A I bukdan the outside edge of a piece of folded paper

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HACUKADAMBI to commit dirty acts, to commit lewd acts

HACUMBI (-ka) to become dirty, to become defiled

HADA crag, a small cliff

HADA CIBIN rock-martin (Ptyonoprogne rupestris)

HADA WEHE gravel, broken stones

HADABUMBI caus. of hadambi

HADAFUN see hadufun

HADAGAN see hadahan

HADAHA see hadahan

HADAHA USIHA the North Star

HADAHAN a nail or peg of iron, bamboo, or wood

HADAHAN NISIHA a small fish shaped like a tent peg

HADAI plug, wedge, tap

HADALA horse's bridle

HADALA MULTULEMBI to remove a horse's bridle

HADALA ŠABAN cleats--four iron teeth placed on a round frame and attached to the soles of shoes to prevent slipping on a slippery or steep surface

HADALA YOO a sore on a horse's mouth caused by a bridle

HADAHA BURGA a type of willow that grows alone--it has white bark and its wood is good for making arrows

HADAMBI 1. to nail, to tack 2. to sting (of insects) 3. to sole (shoes or boots) 4. to fix the eyes on

HADAHAI fixedly (of looking)

HADAHAI FEKSIMBI to run with an arrow stuck in the body

HADANAMBI to fix the eyes on, to stare

HADAHA grayling--a small fish that lives in clear cold water (Salmo thymallus)

HADUBUMBI caus. of hadumbi

HADUFUN scythe, sickle


HADUMBI to cut with a sickle, to reap

HADUNAMBI to go to cut with a sickle, to go to reap

HADUNJIMBI to come to cut with a sickle, to come to reap

HADUNUMBI to reap together

HAFA shallow

HAFA ŠORO a shallow basket

HAFAN official, officer

HAFAN BAHAMBI to obtain an official position

HAFAN EFULEMBI to be dismissed from office

HAFAN HALI an official

HAFAN HERGEN official rank

HAFAN I BOO office of personnel of the Court of Colonial Affairs

HAFAN I JURGAN Board of Civil Appointments, BH 333

HAFAN I JURGAN I KUNGGE YAMUN section of Personnel of the Censorate

HAFAN I TANGKAN an official grade or rank

HAFAN I TEMGETU I KUNGGERI an office of the Board of Civil Appointments charged with issuing orders to local officials who were appointed monthly and with checking on the terms of those previously appointed

HAFAN JERGI rank and title

HAFAN SINDAMBI to appoint an official

HAFAN SINDARA BOLGOBURE FIYENTEN Department of Inner Mongols, later jasak dangsei bolgobure fiyenten

HAFAŠŠA plural of hafan

HAFASI scholar, official

HAFASI ŠUFATU a head wrapping worn by hafasi

HAFIN clamp, vise

HAFIN MOO the two pieces of wood that hold a ship's mast in place

HAFIRABUMBI 1. caus./pass. of hafirambi 2. to be embarrassed, to find oneself in difficult circumstances

HAFIRAHŪN pressed, pinched, forced between two objects, narrow

HAFIRAKŪ pincers, pliers

HAFIRAKŪ SIBIYA metal fasteners that secure an axle to a cart

HAFIRAKŪ SIMHUN a sixth finger

HAFIRAMBI 1. to pinch, to press or hold between two objects 2. to hold under the arm 3. to press a seam together 4. to put pressure on, to compel 5. to put in a difficult situation 6. to threaten

HAFIRAHA AFAHA a memorandum pressed between the leaves of a document

HAFIRAN seam on a boot

HAFIRHŪN see hafirahfūn

HAFIRŠAMBUMBI caus. of hafiršambi

HAFIRŠAMBI to use economically

HAFIRŠANUMBI to use economically (of a group)

HAFIŠAMBI to pat affectionately, to flatter

HAFIŠANGGA obsequious, flattering

HAFITAMBI 1. to press or hold on both sides of an object, to pinch 2. to inlay

HAFITAME AFAMBI to attack from two sides, to mount a pincer attack

HAFITAME GEYEMBI to engrave on two sides

HAFITARA FULHUN one of the six minor scale pipes

HAFU 1. penetrating, going through 2. thorough, comprehensive 3. en-

lightened, possessing understanding

HAFU HAFU penetrating, thorough, throughout, total, comprehensive

HAFU HIYOOŠUNGGA thoroughly filial

HAFUKIYAOBI to inform in detail, to give a thorough rundown on

HAFULAMBI 1. to penetrate, to go through 2. to forbid

HAFUMBI (-ka, -re/ndara) 1. to penetrate, to go through, to soak through, to pierce 2. to understand thoroughly, to comprehend 3. to communicate, to have relations with

HAFUNDARAKU impenetrable

HAFUMBUBUMBI caus. of hafumbumbi

HAFUMBUKŪ interpreter, translator

HAFUMBUKŪ HAFAN an official translator

HAFUMBUKŪ KAMCIHABI accompanied by a translator

HAFUMBUMBI 1. caus. of hafumbi 2. to translate, to interpret 3. to inform in detail, to give a thorough account of

HAFUN transparent, permeable

HAFUN CECE smooth transparent silk gauze

HAFUNAMBI to connect with another place, to form a free passage to another place

HAFUNGGA thorough, constant

HAFUNGGA BOO in a house, a central room that connects with both front and back rooms

HAFUNGGA MAHATUN a hat with openings on both sides

HAFUNGGA OMOLO a descendant of the sixth generation

HAFUNGGA TALU a thoroughfare

HAFUNJIBUMBI caus. of hafunjimbi

HAFUNJIMBI to come through (in this direction), to come straight through

HAGA fish bone

HAGABUKŪ a four-inch wooden hook with an iron tip used to catch black carp

HAGAMBI 1. to get something caught in the throat 2. to form a hard abscess in the breast

HAHA male, man

HAHA I DEJI a superior man, champion


HAHABUKŪ the same as hagabukū

HAHAMA ANCUN an earring with a single pearl

HAHANGGE male, masculine

HAHARAMBI to act like a man, to act in a manly way

HAHARDAMBI to become a man

HAHASI plural of haha

HAHI urgent, hurried

HAHI CAHI hurried, agitated, urgent

HAHIBA quick, nimble

HAHIKAN rather urgent

HAHILAMBI to act quickly or urgently, to hurry

HAHŪBUMBI caus. of hahūmbi

HAHŪMBI to grow (of feathers on a bird)

HAHŪRABUMBI caus. of hafirambi

HAHŪRAKŪ choker used for restraining a dog

HAHŪRAMBI 1. to grab by the throat, to choke 2. to occupy a militarily strategic point

HAHŪRŠAMBI 1. to hold by the throat continually, to throttle 2. to accuse obstinately

HAICING the peregrine falcon; cf. šongkon

HAIDAN a large hook on which frogs and small fish were used as bait

HAIDAN SISIMBI to fish with a haidan

HAIDARABUMBI caus. of haidarambi

HAIDARAMBI to lean, to lean to one side, to droop, to hang the head

HAIDARŠAMBI to lean to one side while walking

HAIDU lopsided, leaning to one side

HAIFIRAMBI see hafirambi

HAIFIRŠAMBI see hafiršambi

HAIGARI see haihdri

HAIGŪ see haihū

HAIHA 1. mountain slope 2. spool for yarn or thread

HAIHABUMBI caus. of haihambi

HAIHAMBI to tumble over, to fall to one side

HAIHAN 1. welt of a shoe or boot 2. bone, feathers, hemp stalks, and hair fed to falcons to clean out their stomachs

HAIHARAMBI to lean to one side, to topple, to incline

HAIHARAME along the slope of a hill

HAIHARI see heiheri haihari

HAIHARILAMBI to reel from side to side

HAIHARŠAMBI to stagger, to reel, to sway

HAIHASHŪN inclined, leaning, awry

HAIHŪ 1. soft 2. staggering, weaving from side to side

HAIHŪLJAMBI to flutter (in the wind)

HAIHŪN one name for the otter; cf. hailun

HAIHŪNA Mongolian lark (Melanocorypha mongolica)

HAIHŪNGGA soft, supple

HAIHŪNGGA ŠUFA a new-style handkerchief


HAIJAN a mode of Manchu singing during which the singer imitates the movements of a snake

HAIJUNG SEME reeling under a heavy load

HAILAMBI to scorn an offering

HAILAMI see hailambi

HAILAN 1. elm tree 2. vexation, scorn

HAILAN GAIBUMBI to be vexed, to be distressed

HAILAN GAIMBI to vex, to distress

HAILAN SENCE a type of yellow fungus that grows on elms

HAILASHŪN precipitous, steep

HAILUN otter (Lutra lutra)

HAILUN CECIKE turquoise kingfisher (Halcyon smyrnensis)

HAIRACUKA 1. pitiable, pitiful 2. too bad, what a shame!

HAIRACUN regrettable, pitiable

HAIRAKAN 1. regrettable 2. what a shame!

HAIRMBI (-ka, -ndara) 1. to regret, to begrudge, to be unwilling to part with 2. to love tenderly

HAIRAN regret, begrudging, compassion, tenderness

HAIRAN JAKA an object that one is loath to part with

HAIRAN NIYALMA a person that one is very fond of

HAIRANDAMBI to begrudge

HAISANDA wild garlic

HAITA a large wild pig

HAITANG crab apple

HAJAN wooden palisade surrounding a fortress

HAJI 1. dear, beloved 2. affection 3. scarce, lean (year), famine

HAJI ANIYA a famine year, a lean year

HAJI GUCU a dear friend

HAJI HAIRAN tender love

HAJILAMBI 1. to love, to fall in love 2. to fish with a net stretched across a stream


HAJIN affection

HAJINGGA BAIBULA one of the names of the paradise flycatcher; cf. baibula

HAJUN 1. weapon, tool 2. a sicklelike knife used in tiger traps

HAK (onom.) the sound of clearing one's throat

HAKCIN quick-tempered, rash, brusque

HAKDA old grass left over from the previous year, a spot of grass remaining in an area that has been burnt over

HAKSABUMBI 1. caus./pass. of haksambi 2. to scorch, to become scorched

HAKSAMBI (-ka) 1. to become scorched, to get dark from contact with sunlight or fire 2. to turn red in the rising or setting sun (clouds) 3. to have a burning sensation in the stomach

HAKSAHA TUGI reddish clouds

HAKSAN 1. steep, precipitous 2. cruel, brutal 3. golden, reddish brown

HAKSAN BOCOI JUNGGIDEI KIYOO a yellow sedan chair carried by eight men that was used by concubines of the second rank

HAKSAN BOCOI SUJE DE AISIN DAMBUHA GARUDANGGA KIRU a banner used by the escort of concubines of the second class--it had a phoenix embroidered upon a yellow background

HAKSAN HAKCIN precipitous, high and steep

HAKSAN UMIYESUN a yellow sash worn by members of the imperial clan

HAKSANGGA EFEN a type of baked wheat cake

HAKŠABUMBI caus. of hakšambi

HAKŠAMBI 1. to fry in fat 2. to render fat or oil 3. to become scorched

HAKŠAN scorched

HALA clan, family, family name

HALA HACIN all sorts of

HALA UMIYAHA a small red insect found in wells

HALABUMBI caus./pass. of halambi

HALAHAI nettle

HALAI FUDASI in confusion

HALAMBI 1. to exchange, to change (clothing), to take the place of 2. to burn (of a hot object)

HALAME JURUME ETUMBI to change clothes a number of times

HALAN 1. menstruation 2. exchanging

HALANAMBI to go to exchange, to go closer to

HALANDUMBI/HALANUMBI to exchange together

HALANGGA belonging to the same clan or family

HALANJAMBI to exchange in turn, to take turns

HALANJIMBI to come to exchange

HALAR (onom.) the sound made by jade pendants hitting together, tinkling

HALAR HILIR (onom.) the sound of bells on the girdle, the sound made by a shaman's sword

HALAŠAKŪ a pampered child

HALAŠAMBI 1. to act spoiled, to act up, to pout 2. to wiggle and squirm about, to act unsettled before the onset of a fever or smallpox

HALBA the shoulder blade

HALBAHA 1. a small knob on a helmet, the decoration on the top of a banner pole, a finial 2. the wide part of an arrowhead 3. a spoon

HALBAHA MOO a three-holed wooden plank two feet long used in ceremonies in the shamanistic shrine

HALBAHAN spoon-bill pelican

HALBIŠAMBI to curry favor, to fawn

HALBUBUMBI caus. of halbumbi

HALBULHA one who gives shelter to bandits and thieves

HALBUMBI to give entrance to, to take into one's home, to give shelter to

HALDA sturgeon's spleen--used as a medicine for boils

HALDA YOO a boil between the shoulder blades

HALDABA flatterer, an obsequious person, sycophant

HALDABAŠAMBI to be obsequious

HALDARAMBI to slip and fall

HALFIRI a flat hollow fruit about the size of a tangerine

HALFIYAKAN somewhat flat

HALFIYAN flat, thin

HALFIYAN NIMAHA flatfish, flounder

HALFIYAN TURI flat bean (Dolichos lablab)

HALFIYANGGA flat in form

HALFIYANGGA JAHUDAI a type of flatboat used on the Yangtze

HALFIYANGGA TUNGKEN a flat drum used in religious services

HALGIBUMBI caus. of halgimbi

HALGIMBI to wrap around, to wind, to entwine

HALHAN plowshare

HALHIMBI see halgimbi

HALHŪKAN rather hot


HALHŪN BEDEREMBI one of the divisions of the solar year--falling on the 23rd or 24th of August

HALHŪN ŠAHŪRUN BULUKAN NECIN hot, cold, warm, even--used to describe the nature of medicines

HALHŪN ŠERI a hot spring

HALHŪRI pepper

HALI 1. untillable marshland, swamp, untilled land, virgin land 2. official

HALI ULHŪ marsh grass

HALMAN face soap

HALMARI a sword used by shamans

HALMUN an iron ring placed in the hub of a wheel into which an axle is inserted, a bushing

HALTAN YOO see halda yoo

HALU fine flour or meal


HALUKAN EDUN a warm wind

HALUKŪ thick cotton trousers

HALUNGGA GŪLHA fur-lined boots

HAMGIYA 1. skullcap 2. plants resembling sagebrush or mugwort

HAMGIYA SUIHA dry brush, overgrowth

HAMGIYARI one of the names for the wild pig

HAMIBUMBI caus. of hamimbi

HAMIMBI (-ka) 1. to approach, to be close to, to almost reach 2. to suffice 3. to be within reach 4. to bear, to tolerate

HAMIKA almost, within reach

HAMIME about to, on the point of

HAMIRAKŪ 1. unbearable 2. insufficient 3. unattainable 4. unsuccessful

HAMINAMBI to go near to, to approach

HAMIINJIMBI to come near to, to approach

HAMIŠAMBI to go right up to, to approach closely

HAMTAKŪ a child who defecates where he ought not

HAMTAMBI to defecate

HAMTANAMBI to go to defecate

HAMTU felt hat

HAMU excrement

HAMUTAMBI see hamtambi

HAN emperor, khan

HAN I UKSUN I EJEHE the genealogy of the imperial clan

HAN I UKSUN I EJEHE KUREN bureau for the compilation of the genealogical record of the imperial clan

HAN USIHA the second star of the Great Dipper

HAN DUNG reservoir, tank

HANA a section of lattice wall of a yurt

HANCI near

HANCI FIMEMBI to approach, to come near to

HANCIKAN rather near

HANCIKI near, near place, vicinity

HANCIKINGGE that which is near, one who is nearby

HANCUHA MUCEN a three-legged cooking pot, tripod

HANDA a pock mark, a scar

HANDU 1. the rice plant 2. leaven for making soy sauce

HANDU BELE late maturing rice

HANDU BOIHON mud in a rice paddy

HANDU CISE a rice paddy

HANDU IRI the same as handu cise

HANDU ORHO rice stalks, rice straw

HANDU TARIRE KŪWARAN Imperial Agricultural Office, BH 90A

HANDU UMIYAHA the rice worm

HANDUCUN a song of the rice harvest

HANDUMBI to plant in a paddy field

HANDUTUN a round vessel for holding grain offerings at sacrifices

HANGGABUMBI 1. caus. of hanggambi 2. to impede, to hinder, to obstruct,to occlude 3. to spoil

HANGGAI packsaddle

HANGGAI ENGGEMU the same as hanggai

HANGGAI NIRU an unpolished, rusty arrowhead

HANGGAMBI to moisten by sprinkling

HANGGI see hangki

HANGGIR HINGGIR (onom.) the tinkle of bracelets and anklets

HANGGIR SEME tinkling, jingling

HANGGISUN a long silk cloth fringed at both ends

HANGKI China-berry tree (Melia japonica)

HANGNABUMBI caus. of hangnambi

HANGGAMBI to solder, to weld, to repair metal pots

HANGNARA FAKSI a repairer of pots


HANGNAN solder


HANGSE noodles

HANGSI 1. a type of very thin silk 2. the spring festival falling on the 5th or 6th of April

HANI MAJIGE see kani tani

HANI TANI tiny, little; cf. heni tani

HANJA incorrupt, honest, clean, pure

HANJA BOLGO incorrupt and clean

HANJA GIRUTU incorrupt and possessing a sense of shame

HANJADAMBI to act honestly, to act incorruptly

HANJAMBI to be covetous, to be greedy

HAO one ten-thousandth of a Chinese foot

HAR SEME pungent, having a sharp odor

HARA 1. the short autumn coat of sable or lynx 2. Setaria viridis-a common weed, foxtail 3. black (of horses)

HARAMBI to watch, to observe

HARAN reason, cause

HARANAMBI to produce foxtails, to produce weeds

HARANGGA 1. subordinate, subject, belonging to, vassal to 2. (the one) in question, the said . . . , the appropriate . . .


HARANGGA BA a dependent or subordinate area

HARANGGA HAFAN subordinate (official)

HARATU subordinate, underling, subject


HARDAME see herdeme hardame

HARGA see harha

HARGASI see harkasi

HARGAŠABUMBI caus. of hargašambi

HARGAŠAMBI 1. to look up, to look up to, to look into the distance from a high place 2. to go to court, to have an audience at court

HARGAŠAME GOIDAHA I have longed to meet you

HARGAŠAME TUWAMBI to look up, to look into the distance

HARGAŠARA DOROLONGGO KUNGGERI a bureau charged with checking the credentials of those granted imperial audiences

HARGAŠAN the court

HARGAŠAN DE HENGKILENJIRE BOLGOBURE FIYENTEN Department for Receiving Princes of Inner Mongolia, BH 495

HARGAŠANAMBI to go to court


HARGAŠANJIMBI to come to court

HARGAŠANJIRE ACANJIRE KUNGGERI a bureau of the Imperial Patent Office that was concerned with imperial audiences

HARGI 1. a place where water flows very swiftly, rapids 2. mustard

HARGI SOGI mustard (the plant)

HARGI ŠURDEKU whirlpool, eddy

HARHA the leather between the sole and the leg of a boot

HARHŪ mire, mud

HARHŪ BOIHON the mud at the bottom of a body of water, slime, mire

HARHŪ UMIYAHA Cicindela chinensis-a small worm with black and yellow spots that is used to cure the bite of a mad dog

HARHŪDAMBI to stir up the mud on the bottom of a river or lake in order to stifle fish

HARI 1. crooked, bent, curved, awry, inclining 2. cross-eyed 3. a net bag for holding deer's innards

HARIBUMBI caus./pass. of harimbi

HARIKŪ an iron (for pressing clothing), a cauterizing iron

HARIMA EFEN a type of baked cake

HARIMBI 1. to iron, to press (clothing) 2. to cauterize sores on cattle 3. to conceal, to hide

HARIHA EFEN baked cakes used as offerings

HARIHA GESE NIMEMBI to hurt like hell

HARINGGA see garingga

HARKASI influenza

HARSA yellow-throated marten (Martes flavigula)

HARŠAKŪ protector, guardian

HARŠAMBI 1. to protect, to defend 2. to cover up for 3. to be partial to

HARŠANDUMBI/HARŠANUMBI to cover up for one another, to protect one another

HARTUNGGA 1. subordinates, subjects 2. Chinese banner troops in the provinces

HASAHA scissors, shears


HASAHALAMBI to cut with scissors or shears

HASAHANGGA FUKJINGGA HERGEN a style of calligraphy

HASALA a fast-running cow

HASALABUMBI caus. of hasalambi

HASALAKŪ shears for cutting metal

HASALAMBI to cut with scissors, to shear

HASAMBI to hurry, to be in a rush

HASAN mange, itch, scabies

HASANAMBI to get the mange or scabies

HASHALABUMBI caus. of hashalambi

HASHALAMBI to erect a fence or palisade, to mark off

HASHAN a fence of wood or kaoliang stalks, a palisade


HASHŪ 1. left 2. erroneous, improper, depraved

HASHŪ ERGI FIYENTEN first department (of a governmental organ)

HASHŪ TONGGO TABUMBI to fasten the thread on the left side

HASHŪTAI heterodox, depraved

HASHŪTAI DORO heterodoxy, black magic

HASI 1. persimmon 2. eggplant

HASI FUNTA the white powder on the surface of dried persimmons

HASI ŠATAN large dried persimmons

HASIBA 1. protection, care 2. speed

HASIHIMBI to go hurriedly, to scurry

HASIMA Manchurian crayfish

HASINGGA pertaining to the persimmon, persimmon-shaped

HASINGGA TAMPIN a persimmon-shaped container

HASIRI the color of eggplant, dark purple

HASRUN SIRGA a white horse with red spots about the nose and eyes

HASTAI see hashūtai

HASU ORHO a type of climbing plant whose melonlike fruit can be salted and eaten

HASURALAMBI see hasurgalambi

HASURAN the bark of the peach tree

HASURAN MOO the tree from which hasuran is taken

HASURGALAMBI to cover with the bark of the peach tree (arrows)

HASUTAI 1. left-handed, with the left hand 2. heterodox, depraved

HASUTAI DORO the same as hashūtai doro

HAŠA a small storage house

HAŠA BOO the same as haša

HAŠABUMBI caus. of hašambi

HAŠAHAN 1. a cloth covering (for vehicles) 2. a container for grain made of mats sewn together 3. the felt covering for a section of a Mongolian yurt 4. a device for catching fish 5. tablecloth, table covering

HAŠAKŪ a scrubbing brush made from kaoliang stalks or the stalks of other grains

HAŠAKŪ DENGJAN lanterns placed on the four corners of the yellow tent in temples and at altars on days of sacrifice

HAŠAMBI 1. to scrub 2. to surround, to encompass 3. to cover, to protect

HAŠAN drapery, curtain, hangings

HAŠATAMBI to protect carefully

HATA a thin belt or strip of cloth

HATABUMBI caus./pass. of hatambi

HATABURU hateful--an expletive

HATACUKA hateful, detestable

HATAKAN rather strong, somewhat hard

HATAMBI 1. to loath, to find repugnant, to hate 2. to immerse red-hot metals into water to harden them, to temper 3. to fire (ceramics or pottery)

HATAME DEIJIMBI to temper (metals)

HATAN 1. hard, strong 2. strong (of liquor) 3. pungent, strong tasting 4. violent, fiery

HATARAMBI to fall ill suddenly, to have a sudden pain, to have a fit of temper


HATUHŪN MUKE brackish water

HATUHŪN USIHA a type of fruit from the South

HAYABUMBI caus. of hayambi

HAYADAMBI to act licentiously

HAYAHAN border, trim (on clothing)

HAYAHAN DAHŪ a court garment trimmed with sable, lynx, or black fox

HAYAHAN I ERGUME a fur-trimmed court dress

HAYAHAN I ULHUN a sable-trimmed shoulder piece

HAYAHAN UNDURAKŪ trimmed dragon satin

HAYAKTA a wild pig with upturned tusks

HAYALJAMBI to wind, to twist, to slither

HAYAMBI 1. to coil, to twist, to twine 2. to hem, to trim, to edge

HAYAHA HIYAN coiled incense

HAYAHA MEIHE USIHA the name of a Chinese constellation that has the appearance of a coiled snake

HAYAN licentious, loose, dissolute

HE stretcher, litter

HE FA SEME gasping, panting

HE GI the hoki pheasant; cf. gūnggala


HEBDEBUMBI caus. of hebdembi

HEBDEMBI to discuss, to talk over, to consult

HEBDENEMBI to go to talk over

HEBDENJIMBI to come to talk over

HEBDEŠEMBI to talk over carefully or thoroughly

HEBE 1. consultation, deliberation, planning 2. plan, plot, intrigue

HEBE ACAMBI to hold a consultation, to come together to deliberate

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