A I bukdan the outside edge of a piece of folded paper

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JUNIRU a measure of length equaling 16 Chinese feet

JUNOFI juwe nofi

JUNTA an animal path

JURAMBI (-ka, -ndara) to set out, to begin a journey

JURAMBUMBI 1. caus. of jurambi 2. to send on one's way

JURAN point of departure, place from where a journey begins

JURANUMBI to set out together

JURCEBUMBI caus. of jurcembi

JURCEHEN disobedient, obstinate

JURCEMBI to disobey, to go against, to go against one's word, to turn the back on, to oppose (in battle)

JURCEN disobedience

JURCENDUMBI/JURCENUMBI to oppose one another

JURCENJEMBI to resist one another, to turn the back on one another

JURCIT Jurcen, the rulers of the Chin dynasty and ancestors of the Manchus

JURGALAMBI 1. to make lines, stripes or creases 2. to form lines or stripes 3. to mark lines on cloth (of tailors)

JURGAN 1. line, column, row 2. the right, loyalty, duty, devotedness 3. ministry, board

JURGAN BE FEKUMBI to fail in one's duty

JURGAN BE YABUBUMBI to perform one's duty

JURGAN I AMA foster father

JURGAN JORIMBI to command (an army)

JURGAN JURGAN line by line, row by row, column by column

JURGAN SINGGERI a type of short-tailed rodent--when a number of them move, they align themselves by carrying the tail of the one ahead in their mouths

JURGAN TONDO the trajectory is straight (of an arrow shot from horseback)

JURGANGGA 1. honorable, loyal, upright, righteous 2. for the public benefit

JURGANGGA GASHA one name for the wild goose

JURGANGGA HAHA a widower who has not remarried after the death of his wife

JURGANGGA HEHE a widow who has not remarried after the death of her husband; cf. jalangga hehe, ilihangga hehe

JURGANGGA INENGGI the day on which the sixty-day cycle begins anew

JURGANGGA SAISA an honorable man, a devoted generous person

JURGANGGA TACIKU a free school

JŪRGANGGA YABUN a proper act, an act of loyalty

JURGATU GASHA one name for the ptarmigan

JURGIMBI 1. to chop down a tree by chopping from two sides 2. see jorgimbi

JURGUNTU CECIKE a bird resembling the magpie with black beak and tail and striped wings

JURHA USIHA the constellations Cancer and Leo

JURHU colored coarse linen cloth

JURHU FUNGKU a towel made of colored coarse linen cloth

JURHU SURI a cloth made partly of silk and partly of colored coarse grass linen

JURHUN a Chinese inch; cf. tsun

JURJUN a game resembling backgammon; cf. šuwanglu

JURJUN CECIKE one name for the goatsucker; cf. simari cecike

JURSAN GIO a one-year-old roe

JURSI Borneo camphor

JURSU 1. two-layered, double, complex, complicated 2. pregnant

JURSU ETUKU padded clothing, clothing made of two layers

JURSU MULU MOO a piece of wood nailed over the foot of a ship's support

JURSU OMBI to become pregnant

JURSU OYO a felt cover for the smoke hole of a yurt

JURSU SIJIGIYAN a padded gown

JURSULEBUMBI caus. of jursulembi

JURSULEMBI to double, to add a layer to, to fold over, to be doubled

JURU 1. pair, doubled 2. even (number)

JURU ACABUMBI to become man and wife

JURU BIYA even-numbered months

JURU GARGAN doubled and single, even and odd

JURU GISUN a matched couplet

JURU GISUN I DENGJAN a matched couplet hung on the "myriad year lantern" in the palace during the first month

JURU HCLBON joining in pairs

JURU KOTOLI JAHŪDAI a "double-sailed ship"--the name of a large warship

JURU MUDURINGGA SUWAYAN ŠUN DALIKŪ a parasol of the escort with a pair of dragons embroidered on it


JURU SIRHA the stars alpha and beta

of Ursa Minor

JURU SONGGIHA FITHEKU BERI a crossbow with a double mechanism

JURU USIHA the stars alpha and beta of Ursa Minor

JURUCILEN a text of paired couplets of four or six words

JURUKEN in pairs, paired

JURULEBUMBI caus. of jurulembi

JURULEMBI to make a pair, to pair, to join in pairs

JURUMBI to vomit

JURUME ILIMBI to stand with head hanging down (horses)

JURUN a rat- or mousehole

JURUNGGE GASHA one name for the mandarin duck; cf. ijifun niyehe

JUSE the plural of jui

JUSE BAYAN children are many, having many children

JUSE DAŠU children

JUSE DEOTE sons and younger brothers, youngsters

JUSE JIRA children are closely spaced

JUSE OMOSI sons and grandsons--descendants

JUSEI HALBULHA a lair where kidnapped children are kept

JUSEKI childish, juvenile

JUSETU MOO Ixora chinensis

JUSHE the vine of cucurbitaceous plants

JUSIHUN see jušuhun

JUSIKŪ see jusukū

JUSIN see jušen

JUSKU see jusukū

JUSTALABUMBI caus. of justalambi

JUSTALAMBI to make into strips

JUSTAN a strip, a stripe, any elongated object

JUSTAN I FEMPI a strip used for sealing houses or vessels

JUSTANGGA SORO striped jujube

JUSUBUMBI caus. of jusumbi

JUSUKŪ a block of lead used for drawing lines on paper

JUSUMBI to draw a line (on paper)

JUŠA cinnabar

JUŠEMBI (-ke) to sour, to have a sour stomach

JUŠEMBUMBI caus. of jušembi

JUŠEMPE alkekengi, Chinese lantern plant (Physalis alkekengi)

JUŠEN serf of the Manchus

JUŠEN BOO serf's quarters

JUŠEN HALANGGA NIYALMA a serf of the Manchus

JUŠUCI lemon

JUŠUHE a small wild pear the skin of which is used as a medicine

JUŠUHUKEN rather sour



JUŠUHUN MUYARI an exotic sour fruit about the size of a chestnut--Nephelium lappaceum

JUŠUHURI an exotic sour fruit

JUŠUK a sour fruit about the size of an egg that grows in South China

JUŠUN vinegar

JUŠUN MUKE "vinegar water"--a drink made of cucumbers, vegetables, and cabbage

JUŠURI fruit of the Prunus mume

JUŠURU a Chinese foot, ruler

JUŠUTU Prunus tomentosa

JUŠUTUN an exotic fruit grown in Szechuan

JUTEO scroll

JUTUHAN a five-stringed musical instrument played with a bamboo pick

JUTUNGGA JODON a piece of coarse grass linen sufficient for the production of two articles of clothing

JUTURI CECIKE one of the names of the hawfinch; cf. yacin ūn cecike

JUWABUMBI caus. of juwambi

JUWAJIRI ORHO Pinellia tuberifera

JUWALI a small green frog

JUWAMBI (-ngka, -mpi) to open the mouth

JUWAN 1. ten 2. biography, account

JUWAN BIYA the tenth month, ten months

JUWAN BOOI DA chief of ten households in a village

JUWAN CIKTEN the ten earth's stems

JUWAN I DA Lieutenant, BH 734

JUWAN JAKŪN SIMNERE BOO the eighteen examination rooms at the national examination hall

JUWAN JUWE GARGAN the twelve heaven's branches

JUWAN JUWE TUHEBUKU I MAHATU an ancient-style hat with twelve pendants

JUWAN JUWE UJU BITHE the twelve divisions of the Manchu syllabary

JUWAN TUMEN one hundred thousand


JUWANDA chief of ten, decurion

JUWANGDUWAN colored satin with gold threads inwoven

JUWANGGA preserved cucumbers

JUWANGGERI ten times

JUWANTA ten each

JUWARAN see joran

JUWARANTAMBI see jordambi

JUWARI summer

JUWARI BE BODORO HAFAN Astronomer for the Summer, BH 229

JUWARI DOSIKA one of the twenty-

four solar divisions of the year falling on May 6 or 7

JUWARI GŪLDARGAN one name for the western house swallow; cf. gūldargan

JUWARI TEN the summer solstice

JUWARIKTEN the summer sacrifice to the ancestors

JUWARINGGA JUNGGIDEI the mountain pheasant with its summer plumage

JUWATA ten each

JUWE two

JUWE BIYA the second month, two months

JUWE DUBE ŠOLONGGO pointed at both ends

JUWE IRUNGGE MAHATUN an ancient-style hat with two ridges on top

JUWE JEYENGGE SUHE a double-edged ax

JUWE MURU the two regulators--yin and yang

JUWE NOFI two persons, two people

JUWE SIDENDE between two

JUWE UJAN both ends

JUWE UJAN ŠOLONGGO the same as juwe dube šolonggo

JUWEBUMBI caus. of juwembi

JUWECI second

JUWEDEMBI to lean to two sides, to be conflicting, to contain contradiction, to contradict oneself, to act in a contradictory way

JUWEDEME ILADAME in an undecided manner, in a vacillating manner

JUWEDERAKŪ loyal, consistent, uncontradictory

JUWEMBI to transport, to ship, to transfer, to move

JUWERE BIRAI ANGGA canal junction

JUWERE DATA banner chiefs

JUWERE HAFAN transport official


JUWERE JEKU tribute grain

JUWERE JEKUI BAITA BE TEFI ICIHIYARA HAFAN Supervisor of the Government Granaries at the Capital, BH 565

JUWERE JEKUI BAITA BE UHERI KADALARA AMBAN Director-General of Grain Transport, BH 834

JUWERE JEKUI CALU a granary located in Honan

JUWERE NIYALMA grain porter

JUWEN earnings, loan

JUWEN BUMBI to lend, to give on loan

JUWEN GAIMBI to borrow

JUWEN SINDAMBI the same as fuwen bumbi

JUWEN USEN loans and debts


JUWENUSI porter, stevedore, one who loads grain at a water lock

JUWERGE a two-stringed musical instrument

JUWETE two each

JUYEDUN one name for the partridge; cf. ,jukidun.

JUYEHEN YALI the meat on both sides of the tendons on the spine

JUYEMBI (-ke) to become difficult to open (of the jaws)

JUYEN a short padded cotton jacket

JY CUWANG NIMEKU hemorrhoids

JY GI a long-tailed pheasant; cf. nikan ulhūma

JY JEO Department Magistrate, BH 855

JYFU Prefect BH 848

JYHIYAN District Magistrate, BH 856

JYJEO see jy jeo

JYJOO BITHE license, authorization, pass

JYŠI 1. Archivist, BH 830A 2. Deputy Police Superintendent

JYTU the fourth note in the classic pentatonic scale

KAB KIB SEME snapping at each other (of dogs fighting or biting)

KAB SEME snapping, biting (of a pack of dogs)

KABA in pairs, paired

KABA BOJIRI ILHA a double chrysanthemum


KABALAMBI to form a pair

KABANGGA JUI twin; cf. kaba jui

KABARABUMBI see kaparabumbi

KABARI 1. a Pekingese dog 2. a growth on the noses of horses and donkeys

KABARI INDAHŪN Pekingese dog

KABARI TUWAMBI to make bubbles (of fish in the water)

KABCIHŪN flat, level

KABKAŠAMBI to answer impudently, to talk back to

KABSITAMBI to speak foolishly, to answer disrespectfully

KABUMBI caus./pass. of kambi

KACANG SEME hard (of foods), sound made when hitting something hard

KACANG SEME MANGGA stiff and hard

KACAR KICIR (onom.) 1. sound of walking on gravel 2. sound of biting something hard or gritty

KACAR SEME not cooked soft, hard and stiff, coarse and hard

KACIKI a ragged coat of deer or roe hide

KACILAN an arrow used for target practice

KADALABUMBI caus./pass. of kadalambi

KADALACI administrator

KADALAKŪ mama; r, director

KADALAMBI to administer, to manage, to control, to rule

KADALAME BOŠORO BA Office of Encitement, BH 493

KADALAME SIMNERE HAFAN Supervisor (of an examination), BH 652F

KADALAN 1. administration, control 2. a rectangular-shaped seal used by high provincial officials, BH 984

KADALANGGA Brigade General, BH 751

KADALASI see dabsun juwere kadalasi

KADALATU clerk of a Confucian temple

KADARAKŪ daring, brave

KADURAMBI to contest, to dispute with

KADURŠAMBI to be always disputing

KAFUR KIFUR 1. agile, quick 2. (onom.) the sound made in stepping on snow or ice

KAFUR SEME 1. (onom.) the sound of walking on ice or snow (crunching) 2. decisive, straightforward, without further ado

KAFUR SEME MOKCOHO broke with a snap

KAFUR SEME YABUMBI to act in a straightforward manner

KAI sentence particle showing emphasis

KAICA a basket made of birchbark

KAICABUMBI caus. of kaicambi

KAICAMBI to shout, to yell

KAICAME INJEMBI to laugh loudly, to guffaw

KAICAN 1. shouting, yelling 2. the shouting of hunters on a battue after roe


KAICARI see kaiciri

KAICI border

KAICI ACAMBI to patrol the area between two guard posts

KAICIRI a box that hangs from the belt for holding toothpicks and ear cleaners

KAIDEO see kaidu

KAIDU lone (horse), single (horse)

KAIDU MORIN I YABŪMBI for a single rider to ride along on a lone


KAIKADA askance

KAIKAMARI see kaikari

KAIKARAMBI to be slanted or crooked, to look at askance

KAIKARAFI TUWAMBI to look at askance

KAIKARI white mother-of-pearl used for buttons of rank

KAIKATA see kaikada

KAILAN a type of large river turtle

KAILARI ORHO Leonurus sibiricus--a medicinal herb

KAILUN a brown horse with black mane and tail

KAILUN NIONGNIYAHA a brown wild goose

KAIPI a covered basket made of willow branches used to hold sewing materials

KAITU see kaidu

KAJAMBI to break with the teeth

KAJILAN see kacilan

KAKA feces of children

KAKA FAKA (onom.) the sound of many people laughing

KAKA KIKI (onom.) the sound of happy laughter

KAKABUMBI caus. of kakambi

KAKAMBI to defecate (of children)

KAKARI FAKARI (onom.) the sound of many people laughing

KAKI 1. violent, quick-tempered, strong (of liquor) 2. small, narrow (of clothing), cramped

KAKIRI Zanthoxylum piperitum--an aromatic tree

KAKITU a tight-fitting sleeveless jacket

KAKSAHA one name for the magpie; cf. saksaha

KAKSIMBI 1. to cough up (blood or phlegm) 2. to loosen something tangled

KAKŪ water gate, lock

KAKŪ UNDEHEN the horizontal boards in a water gate that cut off the flow of water

KAKŪNG KIKUNG (onom.) the sound made by a heavily loaded cart or by a heavy load

KAKŪNG SEME gritting the teeth, with hate, with effort

KAKŪR (onom.) the sound of gritting the teeth

KAKŪR KIKŪR (onom.) the sound made by ropes and pegs when securing a load on a wagon

KALANG (onom.) the sound of metal or stone objects banging together

KALANG KILING (onom.) the same as kalang

KALAR KALAR (onom.) the sound of metal objects hitting one another

KALAR KILIR (onom.) the sound of keys or small bells jingling

KALAR SEME kindly, courteously, harmoniously

KALBI see kalbin

KALBIKŪ an arrow with a small head and a slender shaft used for shooting at distant targets

KALBIMBI to shoot a kalbikū

KALBIN the lower part of the belly

KALBIN TUCIKE the belly has protruded--to have a paunch

KALBIYAMBI see kalbimbi

KALCA see kalja

KALCUHŪN having a broad forehead

KALCUN spirit, energy

KALCUN SAIN in good spirits

KALCUNGGI high-spirited, energetic, full of vitality

KALFIMBI the same as kalbimbi

KALFIN 1. the distance the kalbikū is shot 2. see kalbin

KALFINI sea flounder, flatfish

KALFINI MUDAN ILHA bleeding-heart (Dicentra spectabilis)

KALFIYAMBI see kalbimbi

KALFIYAN see halfiyan

KALIBUMBI caus. of kalimbi

KALIMBI to soar, to glide (of hawks, etc.)

KALIMU whale

KALJA 1. a white stripe or a bare strip on the head of an animal 2. white spot on a horse's nose 3. bald head

KALJA SEBERI MORIN a horse with white feet and a white spot on the forehead

KALJA SELE the horizontal piece of iron on a bridle that goes over the nostrils

KALJAKŪ WEIJUN one name for the stork; cf. weijun

KALJANGGA IJIFUN NIYEHE a mandarin duck with white stripes

KALJU ski pole (the end of the pole is shaped like a spoon)

KALKA shield

KALKA GIDA shields and spears--metaphor for war

KALKANGGA pertaining to a shield

KALKANGGA COOHA troops carrying shields

KALKANGGA LOHO a sword carried along with a shield

KALTARA 1. a brown horse with white around the mouth and eyes 2. slick, shining (of bird's feathers)

KALTARA NIYEHE mallard; cf. borjin niyehe

KALTARABUMBI 1. caus./pass. of kaltarambi 2. to suffer a fall (by slipping)

KALTARAMBI to slip (and fall)


KALTARŠAMBI to be slippery

KALTARŠARA BA a slippery spot

KALTASHŪN 1. on bad terms with 2. adversary, opponent

KALTU MULTU just, almost, almost within reach but not quite

KALU MULU coarse, careless

KALUMIMBI to pierce the skin but not the flesh (of an arrow)

KAMBI 1. to surround, to lay siege 2. to obstruct, to ward off, to stop, to impede

KAME ABALAMBI to go on the winter hunt

KAME GISUREMBI to hinder someone from speaking, to interrupt someone

KAMBULJAMBI to be soft and damp (the earth), to be swampy

KAMCIBUMBI caus. of kamcimbi

KAMCIMBI to place close together, to be together, to be in the same place, to serve concurrently, to act at the same time, to be placed together

KAMCIN concurrent, consolidated, in one place

KAMKŪ a brown silk from which hats were made

KAMNI a narrow pass, a strategic pass

KAMNIBUMBI caus./pass. of kamnimbi

KAMNIMBI to sew together, to bring together, to put back together, to close (the eyelids or lips)

KAMNIME TABUMBI to button up

KAMTU felt hat, felt liner in a helmet

KAMTUN a coarse silken cloth used for tying the hair in ancient times

KANAGAN pretext, pretense, excuse

KANAGAN ARAMBI to make excuses

KANAHAN see kanagan

KANCAMBI see kanjambi

KANDA the soft skin under the neck of a cow, dewlap

KANDAHAN Manchurian moose (Aloes alces)

KANDAHAN TOHOMA a piece of moose hide hanging down at the sides of a saddle to protect the rider's legs from dirt and mud, saddle skirt

KANDARHAN a decoration attached to the bridle that hangs down from the horse's jaw

KANG SEME aloud, out loud

KANGGARAMBI 1. to slip slightly 2. to pierce the skin with an arrow

KANGGARŠAMBI to keep on slipping

KANGGASIKŪ an overbearing person, braggart

KANGGASITAMBI to be overbearing, to be a braggart

KANGGAŠAMBI to swagger, to act haughtily

KANGGILI slim, shapely, possessing a fine delicate build

KANGGILJAMBI (-ka) to become slim and shapely

KANGGIR (onom.) the sound of metal or porcelain falling

KANGGIR KINGGIR (onom.) the sound of bells

KANGGIR SEME (onom.) the sound of metal or porcelain falling

KANGGIRI the fitting on a box or cabinet into which the clasp is inserted

KAANGGIRI ILHA an exotic flower that grows in clusters and flutters even when there is no wind

KANGGŪ NIYEHE smew (Mergellus albellus)

KANGGŪR KINGGŪR (onom.) the sound of a large structure collapsing

KANGGŪR SEME 1. (onom.) the sound of a wall falling 2. foolhardy, reckless, impudent

KANGKAMBI to be thirsty

KANGNAMBI 1. to ride bareback 2. to leap onto (a horse)

KANGSAMBI to shave hair off a pelt

KANGSANGGI an arrogant and reckless person

KANGSIRI the top of the nose ridge just below the eyes

KANGTARAMBI 1. to rise up in the front, especially a cart that is loaded too heavily at the rear 2. to tie the reins of a horse to the pommel of a saddle to keep the horse from wandering

KANGTARŠAMBI to walk with the head high, to act in a proud manner

KANI related, of the same or similar kind

KANI ACARAKŪ doesn't fit in the same category, doesn't belong to the same class

KANI AKŪ eccentric, odd, uncongenial

KANIN 1. kelp, edible seaweed 2. see kani

KANIN AKŪ see kani akū

KANINGGA having a relationship, related, of the same sort

KANIRAKŪ doesn't fit, doesn't belong

KANJAMBI to play with the gacuha

KANJIDU one name for the eastern great bustard; cf. humudu

KANJIHA IHAN a cow with a white nose

KANJIHA NIONGNIYAHA a small wild goose with a red beak and a red fleshy crest on the head

KANJIMBI to come to surround, to come to lay siege

KANUMBI to surround together, to besiege together

KAPAHŪN flat, compressed, pressed down, small in stature

KAPAHŪN DEDUHEBI is lying flat

KAPARABUMBI caus./pass. of kaparambi

KAPARAMBI (-ka) to be pressed flat, to be pressed together, to be flat

KAPI a sewing basket with a cover; cf. kaipi

KAPIHŪN see kapahūn

KAR SEME defensive

KARA black (of animals)

KARA CAI strong black tea (drunk with milk added)

KARA CECIKE one name for the myna

KARA FULAN an iron-gray horse

KARA HŪNA a tree whose fiber is used to fasten arrowheads to the shaft

KARA INDAHŪN a black dog

KARA KEIRE a dark brown horse

KARA KIONGGUHE a black myna

KARA SAKSAHA a black magpie

KARA YARHA a black panther

KARA FARA hot-tempered

KARABA mutual protection

KARABUMBI caus. of karambi

KARAHI WEIJUN a white stork with black feathers on the breast

KARAKI a crow

KARALJA one name for the coot; cf. karan kalja

KARALTU one name for the sparrow hawk; cf. silmen

KARAMBI to look down from a height, to gaze into the distance

KARARA DENGJAN a lantern that shines very far at night, a signal lantern

KARAN 1. a lookout tower, watchtower, platform 2. see kara

KARAN KALJA coot (Fulica atra)

KARANAMBI to go to look from a height

KARANDUMBI/KARANUMBI to look from a height together

KARANDUN see karanidun

KARANGGA TAKTU watchtower, sentry tower

KARANIDUN merlin (Falco columbarius)

KARANJIMBI to come to look from a height

KARASU one name for the cormorant; cf. suwan

KARCABUMBI caus./pass. of karcambi

KARCAMBI to run into, to collide with, to bump into

KARCAME GUWEMBI to make a noise by rubbing the wings together (locusts, crickets, etc.)

KARCANDUMBI/KARCANUMBI to bump into one another, to collide, to clash

KARCIN a type of a spotted or speckled hawk resembling the black-eared kite

KARGAMA croup of a horse or mule

KARGAMA HŪWALAME NIYAMNIYAMBI to turn around and shoot over the croup of a horse (archery)

KARGIBUMBI caus. of kargimbi

KARGIMBI to break off, to cut off evenly, to pluck, to pull (grass)

KARHAMA the same as kargama

KARIMBI see kalimbi

KARJAMBI see garjambi

KARKA CECIKE common snipe (Cappella gallinago)

KARKAKŪ "scraper"--a musical instrument made in the shape of a tiger with a corrugated back over which a bar can be run to produce a grating sound; cf. ioi

KARKALA see karkalan

KARKALAN wild peach (the inner bark of which is used for attaching arrowheads to the shaft)

KARKAMBI to scrape with a wooden or bamboo stick

KARKAN CECIKE see karka cecike

KARKIMBI see kargimbi

KARMABUMBI caus. of karmambi

KARMACUN protection

KARMAKŪ protector

KARMAMBI to protect, to take care of

KARMAN the same as karmacun

KARMANDUMBI/KARMANUMBI to protect together, to protect one another

KARMANGGA First Class Transport Station (on the Grand Canal), BH 834

KARMANI a written charm

KARMARAMBI see karmambi

KARMASI protector, patron

KARMATAMBI to protect continually

KARMATANGGA protective

KARMATU MAHATUN a hat worn in ancient times by the officers of the imperial bodyguard

KARU 1. retribution, recompense, reward, revenge 2. gratitude

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