A I bukdan the outside edge of a piece of folded paper

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ILAN MULFIYEN I SUJE silk having a three-tier round pattern

ILAN NAMUN I DANGSE BOO business office of the three palace storehouses (for silver, textiles, and pigments)

ILAN NIYAKŪN the ceremony of kneeling thrice

ILAN SIDEN I CALU the three granaries of the Imperial Household

ILAN TACIHIYAN the three teachings: Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism

ILAN TUHEBUKU I MAHATU an ancientstyle hat topped with three jeweled pendants

ILAN UNGGALA MIYOOCAN a three-barreled musket

ILANGGERI three times

ILARI BOSO a type of very wide white cloth

ILARSU three-tiered, three-leveled, three-storied

ILASE three years old

ILATA three each

ILBABUMBI caus. of ilbambi

ILBAKŪ trowel for applying plaster

ILBAMBI to plaster (a wall)

ILBAN 1. plaster 2. the plastered surface of an oven-bed


ILBAŠAMBI to laugh while putting pressure against the lips with the tongue

ILBEKE fond of eating fatty foods

ILCAMBI see incambi

ILDAMBI to be quick-witted, to be agile, to be bright

ILDAMU 1. elegant, refined 2. agile, quick-witted, bright

ILDAMUNGGA elegant, graceful, tasteful

ILDEDEI one name for the turkey

ILDEFUN the back of the head, the juncture of the neck and the cranium

ILDEHE the bark of the linden tree

ILDUBI one name for the yabulan (a type of owl)

ILDUBUMBI caus. of ildumbi


ILDUMBI (-ka) to be well acquainted with, to be friends with

ILDUN 1. convenient, comfortable 2. convenience, opportunity

ILDUN DE taking advantage of, according to one's convenience

ILDUNGGA acquainted, on good terms

ILDUNGGA AFAHA a summary of official documents

ILDŪNGGA DUKA side door, service door

ILDUŠAMBI to take advantage of an opportunity

ILE a type of hunting net

ILEBUMBI caus. of ilembi

ILEKESAKA rather clear

ILEMBI 1. to lick 2. to remove the stems from hemp

ILENGGU 1. tongue 2. the trigger of a trap 3. a wooden stick hanging from the nose ring of a domestic beast 4. the clapper of a bell

ILENGGU DASAKŪ tongue scraper

ILENGGU DUBE the tip of the tongue

ILEREBUMBI caus./pass. of ilerembi

ILEREMBI to tether with a long rope, as for grazing

ILETU 1. clear, open, out in the open, obvious, manifest, distinct 2. neat, clean 3. not shy, open

ILETŪ COOHA troops in the open

ILETU HŪLHA bandit who operates in the open

ILETU KIYOO an open sedan chair

ILETU YABUMBI to act openly

ILETUKEN rather clear, rather open

ILETULEBUMBI caus. of iletulembi

ILETULEHEN a horizontal tablet over a door or gate

ILETULEMBI 1. to be clear, to be obvious, to become clear, to become obvious 2. to develop 3. to re

veal, to expose

ILETULEME WESIMBURE BITHE a memorial presented to the throne on festive occasions

ILETUN 1. elucidation, clearing up 2. chart, table 3. see iletu

ILETUNGGE bright, clear

ILETUNGGE GU a jade ornament, symbol of a male child, used in ceremonies in ancient times

ILGABUMBI caus./pass. of ilgambi

ILGABUN 1. discernment, judgment 2. difference

ILGACUN difference, differentiation

ILGACUN AKŪ without difference

ILGAMBI to distinguish, to differentiate

ILGANAMBI see ilhanambi

ILGANDUMBI to distinguish (of a group)

ILGANGGA see ilhangga

ILGARI paper strips attached to a willow branch--used as an offering to spirits

ILGARI TUCIBUMBI to hang out willow branches with paper streamers on them--used by shamans for driving off evil spirits

ILGAŠAMBI to visit friends or relatives

ILGAŠANAMBI to go to visit

ILGIN skin from which the hair has been removed, leather

ILGIN I ŠOŠONGGO MAHALA an ancient-style leather hat used during war-time

ILGIRI NIYEHE a small diving duck with oily flesh, the same as aka niyehe

ILHA 1. flower, blossom 2. patterned, colored, polychrome 3. gradations on a scale

ILHA AKU SIRGERI plain white silk yarn

ILHA AKŪ TURTUN plain thin pongee

ILHA CECIKENGGE LOHO a sword decorated with colored bird patterns

ILHA I FELHEN a flower stand

ILHA I FENGSE a vessel with a miniature landscape in it


ILHA NOHO DARDAN satin with large patterns on it

ILHAI DOBOKŪ flower vase

ILHAI HŪNGKEREKŪ a watering can for flowers


ILHAI SŪKU a clump of flowers

ILHAI TEBUKU a sack used for carrying flowers

ILHAI TUBI a protective cover placed over flowers

ILHAI UKDUN a warm pit used for forcing plants

ILHAI YAFAN flower garden


ILHAMUKE wild strawberry

ILHANAMBI 1. to bloom 2. to grow dim (of the eyes)

ILHANGGA colored, patterned, flowery

ILHANGGA CUSE MOO golden bamboo

ILHANGGA FUNGKŪ a brightly colored carved or embroidered stool


ILHANGGA SIRGERI thin silk having a brightly colored pattern

ILHANGGA ŠOBIN cakes with colored patterns stamped on them

ILHANGGA TURTUN brightly patterned thin silk


ILHANGGA YABIHAN coffered ceiling

ILHARI see ilgari

ILHI 1. next, subsequent 2. vice-, sub-, assistant 3. dysentery

ILHI ANAMBI to ascend to the next step in rank

ILHI ANAME in order, one after another


ILHI HAFAN subdirector, vice-president

ILHI HAFUMBURE HAFAN Deputy Commissioner of the Transmission Office, BH 928

ILHI HEFELIYENEMBI to have dysentery

ILHI JALAN I JANGGIN Lieutenant-Colonel, BH 658

ILHI JORISI Assistant Police Magistrate, BH 796A

ILHI KADALARA DA assistant director of the Imperial Clan School; cf. BH 7I7

ILHI TACIBUKŪ HAFAN Subdirector of Schools, BH857

ILHI TACIBURE HAFAN assistant director of the National Academy of Learning

ILHI TAKŪRAKŪ assistant overseer, assistant inspector; cf. takūrakū

ILHI TUŠAN I HAFAN assistant magistrate

ILHI UJU I JERGI grade one-B

ILHIN see ilgin

ILHINEMBI to have dysentery

ILHO see ilhū

ILHO MOO the tree Idesia polycarpa

ILHURŪ the name of a small colorful bird

ILHURU DUDU a multicolored dove

ILHURU GIYAHŪN CECIKE a type of shrike

ILHŪ 1. upright, vertical 2. appropriate, suitable

ILHŪNGGA lying straight (of hair on an animal)

ILIBUMBI 1. caus. of ilimbi 2. to erect, to set up 3. to stop, to end, to bring to an end

ILIBUCI OJORAKŪ without being able to stop

ILICAMBI to stand together

ILIHAI immediately, on the spot

ILIHAI ANDANDE immediately

ILIHAI WAHA killed him on the spot

ILIHANGGA strong, durable (of silk products)

ILIMBAHABUMBI caus. of ilimbahambi

ILIMBAHAMBI (-baha) 1. to become accustomed, to get used to 2. to be at peace-with, to be calm

ILIMBI (-ha) 1. to stand 2. to stop

ILIRE TERE BE EJERE YAMUN office for compiling the records of the emperor's daily activities

ILIMELIYAN in a standing position

ILIN standing, standing position

ILINAMBI to go to stand on, to settle down, to stop (on)

ILINGGA HENGKETŪ a wooden emblem carved in the shape of a melon

ILINGGA HIYAN incense in the form of long sticks

ILINJAMBI to stand unsurely (of a small child), to loiter, to stand around

ILINJIMBI to come to stand (on)

ILKIDUN one name for the partridge; cf. jukidun

ILMAHA uvula

ILMAHŪ shuttle used in weaving

ILMEN lead or stone weights placed on the bottom of nets

ILMEREMBI (-ke) to break loose

ILMOHO USIHA one of the stars in the constellation of Orion

ILMUN HAN the ruler of the underworld

ILTEN a high shoulder piece or collar on court garments

IMAHŪ goral (Naemorhedus goral)

IMALAN the tree Cudrania Cochinchinensis

IMARI mu--a Chinese measure of land area

IMATA completely, all, totally, thoroughly

IMBE accusative form of i

IMCI see imcin

IMCIN a type of drum used by shamans

IMCIŠAMBI to beat an imcin

IMENGGE MOO Chinese tallow tree

IMENGGI vegetable oil


IMENGGILEMBI to oil, to rub with oil

IMETE a small snail


IMHE the name of a constellation

IMHE TOKDONGGO KIRU a banner depicting the constellation imhe

IMISUN see imiyesun

IMIYAHA insect, bug; cf. umiyaha

IMIYAHANAMBI to get worms; cf. umiyahanambi

IMIYAMBI to assemble, to gather

IMIYARA SABINTUNGGE KIRU a banner with the image of a unicorn on it

IMIYAN assembly, gathering

IMIYANTU a sacrificial hat of the Hsia dynasty

IMIYELEMBI to gird oneself; cf. umiyelembi

IMIYESUN belt, girdle; cf. umiyesun

IMSEKE the young of the otter

IN the female or negative principle-Chinese yin

IN I SIMEN vaginal discharge, menstrual discharge

IN YANG the male (positive) and female (negative) principles


INA the son of one's sister--nephew

INCAMBI to neigh

INCI ablative of

INDAHŪLAMBI to fall simultaneously (in wrestling)

INDAHŪN 1. dog 2. the eleventh of the earth's branches

INDAHŪN BIYA the ninth month

INDAHŪN CECIKE the hoopoe (Upupa epoes)

INDAHUN FEKUN 'dog gallop'--a type of gallop that resembles a dog running

INDAHŪN GINTEHE a type of tree that grows near rivers with colored bark and red and white flowers

INDAHŪN HOLDON Siberian cedar


INDAHŪN MANGGISU one name for the badger; cf. dorgon

INDAHŪN MUCU wild grape

INDAHŪN NACIN a type of falcon

INDAHŪN SINDAMBI to set dogs (on game)

INDAHŪN SORO sour jujube

INDAHŪN SORO DEBSE cake made of sour jujubes


INDAHŪNGGA pertaining to the dog

INDAHŪNGGA ANIYA the year of the dog

INDAN an arrow lacking an arrowhead

INDE dative/locative of i

INDEBUMBI caus. of indembi

INDEHEN malaria

INDEMBI to rest (on a journey), to spend the night, to halt, to spend


INDEN stopover (on a journey)

INDERI a mare or cow that gives birth to young after a year's gap

INE MENE at will, willingly, as one pleases, may just as well

INEKU 1. same, this (day, month, year) 2. still, as before

INEKU ANIYA this year

INEKU BIYA this month



INEKU OMOLO a descendant of the sixth generation

INEKŪ SILE broth, water in which meat has been cooked

INEMENE see ine mene

INENGGI 1. day 2. a type of sea fish resembling the sea bream

INENGGI ABKAI TAMPIN the upper part of a water clock

INENGGI DOBORI AKŪ both day and night, ceaselessly

INENGGI DULIN midday, noon

INENGGI HETUMBUMBI to live, to get by

INENGGI ŠUN DE in the daytime

INENGGI TOME every day


INENGGISHŪN around noon, close to midday

ING 1. camp, military encampment 2. battalion

ING ILIMBI for a camp to be set up

ING CING sapphire



ING LO tassel

INGGA MOO a type of camphor tree

INGGAHA 1. down, fluff 2. the fuzz on the bloom of a cattail

INGGAHA CECE a type of very light fabric made of down


INGGAHA SUJE a type of tightly woven thick woolen that resembles satin

INGGAHA ŠUFANAHA SURI a sort of silk crepe

INGGALA 1. down, fluff 2. the mealy redpoll

INGGALI wagtail, a bird of the genus Motacilla

INGGARI the down or fuzz from the bloom of the willow tree



INGGUHE see yengguhe

INGTORI cherry

INGTURI see ingtori

INGYANG ŠEME buzzing (of flies)

INI genitive of i

INI CIŠUI on his own initiative, by itself, of its own accord

ININGGE his, her

INIYAHA looper, measuring worm

INJAHA the young of the gazelle; cf. jeren

INJAHAN see injaha

INJEBUMBI caus. of injembi

INJECEMBI to laugh together

INJECUKE funny, humorous, amusing

INJEKU 1. joke 2. funny, amusing


INJEKUNGGE comical, gay, jovial

INJEKUŠEMBI to ridicule, to laugh at

INJEMBI to laugh


INJENDUMBI/INJENUMBI to laugh (of a group)

INJEŠI joker, clown

INJIRI veil on a woman's hat used to protect her face from the sun

INTU CECIKE the name of a small brown bird that chatters incessantly

INU 1. also, too 2. even (adverb) 3. so, yes 4. correct

IO oil, paint, lacquer

IO G'ANG CING a kind of brown cloth

IODAN an oilcloth raincoat

IOGI Major; cf. dasihire hafan

IOI 1. a musical instrument made in the shape of a lying tiger--the toothed ridge down the back is stroked with a wooden stick at the conclusion of a musical selection 2. one of the five tones; cf. yumk'a

IOIMTUN a ritual vessel used by king Shun

IOJAN a painter

IOLEBUMBI caus. of iolembi

IOLEMBI to oil, to paint, to lacquer


IOLERE FAKSI a lacquer worker, a painter

IOSE pomelo

IOWAN see yuwan

IOWANBOO see yuwamboo

IOWEI see yuwei

IRA glutinous millet

IRAHI 1. ripple 2. a shaft of light coming through a crack in a door or window

IREN 1. ripples and foam caused by swimming fish 2. wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

IRENEMBI to cause ripples (of fish)

IRESHŪN sunken, sloping down towards the front (of animals)

IRGA see irha

IRGAŠAMBI to flirt with the eyes, to wink at

IRGE HONIN a castrated ram, a wether

IRGEBUMBI to compose verse

IRGEBUN poem, verse

IRGECE MOO the name of a black and deep-red colored tree that grows in Tibet

IRGECE NIYEHE one name for the mandarin duck; cf. ijifun niyehe

IRGEN people, the common people

IRGEN I KUNGGERI section of civil affairs (of various governmental organs)

IRGEN SERE TEMGETU pass used at local examinations by nonofficial participants

IRGESE plural of irgen

IRHA remnants of cloth

IRI 1. fifty mu; cf. imari 2. vegetable garden

IRKIMBI to provoke a person to anger

IRKINJIMBI to come to provoke

IRMU one name for the quail; cf. mušu

IRUBUMBI caus./pass. of irumbi

IRUDAI the phoenix of the north

IRUKŪ lead sinker on a net

IRUMBI (-ha) to sink, to drown

IRUN 1. a row of tiles 2. rows between furrows in a field 3. raised path between fields 4. the inside part of an oven-bed

IRUNGGE MAHATUN an ancient-style hat that indicates rank by the number of ridges on top

IRUSHŪN sunken, submerged, secret, hidden

IRUSU HIYAN incense made from the plant Aquilaria Agallocha

ISABUMBI 1. caus. of isambi 2. to gather, to assemble, to collect together

ISABUN gathering, assembly, collection

ISAKŪ meeting, congregation

ISAMBI to come together, to gather, to assemble

ISAMAMBI to accumulate, to collect

ISAN gathering, assembly, meeting

ISAN NEIMBI to hold a meeting

ISANAMBI to go to assemble

ISANDUMBI/ISANUMBI to gather together

ISANGGA MEKTEN a game of chance in which a number of people make bets on a monthly drawing of tallies

ISANJIMBI to come to assemble

ISANJINGGA BOO the antechamber of the throne room where those who awaited audiences assembled

ISARLAMBI to be assembled

ISE chair

ISE I SEKTEFUN a chair cushion

ISEBUMBI 1. caus. of isembi 2. to punish, to reprimand 3. to intimi-date

ISEBUN 1. punishment, reprimand 2. intimidation

ISECUN intimidated, frightened, overawed

ISEKU frightened, worried

ISEKU AKŪ unafraid

ISELEBUMBI caus. of iselembi

ISELEKŪ ILHA an exotic flower that grows in the mountains of Kweichow


ISELEMBI to oppose steadfastly

ISEMBI to fear, to lack courage, to be timid

ISHA 1. Siberian jay (Garrulus glandarius) 2. greedy and covetous person

ISHELIYEKEN rather narrow


ISHŪ reel or skein of thread

ISHŪN 1. towards, facing, opposite 2. next 3. cf. ishunde

ISHŪN ANIYA next year

ISHŪN BIYA next month

ISHŪN CASHŪN facing and back to back, in two directions at once, with a wringing motion

ISHŪN EDUN head wind

ISHUN JABUMBI to contradict, to take an unyielding position in an argument

ISHŪN MUDURI facing dragons (on satin)

ISHŪN SEFERE the two hands joined exactly together, thumb to thumb, forefinger to forefinger

ISHŪNDE mutually, to one another

ISI Japanese larch

ISIBUBUMBI caus. of isibumbi

ISIBUMBI 1. caus. of isimbi (I, 2) 2. to send, to take to, to deliver, to pass to (someone) 3. to bestow 4. to accompany to 5. to repay, to give back 6. to inflict 7. to obtain, to get into one's possession 8. to begin the training of falcons and hunting dogs

ISIHIBUMBI caus. of isihimbi

ISIHIDABUMBI caus./pass. of isihidambi

ISIHIDAMBI to grab hold of and shake

ISIHIMBI to shake, to wave

ISIMBI (I) (-ka, -pi) 1. to reach, to arrive 2. to approach, to come up to 3. to suffice 4. (with de) to be as good as 3. to be about to (with the imperfect participle:jetere isika)

ISIKA (with imperfect participle) almost, about to

ISIME approximately

ISIMELIYAN approximately (with numbers)

ISIRAKU (with de) not as good an alternative as . . . ,it's better to . . . , not as good as

ISIREI imminent, approaching, impending

ISIMBI (2) (-ha) to pull up (grass), to pluck

ISIMBUMBI caus. of isimbi (I)

ISINAMBI 1. to reach, to arrive (at that place) 2. to go so far as to . . .

ISINGGA sufficient, adequate

ISINJIMBI (imperative: isinju) to arrive (at this place), to reach (here)

ISINJIHA BE EJEMBI to record incoming documents

ISITAI see icitai

ISITALA up to, until

ISOHON bezoar--concretions found in the bellies of ruminant animals that are used as medicine

ISU plain black satin

IŠUHE see ishu.

ISUHŪN weak, delicate, sickly (of children)

ISUKA golden eagle

ISUNGGE ŠUFATU a military head covering of ancient times made from black satin

ITELE one hundred-trillionth (of a Chinese foot)

ITEM a two-year-old cow

ITU Chinese partridge (Perdix barbata)

ITULHEN saker, Shanhan falcon (Falco cherrug)

ITURHEN see itulhen

ITURI a nestling cuckoo; cf. dumin cecike

ITURI KEKUHE one name for the cuckoo; cf. kekuhe

JA 1. cheap, inexpensive 2. easy

JA AKŪ 1. wonderful, marvelous 2. not easy 3. not cheap

JA BE BODOMBI to do the easy way, to save trouble or work

JA DE BAHARAKŪ not easy to obtain

JA TUWAMBI to seem easy, to look down on

JA FU BITHE see jafu bithe

JA JA 1. a sound used to scare off children or animals 2. (onom.) the sound made by a bird when it is caught

JA JI (onom.) the sound of many people screaming

JABARHAN an iron hoop

JABCACUN regret, regrettable

JABCAMBI 1. to regret 2. to blame, to reproach 3. to swarm (of insects)

JABCANDUMBI/JABCANUMBI to regret (of a group)

JABDUBUMBI caus. of jabdumbi

JABDUGAN 1. interval, pause 2. free time

JABDUHANGGA at leisure, relaxed, natural, leisurely

JABDUMBI 1. to be at leisure, to have the time to 2. to complete (successfully), to hit the mark, to make a successful attempt 3. to strike a blow

JABDUHAI TEILE as time permits, as opportunity allows

JABDUHAKŪ didn't have time to, didn't succeed in

JABDURAKŪ 1. doesn't have time to 2. taken unawares, taken by surprise

JABDUNGGA leisurely

JABHŪ the name of a constellation

JABHŪ TOKDONGGO KIRU a banner on which the constellation jabhū was depicted

JABJAN python, large snake

JABKŪ a small bag of arrows carried at the side

JABSUN a hundred billion

JABŠABUMBI caus. of jabšambi

JABŠAKI good fortune, advantage

JABŠAKI BE YABUMBI to live depending or hoping for good fortune

JABŠAMBI 1. to obtain an advantage, to derive benefit from 2. to be by good luck, to be a matter of chance 3. to be inexpensive

JABŠAN good luck, good fortune, advantage

JABŠAN BAIMBI to seek good luck, to look for an advantage, to depend on good fortune

JABŠANDE fortunately, by good luck

JABTUNDUMBI to regret mutually, to regret (of a group)

JABUBUMBI caus. of jabumbi

JABUMBI to answer, to respond

JABUN 1. answer 2. deposition (at law)

JABUN GAIMBI to take a deposition

JACI 1. too, very 2. frequently, apt to, susceptible to

JACI ELEHUN too aloof (to one's relations)

JACI FAHŪN AMBA too bold (used to scold people)

JACI OHODE all the time, often, no matter what

JACIN second, other

JACINGGE second born

JADAHA crippled, disabled, paralyzed

JADAHALAMBI to be disabled, to be crippled

JADAHAN see jadaha

JAFABUMBI caus. of jafambi

JAFAKŪ handle, grip

JAFAKŪ HADAMBI to nail a grip on (a bow)


beveled grip

JAFAKŪNGGA having a handle

JAFAKŪNGGA DENGJAN a lantern with a handle

JAFAKŪNGGA TUNGKEN a large drum with a handle

JAFAMBI 1. to take in the hand, to grasp, to seize, to hold, to grip, to take hold of one's opponent (at wrestling) 2. to offer 3. to pick (fruit) 4. to collect (taxes) 5. to drive (a chariot or wagon) 6. to freeze 7. to cremate

JAFAN 1. bridal gift, dowry 2. driving of chariots or wagons

JAFANAMBI to go to seize, to go to offer

JAFANGGA pertaining to holding

JAFANJIMBI to come to seize, to come to offer

JAFANUMBI to grasp one another

JAFAŠAMBI to hold continually, to keep groping for

JAFATA a hawk that leaves the nest of its own free will

JAFATAMBI to keep in rein, to restrain

JAFU 1. felt, wool blanket 2. directive, decree

JAFU BITHE directive, decree

JAFU FOMOCI wool socks, socks made of felt

JAFU SEKTEFUN a felt cushion or pad

JAFUKŪNGGA economical, thrifty

JAFUNAMBI to become like felt, to form felt

JAFUNUBUMBI caus. of jafunumbi

JAFUNUMBI to grasp one another, to wrestle

JAFUTA see jafata

JAGURI TUNGKEN a foot-long drum used by the imperial escort

JAHA a dugout with a sharp front end and straight stern

JAHALA a horse with red or brown stripes around the neck

JAHALTU SIRGA a horse with silver stripes on its neck

JAHARA 1. see jahari 2. multicolored

JAHARI pebbles and stones found along a river bed

JAHARI DALANGGA a dam of pebbles and river stones

JAHARI WEHE pebble, rock

JAHŪDAI boat, ship

JAHŪDAI FEKUMBI to jump aboard a boat

JAHŪDAI GIYALAN cabin on a boat

JAHŪDAI I FALGARI DA chief of the river constabulary

JAI 1. next, following, second 2. still, again, more 3. later 4. and

JAI INENGGI the following day

JAI JALAN I OMOLO great-grandchild

JAI JERGI second class

JAI JERGI DOSIKASI second-class metropolitan graduate

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