAMBIO is someone there?

YAMARI GAHA one name for the raven

YAMBI to rise (of the evening vapors that come during the still period right after sunset)

YAMBURAKŪ 1. doesn't fit; cf. yumburakū 2. unclear, vague

YAMJI evening

YAMJI BUDA supper, the evening meal

YAMJI TOME every evening

YAMJIDARI every evening

YAMJIMBI to become evening

YAMJISHŪN late in the day, late, toward twilight

YAMJITALA until late, until evening

YAMKA 1. probably, seemingly 2. some

YAMKA INENGGI some day or other

YAMTARI the name of a quadruped with very tasty flesh

YAMTUN a respiratory ailment, asthma

YAMTUNGGA afflicted with a respiratory ailment

YALULABUMBI caus. of yamulambi

YAMULAMBI 1. to go to a yamen, to go to a government office 2. to go to court

YAMULANJIMBI 1. to come to a yamen 2. to come to court

YAMUN 1. a government office, yamen, headquarters 2. the court, palace

YAMUN I WAILAN yamen attendant

YAN (Chinese) ounce, tael

YAN HO fireworks

YAN SIYOO saltpeter

YANDACI a young badger; cf. dorgon

YANDUBUMBI caus. of yandumbi

YANDUGAN request, entreaty

YANDUMBI to request, to trouble someone to do something, to beg

YANDUNJIMBI to come to request

YANG yang, the male or positive principle

YANG ING (onom.) the sound of insects flying

YANG SEME see yang ing

YANG YANG (onom.) the sound of bells ringing

YANGDUWAN foreign satin

YANGGA 1. pine pitch 2. a torch made with pine pitch

YANGGAHA carrion crow

YANGGALI a type of dark wagtail

YANGGAR SEME sounding for a long time, re-echoing

YANGGIDEI one name for the golden pheasant; cf. junggiri coko

YANGGILABUMBI caus. of yanggilambi

YANGGILAMBI to tease, to incite, to flirt with

YANGGILANDUMBI to tease one another

YANGGIR IMAN a wild sheep of Shensi that resembles the female argali

YANGGON bells attached to a horse's forehead

YANGGŪHA see yanggaha


YANGSAMBI to throw to the ground (in wrestling)

YANGKŪNGGALAMBI to sing; cf. yakūnggalambi

YANGMEI 1. fruit of the plant Myrica rubra 2. a small red sore on the skin

YANGSABUMBI caus. of yangsambi

YANGSAMBI to weed, to chop weeds

YANGSAN weeding

YANGSANAMBI to go to weed

YANGSANGGA splendid, comely, beautiful

YANGSANUMBI to weed together

YANGSE 1. form, kind, appearance, model, style 2. beauty, comeliness 3. beautiful, splendid, comely 4. yoke for an ox

YANGSELABUMBI caus. of yangselambi

YANGSELAMBI to make up, to decorate

YANGSEMBI see yangselambi

YANGSIMU NIYEHE shelldrake (Tadorna tadorna)

YANGŠAN 1. sickly, weak (of children) 2. noisy, talkative

YANGŠANGGA noisy, overtalkative

YANGŠARAMBI 1. to be sickly and whiny (of children) 2. to be overtalkative, to be clamorous

YANGTURI ambarella (Spondias dulcis)

YAR SEME 1. flowing in a fine line, trickling 2. talking on and on

YARDU one name for the bustard; cf. humudu

YARFUN a long leather cord attached to the headstall or bridle, tether

YARFUN TEMBI the tether hangs down (said of a horse that can't remain still)

YARGA see yarha

YARGICAN NIYEHE the name of a variety of duck

YARGIYAKAN rather true, rather genuine

YARGIYALABUMBI 1. .caus./pass. of yargiyalambi 2. to be wounded in battle

YARGIYALAMBI 1. to ascertain the truth, to verify 2. to be wounded in battle

YAARGIYAN 1. true, real, genuine, factual 2. truth, reality

YARGIYAN TAŠAN the real and imaginary, the true and false, the full and empty

YARGIYANGGA true, honest

YARGIYŪN is it true?

YARHA leopard (Fells pardus)

YARHA UNCEHENGGE GIRDAN a pennant made from a leopard's tail

YARHŪDABUMBI caus. of yarhūdambi

YARHŪDAMBI to lead, to guide

YARHŪDAN introduction, guidance

YARIBUMBI to have the face and ears freeze

YARJU CECIKE one name for the hawfinch, the same as yacin an cecike

YARKIYABUMBI caus./pass. of yarkiyambi

YARKIY.AMBI to entice, to lure, to dally with

YARKIYARA COOHA decoy troops

YARKIYAN luring, enticement, dalliance

YARKIYANDUMBI to entice one another

YARSI DAMBAGU opium; cf. afiun

YARTAN ILHA the name of a blue flower that faces the sun when it blooms

YARU 1. a soup made from a type of frog found in Kirin 2. brook char 3. see yarun

YARUBUMBI caus./pass. of yarumbi

YARUDAI 'jade phoenix'--the phoenix of the center

YARUGAN leading

YARUGAN I FANGSE a banner carried in front of the coffin in a funeral procession

YARUGAN SEJEN the wagon on which a coffin was carried

YARUKŪ ASU a large-meshed fish net that one lets flow with the current

YARUMBI 1. to lead, to guide 2. to be connected together, to be close together in a row

YARUME continually, next to one another, successively

YARUME BARGIYARA EDUN the name of the wind that blows from the west after the vernal equinox

YARUME JURUME continually

YARUME OKDORO KUMUN a piece of music of two strophes that was played while the emperor returned to the palace after a sacrifice

YARURE MORIN a lead horse

YARURE OKDORO KUMUN the same as yarume okdoro kumun

YARUN 1. introduction (to a book) 2. citation 3. leading, guiding 4. a measure equaling one hundred Chinese feet

YARUNGGA MUKŠAN a gold-lacquered staff of the imperial escort

YASA 1. eye 2. a round hole, mesh of a net

YASA ARAMBI to wink, to signal with the eye

YASA DARAMBI to look closely at, to scrutinize

YASA EFEBUMBI to lose one's sight

YASA FAHA eyeball

YASA FETEMBI to make a round hole in an arrowhead

YASA GADAHŪN NEIMBI to open the eyes very wide, to bulge the eyes

YASA GEDEHUN NEIMBI to open the eyes wide, to gape

YASA GEHUN HOLTOMBI to lie blatantly

YASA GEHUN OMBI to be reduced to dire need

YASA HABTAŠARA SIDENDE in a wink, in the twinkling of an eye

YASA HADAHAI TUWAMBI to stare at intently

YASA MOROHON TUWAMBI to look with gaping eyes

YASA NIOWANGGIYAN having covetous eyes

YASA SELE pieces of iron attached to the three holes on the bottom of a quiver

YASA ŠAHŪN GOLOMBI to be frightened till the eyes turn white

YASA TATAMBI to open the eyes wide

YASA TUWAHAI in an instant, right before one's eyes

YASAI BULEKU eyeglasses

YASAI HOŠO the corner of the eye

YASAI HŪNTAHAN the eye socket

YASAI JERIN the edge of the eye


YASAI SIDEN between the eyes

YASAI SILENGGI tears caused by the

wind or by emotion

YASAHANGGE provided with small holes or openings

YASALABUMBI caus./pass. of yasalambi

YASALAMBI to glance at, to look at

YASATABUMBI to keep a hawk from closing its eyes during a whole night

YASATU HAFAN an ancient designation for censors

YASATU HIYAN a type of incense

YASE middleman, agent

YASHA 1. netting, screen, grating 2. a net woven from the hair of a horse's tail for catching small birds and animals 3. a screen placed on the eaves of the palace to keep birds from nesting there

YASHA FA a window covered with a criss-crossed netlike screen

YASHALABUMBI caus. of yashalambi

YASHALAMBI 1. to make netting or screen 2. to make lanterns 3. to place in a net bag

YASHALAHA DALANGGA a dam with filters

YASHANGGA provided with grillwork

YASHANGGA GIYALAKŪ a grillwork partition

YASHANGGA LOHO a sword with grill-work designs on the blade

YASHANGGA UCE a grillwork door

YASUKA an eagle resembling the isuka that is found in Liaotung

YATARABUMBI caus. of yatarambi

YATARAKŪ an instrument for striking a fire, a flint

YATARAKŪ FADU a bag for flint


YATARAMBI to strike a fire (with a flint)

YATUGAN see yatuhan

YATUHAN a zitherlike instrument having fourteen strings

YAYA every, each, any

YAYA DEMUN I OCI OKINI let it be as it may

YAYA HACIN every kind, every sort

YAYADAMBI to lisp, to speak unclearly

YAYAMBI to mumble (an incantation)

YE the secondary beams of a roof, a small beam

YE CA demon, yaksha

YEBCUKE see yebcungge

YEBCŪNGGE pretty, likable, attractive

YEBCUNGGE BAITA affair of the heart

YEBE better, improved (of an illness)

YEBECUNGGE one who has gotten better, convalescent

YEBELEMBI to find amusing, to find pleasure in, to esteem (generally used only in the negative)

YEBEŠEMBI see yebelembi

YEBEŠEO bailiff, constable

YEBIHEN a ceiling cover made from paper

YEBKELEMBI to be capable

YEBKEN 1. capable, efficient 2. sharp, fine

YEBKEN HAHA a capable man

YEBKEN MORIN a fine horse

YECA see yakca

YECE a ghost with white hair and bloody wounds

YECE HUTU the same as yece

YECUHE 1. the name of a small black fly 2. flying ant

YEDUN a deer-head mask worn by hunters who are trying to lure deer

YEHE 1. a tube on the top of a helmet used for attaching a tassel 2. the surface of an arrowhead 3. white hemp that has been treated in lime water

YEHENGGE made of bleached linen

YEHENGGE ETUKU a mourning garment

YEHENGGE MAHALA a mourning hat

YEHERE porcelain, chinaware

YEHERE FENGSE a porcelain tray

YEHERENGGE made of porcelain

YEHETUN a kiln (for making porcelain)

YEISE coconut

YEKEMBI to sing erotic songs

YEKEN AKŪ lowly, debased, not upright

YEKENGGE noble, grand

YEKENGGE HAHA a noble man

YEKERAKŪ not upright, ignoble

YEKERŠEBUMBI caus./pass. of yekeršembi

YEKERŠEMBI to taunt, to incite

YEKSE a shaman's cap

YEKSEHE see yekse

YEKSERHEN a house lizard

YELMEN one name for the sparrowhawk; cf. silmen

YELU a boar, a male pig

YELU BAIMBI to seek a boar (of a sow)

YEMCEN 1. see imcin 2. see yemji

YEMJI 1. apparition, ghost 2. a deity of lakes and rivers--it takes the form of a three-year-old child with long ears, red eyes, and beautiful hair

YEMJIRI GASHA one name for the owl

YEMJITU DOBI the name of a mythical reptile on the Yangtze

YEN 1. a mountain path, an animal trail 2. yin--the female principle; cf. e

YENDEBUMBI caus. of yendembi

YENDEBUN the name of one of the parts of the Classic of Poetry

YENDEMBI to rise, to flourish, to be prosperous

YENDEHE flourishing, prosperous

YENDEN ascent, rise

YENDENGGE MUDAN the rising tone of

classical Chinese phonology

YENGGE bird-cherry (Prunus padus)

YENGGEHE small parrot

YENGGEHERI bright green, parrot-green

YENGGUHE large parrot

YENGGŪHE see yengguhe

YENGHUHE a female parrot

YENGKE MENGGUN small silver bars of about five ounces weight

YENGSI a banquet, a bridal banquet

YENJU a mountain path

YENMANGGI soot on the bottom of a pot

YENTU 1. a narrow woven belt 2. new feathers that grow next to the large wing feathers on a bird 3. an iron for ironing clothes

YENTU CECIKE the name of a small bird with brown eyes, blackish beak, white stripes over the eyes, speckled feathers, and yellow legs


YERTEBUMBI taus./pass. of yertembi

YERTECUKE shameful


YERTECUN GIRUCUN shame and disgrace

YERTEMBI to be ashamed, to be embarrassed

YERTEŠEMBI to be mortified from shame

YERU hole, pit, den (of tigers, panthers, leopards, wildcats, etc.)

YERUTU a stone house used by various aboriginal peoples of South China

YESORO an exotic apricotlike fruit

YEYE 1. maggot 2. glutinous, sticky 3. sticky mud 4. annoying, obtrusive 5. (paternal) grandfather

YEYE BELE glutinous rice

YEYE BOIHON sticky mud

YEYE HANDU the same as yeye bete

YEYE IRA glutinous millet

YEYE SCEScHUN annoying and loathsome

YEYE ŠUŠU glutinous kaoliang

YEYEDEMBI to speak in a long-winded, annoying manner

YO 1. a handful; cf. sefere 2. see yoo

YOBO 1. fun, play, joking 2. a person who likes to play, a merrymaker, mischievous person

YOBO MAKTAMBI to make someone laugh by amusing talk, to joke

YOBO NIYALMA a mischievous person, a practical joker

YOBODOBUMBI caus./pass. of yobodombi

YOBODOMBI to have fun, to joke, to make sport of

YOCAMBI to itch, to be bitten by bugs

YODAMBI to carry suspended

YODAN raincoat, rain cape

YOGE a food offering (see below)

YOGE SINDAMBI to perform a service for the dead, to perform the ullambana service during which a miniature pagoda made of fruit is scattered by monks

YOGE SINDARA ISAN a gathering for the ullambana service

YOGE SINDARA KARAN a miniature pagoda made from cakes (a type of offering)

YOGE SINDARA MANDAL the place where the ullambana service was performed, a service for the dead

YOHAN cotton

YOHAN SURI a type of thin cotton material

YOHAN UKSIN padded armor

YOHI 1. complete, intact, without gaps 2. a (complete) set

YOHIBUN a collection of documents or writings

YOHIMBI (-ka, -ra/ndara) 1. to form a scab 2. to pay heed to, to mind, to pay attention to

YOHINGGA whole, entire

YOHO yolk

YOHON water ditch in a field

YOHORON 1. a waterway in the mountains 2. small stream or canal

YOHORON GOCIMBI to expand like a dammed stream (said of fattening horses)

YOHORONOMBI to form a groove or furrow

YOJIN one name for the peacock; cf. tojin

YOJOHO itching

YOJOHOŠOMBI to itch to the point where one can't bear it any longer

YOJOMBI to itch; cf. yocambi

YOKCIN imposing, impressive

YOKCIN AKŪ small and pale, petty, unimpressive

YOKCINGGA having a good appearance, impressive

YOKIDUN the (Cantonese) partridge; cf. jukidun

YOKTAKŪ see yokto akū

YOKTO 1. proper, suitable, meet 2. meaningful 3. see also ai yokto

YOKTO AKŪ 1. improper, unsuitable, embarrassing 2. meaningless, depressed, without enthusiasm

YOKTOKŪ see yokto akū

YOLO cinereous vulture (Vultur monachus)

YOLO INDAHŪN the name of a dog with a thick head and tail, hanging lips, and big ears

YOLO JAHŪDAI the name of a boat propelled by a scull at the stern

YOLO YOKTO AKŪ thoroughly improper, thoroughly embarrassing

YOLOKTO pied woodpecker (Dryobates cabanisi)

YOLONGGI sparks or cinders that fly out from a fire
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