A I bukdan the outside edge of a piece of folded paper

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NESI 1. right now, just at this minute 2. a crack on an animal's hoof

NESIDUN one of the names of the partridge; cf. jukidun

NESUKEN gentle, tender, mild

NESUKEN HEHE posthumous title of wives of officials of the sixth rank

NESUKEN NEMEYEN gentle and easygoing

NEYE the wife of one's wife's younger brother

NI 1. genitive particle after words ending in -ng 2. interrogative particle at the end of a clause 3. a particle used at the caesura in archaic verse 4. an exclamation of wonder

NI GIDAMBI to notice, to note, to record

NICANGGA TUNGKEN a large drum on a stand

NICARAMBI see nijarambi

NICUHE pearl

NICUHE ŠUNGKERI ILHA a type of Chinese orchid with fragrant purple blossoms

NICUHEI ŠURDEHEN a sphere inlaid with pearls that was used for observing the sun, moon, and stars in ancient times

NICUHERI MOO a variety of arbor vitae whose leaves resemble pearls

NICUHŪN see nincuhūn

NICULAMBI to wink, to blink

NICUMBI to close the eyes

NICUN ILHA spiraea thunbergii

NICUŠAMBI the same as niculambi

NIPUMBI to groan, to moan

NIJARABUMBI caus. of nijarambi

NIJARAKŪ a vessel for grinding hard materials into powder, mortar

NIJARAMBI to grind fine (as in a mortar)

NIJI path around a swamp or damp place


NIKACILAMBI to act like a Chinese

NIKACILARAKŪ non-Chinese, acting in a non-Chinese manner

NIKAI an emphatic sentence particle

NIKAN Chinese

NIKAN BITHEI KUNGGERI BOO Chinese Copying Office, BH 138

NIKAN DANGSE BOO Translation Office (for Manchu and Chinese)

NIKAN GŪLDARGAN a small type of swallow that is fond of chirping

NIKAN HENGKE a variety of sweet-tasting melon somewhat larger than the 'sweet melon' (Cucumis meln)

NIKAN HERGEN Chinese character, Chinese writing, the Chinese written language

NIKAN ULHŪMA the long-tailed pheasant, Reeve's pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii)

NIKAN ULI a type of sour apple that is often preserved

NIKAN WESIMBURE BITHEI BA office of Chinese memorials of the Grand Secretariat

NIKAN YOO a pustule or boil on the skin, venereal sore

NIKARABUMBI caus. of nikarambi

NIKARAMBI to speak Chinese

NIKASA plural of nikan

NIKCABUMBI caus./pass. of nikcambi

NIKCAMBI 1. to shatter, to disintegrate 2. to be at a disadvantage, to suffer loss

NIKDE the part of the back that supports a saddle on horses, mules, and donkeys

NIKEBUKU a prop, support, doorstop

NIKEBUMBI 1. caus. of nikembi 2. to prop up, to support, to serve as a support 3. to undergo (a punishment) 4. to entrust to, to hand over to 5. to confer (on), to bestow

NIKEBUN painted representation of a deity or a plaque with a deity's name written on it

NIKEDEMBI to be just exactly enough, to manage to get by

NIKEDEME just enough, just a little

NIKEKU a support, something to lean on


NIKEKU MULAN I DASIKŪ covering or cushion on a chair

NIKEKUNGGE SEKTEFUN cushion or padding on the back of a chair

NIKEMBI 1. to lean, to lean on, to depend on, to rely on 2. to bend over something 3. to incline, to support oneself 4. to remain abed for a month after the birth of a child

NIKEN support, reliance

NIKENDUMBI to support one another, to support together

NIKENEMBI 1. to go to lean on 2. to draw near to

NIKENJIMBI 1. to come to lean, to come to rest on 2. to draw near to

NIKEŠEMBI to limp slightly

NIKETU support, reliance

NIKETU AKŪ without means of support

NIKSIMBI to shiver from cold

NIKTAN a divine elixir, an elixir of cinnabar that is supposed to confer immortality

NIKTAN SIKTAN the same as niktan

NIKTEMBI to stamp the earth with the hoof

NIKTON at peace, peaceful

NIKTONGGA peaceful, tranquil

NIKTONGGA GECUHERI a type of silk decorated with dragon figures produced in Nanking

NIKTONGGA SURI a fine silken fabric from Nanking

NIKTONGGA UNDURAKŪ a silken fabric from Nanking with a design of prancing dragons

NILABUMBI caus. of nilambi

NILAKŪ a small roller for crushing or grinding objects, crusher, grinder

NILAMBI to grind, to polish (lenses)

NILARA YONGGAN fine sand used for polishing jade, glass, etc.

NILEMBI see nilambi

NILGIYAN shiny, glistening, slick, smooth, oily

NILGIYAAN SUJE a variety of shiny satin

NILGIYANGGA lustrous, brilliant, shining

NILHI dysentery; cf. ilk/

NILHŪDAMBI to be smooth, shiny, slick

NILHŪMA one name for the pheasant

NILHŪN slippery, slick

NILHŪŠAMBI to be slick (of ice)

NILTAJABUMBI caus./pass. of niltajambi

NILTAJAMBI to damage a skin surface by rubbing

NITUBUMBI to singe hair off a skin

NILUGA see nilukan

NILUKAN 1. smooth, not rough 2. gentle, fine, tactful

NIMACI goatskin

NIMADA 1. hornless dragon 2. alligator

NIMADAN a type of tree that grows in groves in valleys and produces a hard, fine-grained wood




NIMAHA GABTARA ŠAKA an arrow with a five-pronged forked head used for shooting fish

NIMAHA USIHA a star in the Milky Way located north of the constellation weisha

NIMAHA YASA a corn on the foot


NIMALA see nimalan

NIMALAN mulberry tree

NIMALAN MOO the same as nimalan

NIMAN goat


NIMANGGI ILHA snowflake, snow crystal

NIMANGGI KIYALMAMBI (the wind) drives the snow in whirls



NIMARGAN little kingfisher (Alcedo atthis)

NIMARI 1. goatskin 2. snowlike

NIMARI GŪWASIHIYA the eastern egret; cf. gūwasihiya

NIMARI ILHA rose-of-China (Hibiscus rosa—sinensis)

NIMARI YANGGALI a small bird with snow-white feathers--when it sings it is supposed to snow

NIMASI one name for the kingfisher; cf. ulgiyan cecike

NIMAŠAKŪ a small two-man boat made from a tree trunk

NIMAŠAN 1. water from melting snow 2. the sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla)

NIMAŠAN MUKE water from melting snow

NIMEBUMBI caus. of nimembi

NIMECUKE 1. painful, excruciating 2. frightful, terrible 3. cruel 4. strong (of liquor)

NIMECUKE HORONGGO POO the name of an iron cannon four feet eight and one-half inches long

NIMEKU 1. sickness, illness 2. pain 3. defect, weakness

NIMEKU DE DARUBUMBI to be prone to frequent illnesses

NIMEKU DE HŪSIBUHABI is afflicted by a chronic illness

NIMEKU TURGEN the illness is acute

NIMEKULEBUMBI caus. of nimekulembi

NIMEKULEMBI to become ill, to develop an illness

NIMEKUNGGE ill, sick, one who is ill

NIMEMBI to ache, to be painful, to suffer, to be ill

NIMENGGI oil, fat; cf. imenggi

NIMENGGI NOHO covered with oil, full of fat

NIMENGGI YASA the two depressions on the coccyx of a man

NIMENGGILEMBI to grease, to oil, to press oil, to produce oil

NIMETEMBI to be ill together, to suffer mutually

NIMHELIYEN ILHA snowball (Viburunum roseum)

NINCUHŪN smelling of fish or raw meat, smelly

NINDARŠAMBI to pay compliments to, to flirt

NINGCEO Nanking silk

NINGCU see ningceo

NINGDAN a growth on the neck, goiter

NINGDANGGA having a growth on the neck, having a goiter

NINGGE the one which . . . , he who . . .

NINGGIŠAMBI see nindaršambi

NINGGIYA 1. water caltrop, horn chestnut (Trapa natans) 2. anchor 3. a weapon used for stopping enemy horses

NINGGIYA BULA Tribulus terrestris

NINGGIYA EFEN small meat-filled dumplings boiled in soup

NINGGIYA MOO an anchor made of wood

NINGGIYA SELE 1. an iron anchor 2. a horseshoe with teeth or cleats

NINGGIYAN see ninggiya

NINGGU top, on top


NINGGUDE (postposition) on top of

NINGGULE linden tree

NINGGUN 1. six 2. same as ninggu

NINGGUN ACAN the six directions: north, south, east, west, up, and down

NINGGUN BIYA the sixth month

NINGGUN IRUNGGE MAHATUN an ancient-style hat with six ridges on top

NINGGUN MUTEN the six skills: rites, music, archery, chariot-driving, calligraphy, and arithmetic

NINGGUN YANGSANGGA INENGGI the six auspicious days of the year


NINGGUREME on top, over, upward

NINGGUSE six years old

NINGGUTE six each

NINGKABUMBI to be inflated, to become puffed up

NINGNIYEN see ninggiya

NINIYARILAMBI to get a pain in the back, to wrench the back

NINIYARŠAMBI to set the teeth on edge (by eating sour or hard things)

NINJU sixty

NINJU DULEFUN I DURUNGGA TETUN an astronomical instrument of the Peking observatory used for observing the variation in degrees among the equator, ecliptic, sun moon, and stars

NINJUCI sixtieth

NINJUTE sixty each

NINKIMBI 1. to search for a doe (of buck deer) 2. to search for fawns (of a mother doe); cf. nirkimbi

NINKIME BAIMBI to search for fawns (of a mother doe)

NINTEHE ILHA a fragrant white blossom of Hainan that resembles jasmine

NINTUHU having a crooked neck, a crooked-necked man

NINTUHŪ HARI a crooked-necked man

NINURI one name for the cat

NIO 1. an interrogative sentence particle 2. an emphatic particle

NIOBOMBI to tease, to taunt with words

NIOBORO deep green

NIOCUHE see nicuhe

NIOHAN the name of a constellation

NIOHAN TOKDONGGO KIRU a banner depicting the constellation niohan

NIOHE wolf

NIOHE SUBE a wild plant whose leaves are used as padding for saddles

NIOHE YOO small red eruptions on the skin

NIOHERI a type of mythical wolf

NIOHOBUMBI see niyohobumbi

NIOHOKON light green, greenish

NIOHOMBI the same as niyohombi

NIOHON 1. green 2. the second of the heaven's stems

NIOHON ABKA the blue sky


NIOHON JILI BANJIMBI to fly into a blue rage

NIOHON TALKIYANGGA LOHO the name of a type of sword

NIOHON TEMGETUNGGE GU a flat piece of jade with a hole in the center used at certain feudal investitures and at sacrifices

NIOHUBUMBI caus. of niohumbi

NIOHUKEN somewhat pea green

NIOHUMBI 1. to pound, to stamp 2. to construct a pounded earth wall

NIOHUN pea green


NIOHUREMBI to act fiercely, to put on a fierce expression

NIOHUŠULEBUMBI caus. of niohušulembi

NIOHUŠULEMBI to go naked, to be naked


NIOJAN NIYEHE Chinese little grebe (Podiceps ruficollis)

NIOKAN a small arrow made from a willow branch used by children for play

NIOKAN BOLGOMBI to throw small play arrows or chopsticks into a pot--a drinking forfeit game

NIOKJI moss on stones in water; cf. niolmonggi

NIOKSO a stringlike form of algae found on the surface of water

NIOLHUCEMBI to plunge headlong, to rush forward

NIOLHUMBI to gallop

NIOLHUMBUMBI caus. of niolhumbi

NIOLHUN the sixteenth day of the first month, the end of the new year's festivities

NIOLHUN EFEN round boiled pastries filled with walnut and sesame that are eaten on the evening of the fifteenth day of the first month

NIOLHUN ILHA a red flower resem-

bling the quince that blooms around the sixteenth of the first month

NIOLHUŠEMBI to slip, to lose one's footing

NIOLHŪN see niolhun


NIOLMON BETE without helmet and armor

NIOLMONGGI moss on rocks in water; cf. niokji

NIOLHUN see nioron

NIOLOCUKA too greasy, too oily, disgusting

NIOLOMBI to get stuck in the throat because of being too greasy, to gag on something because it's disgusting

NIOMBI (-ho) to be frozen to the bones

NIOME NIMEMBI to have the bones ache from cold

NIOME ŠAHŪRUN cold that penetrates to the bones

NIOMERE octopus

NIOMOŠON Siberian salmon (Brachymystax lenok)

NIOMŠUN see niomošon

NIONGGAJAMBI 1. to damage a surface with metal, wood, stone, etc. 2. to pierce

NIONGGAJARA ADALI as if pierced (on seeing something pitiful)

NIONGGAJARAHŪ oh that he may not be hurt:

NIONGGALABUMBI caus./pass. of nionggal-ambi

NIONGGALAMBI to damage the surface of some object slightly

NIONGNIO 1. the largest feather on a bird's wing 2. outstanding, best, superior

NIONGNIO DETHE the largest and toughest feather on a bird's wing


NIONGNIYAHA I BE the name of a plant that is the same as meihe šari

NIONIO 1. pupil of the eye 2. an expression of affection used by adults to children

NIONIO FAHA the pupil of the eye

NIONIORU a small basket tray

NIORI see niowari nioweri

NIOROMBI (-ko, -pi) 1. to turn green, to turn blue, to turn black and blue (after being hit) 2. to be moved profoundly

NIOROMBUMBI 1. caus. of niorombi 2. to make iron shine

NIORON rainbow

NIORON BURUBUHA the rainbow became covered with clouds

NIORON GOCIKA the rainbow appeared

NIORON GOCINGGA LOHO a sword that sparkles like a rainbow

NIORON SAMSIHA the rainbow has gone

NIORONGGO DABTANGGA LOHO a sword forged like a rainbow

NIORONGGO KILTAN a pennant of the imperial escort that is colored like a rainbow

NIORUMBI see niorombi

NIOŠUMBUMBI see nišumbumbi

NIOWANCIHIYAN smelling of new-mown hay or grass, having the fragrance of grass

NIOWANGGA ILHA Lychnis fulgens

NIOWANGGA MOO Ilex pedunculosa

NIOWANGGIYAKAN apple-green, light green, greenish

NIOWANGGIYAN 1. green 2. the ninth of the earth's branches



NIOWANGGIYAN FULAN a blue-black horse



NIOWANGGIYAN GURJEN a type of large green cricket of North China; cf. gergen

NIOWANGGIYAN MUDURINGGA KIRU a banner of the imperial escort embroidered with a green dragon

NIOWANGGIYAN TU I COOHA Chinese troops of the green banner

NIOWANGGIYAN TURI green pea, green bean

NIOWANGGIYAN TURUN the green banner, i.e., the Chinese troops of the provinces

NIOWANGGIYAN TURUN COOHA the Chinese troops of the green banner

NIOWANGGIYAN UJU a green lacquered tablet on which a person granted an audience with the emperor wrote his name and rank



NIOWANIORI HIYABAN light green summer cloth

NIOWARGI GASHA turquoise kingfisher

NIOWARI shiny green or blue

NIOWARI BOJIRI ILHA a blue chrysanthemum


NIOWARI NIORI the same as niowari nioweri

NIOWARI NIOWARI bright and shining green

NIOWARIKŪ jasper green


NIOWARIŠAMBI to be green, to become green

NIRAHA see nirga

NIREHE the name of a constellation

NIREHE TOKDONGGO KIRU a banner depicting the constellation nirehe

NIRGA short, sparse (of hair)

NIRGAKAN rather short, rather sparse (of hair)

NIRHŪWATU one name for the bamboo partridge; cf. cuss moo i Stu

NIRKIMBI to look for a doe (of a buck deer); cf. ninkimbi

NIRU 1. a large arrow for shooting game and people 2. a niru, a banner com any of a hundred men 3. the head of a banner, Captain, BH 726

NIRU BELHERE BA the place where arrows for the emperor's use were made

NIRU FAKSI an arrow maker

NIRUI FALGA the meeting place of a banner company


NIRUBUMBI caus. of nirumbi

NIRUGAN picture, chart, map, diagram, drawing, painting

NIRUGAN I TEMUN a round stick on which paintings are rolled

NIRUHAN see nirugan

NIRUMBI (-ha/ke) to draw, to paint

NIRURE CECERI silk used for painting

NIRWAN Nirvana, paradise

NIRWAN TUWABUMBI to die (of monks)

NISELEMBI to fend off

NISIHA 1. a small fish 2. the name of a card game

NISIHA EFEN flat boiled cakes made from wheat flour and eaten with cream


NISIHAI along with, together, with, along with so as to make a complete set

NISIKTE moss, lichen

NISUBUMBI caus. of nisumbi

NISUKŪ skates, shoes used for walking on ice

NISUMBI to slide, to glide, to skid, to skate (on ice)

NISUNDUMBI to skate together on the ice, to slide together

NISURI a device attached to the grip of a bow to allow it to release smoothly

NIŠA strong, heavy, solid, firm

NIŠA ACIHA a heavy load

NIŠA BUMBI to give in sufficient quantity

NIŠA GAIMBI to take in ample quantity

NIŠA GIDAMBI to press firmly

NIŠA TEBUMBI to pack in firmly

NIŠAKAN rather strong, rather heavy

NIŠALABUMBI caus. of nišalambi

NIŠALAMBI 1. to hit solidly 2. to pick off lice

NIŠAN an undyed spot on both ends of a piece of cloth, mark, sign

NIŠARGAN a small sore (on the head)

NIŠE one-millionth


NIŠŪMBUMBI to stick into, to insert, to fit into

NITAN 1. weak, diluted, insipid, light, dulled 2. without worldly desires

NITAN AISIN gold that is not 100 percent pure

NITAN MENGGUN silver that is not 100 percent pure

NITARAMBI (-ka) to become weak, diluted

NITUKŪ see nituri

NITUMBI to groan, to moan (from pain)

NITURI CECIKE a snipe with a white beak

NIYABUMBI caus. of niyambi

NIYADA late in maturing, slow in growing

NIYADA JEKU late grain

NIYADAHA a late maturing pear from the south

NIYAHAN puppy, whelp

NIYAHARA tender sprouts, tender leaves, tender buds

NIYAHARA I YARUN one of the six yang tones

NIYAHARI ILHA 'child's flower'--a small flower that grows in thick clusters

NIYAHARI NUNGGELE MOO the catalpa tree (Catalpa Bungei)

NIYAHARNAMBI to put forth tender shoots or buds

NIYAHAŠABUMBI caus. of niyahašambi

NIYAHAŠAMBI 1. to set a dog on game 2. to drive cattle 3. to limp (of horses and cattle with a damaged hoof)

NIYAJIBA shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa pastoris)

NIYAKI pus, nasal and bodily discharge

NIYAKI SIRIMBI to blow the nose, to wipe the nose

NIYAKINABUMBI caus. of niyakinambi

NIYAKINAMBI to form pus

NIYAKITU a dirty-nosed child

NIYAKŪN genuflection, kneeling

NIYAKŪRABUMBI caus. of niyakūrambi


NIYALHŪNJAMBI to get dizzy from heat or hunger

NIYALMA 1. man, person 2. another person, someone else, others 3. the line or groove that goes from the bottom of the nose to the upper lip

NIYALMA DE HOLBOMBI to get married

NIYALMA HENDUHE BALAMA people say so, such is the popular opinion

NIYALMA I URKIN DE YABUMBI to go along with other people's actions, to go along with the crowd

NIYALMA NIMAHA 1. a creature half fish, half man 2. seal


NIYALMA UNCARA HŪDACI a person who deals in slaves, especially girls and children

NIYALMA USIHA the name of five stars in the Milky Way

NIYALMAI DUWALI mankind, humankind

NIYALMAI SABI hundred-year-old man, a very old man

NIYALMAINGGE belonging to someone else

NIYAMALA moss found on trees and stones

NIYAMALAMBI to honor (one's parents), to serve (one's parents)

NIYAMAN 1. heart 2. pistil of a flower 3. center, innermost part 4. relative, parent 5. trusted friend, intimate 6. wick of a candle

NIYAMAN BE UJIMBI to take care of one's parents

NIYAMAN FELIYEMBI to discuss marriage

NIYAMAN GABTAKŪ the beams that connect the ridge beam and the horizontal beams in a roof

NIYAMAN HADAHAN the iron pegs on a harness to which the reins are fastened

NIYAMAN HOLBOMBI to contract a marriage

NIYAMAN HŪNCIHIN relative, relations

NIYAMAN I BAITA marriage, match-making

NIYAMAN I JUKTEHEN shrine to one's parents

NIYAMAN ILIHA the ears appeared (on grain)


NIYAMAN JAKA the center of the chest

NIYAMAN JAKA NIMEMBI to have a pain in the chest, to have a pain in the heart

NIYAHAN TUKSIMBI to form a heart, to form a hard core

NIYAMAN UFUHU intimate friend

NIYAMANAMBI to form a center, to form a heart

NIYAMANGGA related (by blood), having an innermost part

NIYAMANI a term of endearment used toward young children and elderly people

NIYAMARAMBI to treat as an honored relative

NIYAMARCAMBI to be jealous of others, to envy, to be inwardly contemptuous

NIYAMAŠAMBI to live on an islet

NIYAMAŠAN 1. islet in a river 2. center, middle part

NIYAMBI to rot, to decay, to go bad

NIYAMBULU weakling

NIYAMCIRI grass and leaves placed under hides by a tanner

NIYAMNIYABUMBI caus. of niyamniyambi

NIYAMNIYAMBI to shoot (arrows) from horseback, to practice mounted archery

NIYAMNIYARA MAHALA a hat worn for mounted archery

NIYAMNIYAN an arrow used in mounted archery

NIYAMNIYAN GABTAN the same as niyamniyan

NIYAMNIYANAMBI to go to practice mounted archery

NIYAMNIYANDUMBI/NIYAMNIYANUMBI to practice mounted archery together

NIYANCAKŪ a wooden stick for beating starched clothes while washing

NIYANCAMBI to starch

NIYANCAN 1. starch 2. sharpness, courage

NIYANCAN AKŪ 1. unstarched, limp 2. lacking courage

NIYANCAN BIJAHA 1. become limp (of starched cloth) 2. lost courage


NIYANCAN BILAMBI to lose courage

NIYANCANGGA starched, strong, firm, hard, brave, long-winded

NIYANCANGGANGGE one who is brave, strong, that which is strong, firm, hard

NIYANCI HIYAN a plant that grows in the mountains with fragrant willow-like leaves that are burnt like incense at sacrifices

NIYANCIHA green grass, green plants

NIYANCIRI HAMGIYA Artemisia capillaris

NIYANDZ a small ball of some material that has been rolled between the fingers



NIYANGDZ lady, mistress (of a household)

NIYANGGU JE BELE a type of white millet

NIYANGGŪBUMBI caus. of niyanggūmbi

NIYANGGŪMBI 1. to chew 2. to back-bite, to criticize

NIYANGNIYA clear (after clouds have dispersed)

NIYANGNIYA TUCIKE it has become clear (after clouds have parted or dispersed)

NIYANGNIYAHŪN grimacing (from pain or fatigue)


NIYANGNIYARAMBI (-ka) to grimace (from pain or fatigue)

NIYANHŪN puppy, whelp; cf. niyahan

NIYANINGJIJI Polygonum filiforma--a medicinal plant

NIYANIOMBI 1. to chew 2. to backbite

NIYANIYUN betel nut

NIYANJAN an imperial chariot

NIYANJARI ILHA an exotic bloom with purple petals, a white center, and an odor that inhibits sleep

NIYANSE see niyandz

NIYARA in making liquor, sweetened grain that has been allowed to ferment

NIYARAN see niyara

NIYARANGGA TARA a mixture of sour milk, sugar, and niyara

NIYARHOCA the young of the Manchurian moose; cf. kandahan

NIYARHŪKAN rather fresh

NIYARHŪLAMBI to remain in confinement for a month after the birth of a child


NIYARI wet land, muddy area, marsh

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