A I bukdan the outside edge of a piece of folded paper

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GARGALAMBI to be single, to be odd (of a number)

GARGAN 1. branch 2. the earth's branches 3. single, odd 4. branch of a river 5. leaf of a door 6. comrade, friend

GARGAN BIRA branch river or stream

GARGANAMBI to branch (of a river)

GARGANGGA branching, having branches

GARGATA single, alone, odd

GARGATA HERGEN a single letter (of the alphabet)

GARGITAI single and alone

GARGIYAN sparse, skimpy (of branches on a tree); cf. garbahūn

GARHATA see gargata

GARHATALAMBI see gargalambi

GARI MARI asunder, in two, in twain, split

GARICI one name for the cormorant

GARILAMBI to split asunder

GARIMBI 1. to caw 2. to copulate (of dogs)

GARIMIMBI see garilambi

GARIN 1. guard of a sword, pommel 2. extra, supernumerary

GARIN KUTULE an extra or superfluous house slave

GARIN MORIN an extra horse (led by rope behind a rider)

GARINGGA lewd, bawdy, lustful, whore

GARINGGA HEHE lewd woman, whore

GARINGGA MAMA mistress of a brothel

GARJA see garjihūn

GARJABUMBI 1. caus. of garjambi 2. to split, to crush

GARJAMBI to split (v.1.), to break (v.1.)

GARJASHŪN 1. broken, split 2. debilitated (of a horse)

GARJIHŪN a large fierce dog

GARLABUMBI caus. of garlambi

GARLAMBI to break, to ruin, to destroy, to take apart

GARLAN ruin, destruction

GARMA a four-pointed arrow used for shooting small game

GARMIBUMBI caus. of garmimbi

GARMIMBI to cut into small pieces, to tear into pieces, to break up

GARSA precocious, smart, intelligent, dexterous; cf. gali

GARSA JAHŪDAI a swift ocean-going vessel

GARSAKAN rather precocious, rather intelligent, rather dexterous

GARŠA a monk's habit

GARTAŠAMBI see gardašambi

GARU swan

GARU TURU with combined effort

GARUDAI phoenix (male)

GARUDANGGA like the phoenix

GARUDANGGA ILHA an exotic, white, autumn-blooming flower with a short stem

GARUDANGGA SEJEN the carriage used by the empress and dowager empress

GARUDANGGA YENGGUHE a brightly colored type of parrot

GARUKIYARI a type of small green parrot

GARUN long leggings used for mountain climbing

GARUNGGŪ a mythical bird resembling a phoenix whose appearance is an omen of peace, the kalavinka bird


ŠUN DALIKŪ a square red fan with kalavinka birds depicted on it


GASABUMBI caus./pass. of gasambi

GASACUN grudge, complaint

GASAMBI 1. to complain, to hold a grudge 2. to grieve, to lament

GASAN 1. grief, baneful influence, woe 2. the meat remaining after a bird of prey or predatory animal has killed and eaten

GAŠAN DULEBUMBI to offer a young pig as a sacrifice at dusk outside the west wall of the house in order to drive off evil influences

GASANDUMBI/GASANUMBI to hold a grudge against one another, to complain to one another

GASHA large bird


GASHAN calamity, disaster

GASHANGGA pertaining to large birds

GASHANGGA FUKJINGGA HERGEN a style of calligraphy

GASHATU a military standard with birds depicted on it

GASHŪBUMBI caus. of gashūmbi

GASHŪMBI to swear, to take an oath

GASHŪN an oath

GASHŪNGGA pursuant to an oath, sworn

GASHŪNGGA AHŪN DEO sworn brothers

GASIHIYABUMBI caus. of gasihiyambi

GASIHIYAMBI 1. to seize someone's goods by force, to ravage 2. to harm someone for one's own profit


GAŠAN village, country (as opposed to the city)

GAŠAN FALAN the people of a village, community

GAŠAN HARANGGA the inhabitants of a village

GAŠAN I AHA village slave--a term of abuse

GAŠAN I CALIYASI village tax collector

GAŠAN I DA village chief

GAŠAN I SAISA the notables of a village

GAŠAN TOKSO villages and hamlets

GATHŪWA a jacket made of weasel or sable fur

GE 1. husband's elder brother 2. elder brother

GE GA SEME quarreling, wrangling

GEBGE GABGA tottering, wavering (of a small child walking)

GEBKELJEMBI 1. to glisten, to shine, to have a fresh oily appearance 2. to be abundant

GEBSEHUN very skinny, emaciated

GEBSEREMBI (-ke) to become very skinny

GEBU name, repute, fame

GEBU AKŪ SIMHUN the ring finger, the fourth finger

GEBU ALGIMBI to become famous

GEBU ALGIN fame, renown

GEBU ARAMBI to name, to sign one's name

GEBU BAHA became famous

GEBU BITHE name card

GEBŪ BUMBI to name, to bestow an honorary name on

GEBŪ GAIMBI to gain fame, to obtain repute

GEBŪ HALA name and surname

GEBU HALA I DANGSE labor service roster

GEBU ISINAHA his name is established

GEBU JERGI name and rank


GEBU KOOLI general laws

GEBU SINDAMBI to sign one's name

GEBU TUCIKE became famous, famous

GEBUI AFAHA calling card

GEBUKŪ nameless

GEBUKŪ ŠUMHUN the ring finger

GEBULEMBI to name, to call by name

GEBUNGGE 1. named, bearing the name . . . 2. well-known, famous

GEBUNGGE TACIHIYAN a well-known teaching

GECEMBI to freeze, to frost

GECEN frost

GECEN GECEMBI there is a frost

GECERI ILHA the name of an exotic flower that purportedly blooms in the depths of winter

GECETU NIONGNIYAHA one name for the wild goose

GECUHERI brocade, satin with dragons or flowers depicted on it

GECUHERI SIJIGIYAN a gown made of brocade

GECŪHUN a frost, a freeze

GECUHUN ERIN a period sufficiently cold to freeze water

GEDACU raw silk

GEDEHUN staring, gaping, unable to sleep

GEDUBUMBI caus. of gedumbi

GEDUMBI to gnaw

GEDUREBUMBI caus. of gedurembi

GEDUREMBI to graze, to munch on grass

GEFEHE butterfly


GEFERI ILHA an exotic pink flower in the shape of a butterfly

GEGE elder sister, young lady, respectful term of address to young ladies

GEGESE plural of gege

GEHENAKŪ petty, obnoxious

GEHEŠEMBI to nod (the head)

GEHU GEHULEMBI to extend the neck (of a bird while running)

GEHUKEN rather bright, somewhat bright

GEHULEMBI to nod (of birds)

GEHUMBI to bend the body forward, to bow

GEHUN 1. bright, shining, clear 2. openly

GEHUN GAHŪN brightly shining (of the sun)

GEHUN GEREKE (the sky) became very bright

GEHUN HOLTOMBI to deceive openly

GEHUN ŠEHUN brilliantly white, dazzling white

GEHUNGGE YOSO the HsUan-t'ung reign period, I909--I9I2

GEI SEME very thin (of silk)

GEIGEHUN weakly, feeble

GEIGEN 1. a gacuha lying on edge 2. see geihen

GEIGEREMBI (-ke) to be weakly

GEIHEN the shaft of the penis

GEJE GAJA petty, small

GEJENGGI irksome, obtrusive

GEJI a snare for birds

GEJI SINDAMBI to set a bird snare

GEJIHEŠEBUMBI caus./pass. of gejihešembi

GEJIHEŠEMBI to tickle under the arm

GEJING GEJING SEME the same as gejing seme

GEJING SEME chattering, persistent, obnoxious

GEJUN halberd, spear


GEJŪNGGE DEJI a small amount of money taken from the winner at gambling games

GEJUREBUMBI caus. of gejurembi

GEJUREKU 1. cruel, tyrannical 2. mischievous

GEJUREMBI to mistreat, to act cruelly toward

GEKDE GAKDA see kekde kakda

GEKDEHŪN skinny, skin and bones

GEKU uvula

GELAMBI to come to, to wake up

GELEBUMBI caus. of gelembi

GELECUKE frightful

GELECUN same as gelecuke

GELEKU something frightful

GELEMBI to fear

GELENDUMBI/GELENUMBI to fear together, to fear one another

GELERJEMBI to brim (with tears)

GELERŠEMBI see gelerjembi

GELESU timid, shrinking

GELEŠEMBI see gelerjembi

GELFIYEKEN rather light (of color)

GELFIYEN light, faint (of color)

GELFIYEN FAHALA rose-colored

GELFIYEN FŪLAHUN pink, light red


GELFIYEN SOHON light yellow

GELFIYEN ŠUWAYAN CECIKE one name for the hawfinch; cf. turi cecike


the bullfinch; cf. ūn cecike

GELFIYEN YACIN CECIKE the same as yacin ūn cecike

GELGUN same as gelhun

GELHUN timid, fainthearted

GELHUN AKU dare to . . , fearlessly

GELHUN AKU GISUREMBI dares to speak, speaks without fear

GELI also, still, again

GELMERJEMBI to shine, to glitter

GEMBI to give a girl in marriage

GEMU 1. all, in every case 2. even (adverb)

GEMULEMBI to make the capital

GEMULEHE BA the place of imperial residence, imperial capital

GEMUN the imperial capital, the capital

GEMUN HECEN 1. the capital city, Peking 2. Urga

GEMUN HECEN I DOOLI Metropolitan Circuit, BH 2I3

GEMUN HECEN I HAFAN I KUNGGERI office of metropolitan officials in charge of hereditary appointments and enfeoffments

GEMUN I HAFASAI SIMNEN the examination for the officials of the capital given every three years

GEMUNGGE pertaining to the capital

GEMUNGGE HECEN the capital city; cf. gernun

GEN the slightly protruding bone at the base of the back of the neck, the first thoracic vertebra

GEN GAN AKŪ perplexed, muddled, mixed up

GENCEHELEBUMBI caus./pass. of gencehelembi

GENCEHELEMBI 1. to strike with the back of a sword or like object 2. to land on the back (of the gacuha)

GENCEHEN 1. the back of a sword or like object 2. undersurface (of a shoe) 3. the base of a wall 4. the edge of a field


GENCEHENGGE having a back or under side

GENCEHENGGE HENGKE carambola (Averrhoa carambola)

GENCEHEŠEMBI to strike repeatedly with the back of a sword or like object

GENCIHELEMBI see gencehelembi

GENEBUMBI caus. of genembi


GENE OŠO get going!

GENE OSO AKŪ haven't you gone yet?

GENGGE GANGGA all alone, on one's own, wandering about alone, vagrant

GENGGECEMBI to wander from place to place, to lead the life of a vagabond

GENGGEDEMBI to be weak, to be feeble, to walk unsteadily

GENGGEHUN bent forward, stooped

GENGGELE COKO one name for the hoki pheasant; cf. gūnggala coko


GENGGEREMBI (-ke) to become weak and stooped

GENGGERI wavering, staggering

GENGGITUNGGA illustrious, manifest

GENGGIYEKEN rather clear

GENGGIYELEBUMBI caus. of genggiyelembi

GENGGIYELEMBI to make clear, to make bright, to elucidate

GENGGIYEN 1. bright, clear 2. enlightened

GENGGIYEN ABKA clear sky, blue sky, heaven

GENGGIYEN ABKA GEHUN ŠUN in broad daylight

GENGGIYEN BIYA bright moon


GENGGIYEN CAI I BOO room in the palace used for the preparation of green tea


GENGGIYEN DUWANSE bright blue satin

GENGGIYEN EJEN an enlightened ruler


GENGGIYEN TUGI a light cloud

GENGGIYENAKO paltry, petty, unreasonable

GENGGIYENGGE bright, illuminated, clear

GENGGIYEŠAKA rather bright, rather clear

GENGGIYESU a fourth-generation house slave

GENGGUMBI to stand with the head inclined slightly forward, to incline forward (of a wagon overladen in the front)

GEO a mare

GEODEBUMBI caus./pass. of geodembi

GEODEHEN GASHA a poetic name for the pheasant

GEODEMBI to lead astray, to seduce, to lure

GEODEN seduction, luring away

GEOGE presumptuous, pretentious, haughty

GEOGEDEMBI to be presumptuous, to be haughty

GEOHE see geoge

GEOHEDEMBI see geogedembi

GEOLEMBI to sneak up on (game), to hunt from concealment

GEOŠEN pike (Esox reicherti)

GEOŠERI beaver

GER (onom.) the sound made by snarling dogs, the sound of many people talking together

GER GAR (onom.) the sound of shouting and quarreling

GER SEME incessantly (of speaking)

GER SEME WAJIRAKŪ the same as ger seme

GERBEN GARBAN crawling spiderlike, scraggly, walking in an irregular manner

GERCI accuser, one who brings suit, plaintiff

GERCILEBUMBI caus./pass. of gercilembi

GERCILEMBI to bring suit, to accuse, to bring a charge

GEREKEN rather many, quite a few

GEREMBI (-ke, -ndere) to become bright, to dawn

GERENDERE GING the last watch (just before dawn)

GEREMBUMBI 1. caus. of gerembi 2. to await the dawn

GEREN 1. a crowd, a troup 2. numerous, many, the various . . . 3. of common origin, common, general 4. issue of a concubine

GEREN EME father's concubine

GEREN FILA a percussion instrument comprising ten small brass gongs

GEREN GILTŪŠI Bachelor, graduate of the lowest degree, BH 20]

GEREN GILTŪŠI BE TACIBURE KUREN Department of Study of Lthe National Academy, BH 20I


GEREN I TACIN custom, habit

GEREN JUI son of a concubine

GEREN KANGGIRI a percussion instrument comprising sixteen small metal gongs on a frame

GEREN LEOLEN public opinion

GERETELE until dawn

GERGEMBI to dawn

GERGEN 1. yellowish tree cricket (Oecanthus rufescens) 2. see geihen

GERGEN GARGAN SEME continuously arguing and wrangling

GERGEN SEMBI to prattle

GERGUWENGGE COKO one name for the hoki pheasant; cf. gūnggala coko

GERHEN 1. twilight 2. grain with small ears


GERI 1. time, number of times 2. epidemic 3. dim, indistinct, unclear

GERI FARI 1. indistinct, dim, unstable 2. worried, flustered

GERI GARI indistinct, unclear, dim

GERI GARILAME faintly, indistinctly

GERI GERI flashing, twinkling

GERI GOIHA died in an epidemic (livestock)

GERI SEME indistinctly

GERI SUKDUN pestilential vapors, unhealthy weather

GERILAMBI 1. to flash 2. to catch a glimpse of

GERILARALAMBI to flash, to shine

GERINJEMBI to move back and forth (of the eyeballs)

GERISIKŪ see gerišeku

GERIŠEKU oscillating, wavering, irresolute

GERISEMBI to waver, to oscillate, to twinkle

GERKUŠEMBI to wink at, to make eyes at

GERSI FERSI dawn, daybreak

GERTELE see geretele

GERUDEI the female phoenix

GERUDENGGE pertaining to the female phoenix

GEŠE (postposition) like, same

GESE TŪŠAN same post, same official position

GESEJEMBI to unravel, to break from wear (of a rope)

GESER NIYEHE one name for the little grebe; cf. cunggur niyehe

GESŪMBI to come to, to regain consciousness, to wake up

GEŠAN balustrade, bannister

GETE plural of ge

GETEBŪMBI 1. caus. of getembi 2. to wake up (v.t.)

GETEHUN see getuhun

GETEHŪRI CECIKE one name for the sparrow

GETEMBI to awaken

GETERAKŪ not to make any progress in one's studies

GETEREMBI (-ke) to be swept clean, to be washed clean, to be eliminated, to be rooted out

GETEREMBUMBI 1. caus. of geterembi 2. to sweep clean, to wash clean 3. to eliminate, to root out 4.to drive out (evil spirits)

GETERILAMBI to beam with joy (the eyes)


GETŪKELEBUMBI caus. of getukelembi

GETUKELEMBI to make clear, to elucidate, to explain; cf. genggiyelembi

GETUKEN clear, lucid, understandable

GETUKEN ETUKEN clear, lucid

GEYE gāthā--a Buddhist verse

GEYEBUMBI caus. of geyembi

GEYEMBI to carve, to engrave

GEYEME GAYAME uneven, serrated

GEYEN carving, serration

GI BITHE see geye

GI BUHU muntjac, barking deer (Muntiacus muntjac)

GI DZUI FURGI rock-point dike

GIB SEME deafened (temporarily by a loud noise)

GIBAGAN 1. crust 2. crust formed on the sides of a pot in which rice is cooked

GIBAGANAMBI to form a crust, to become encrusted

GIBALABUMBI caus. of gibalambi

GIBALAMBI to paste on, to mount (pictures or calligraphy)

GIBAN pasting, mounting

GICUKE shameful, disgraceful

GICUKE MANGGI shamefaced, embarrassed

GIDA spear, lance

GIDA MUKŠAN a long pointed wooden lance

GIDABUMBI caus./pass. of gidambi

GIDABUN suppression, defeat

GIDACAN 1. ornament, decoration (on saddles, helmets, armor, bow cases, belts, and rosaries) 2. the two middle feathers in a falcon's tail

GIDACUN see gidacan

GIDAKŪ 1. a press for metal 2. a decorative headband worn by Manchu women 3. a paperweight

GIDALABUMBI caus./pass. of gidašambi

GIDALAMBI to pierce with a spear

GIDAMBI 1. to press, to crush, to roll flat 2. to stamp (a seal) 3. to force, to press (to do something) 4. to quell, to crush, to defeat 5. to raid, to plunder 6. to suppress, to hold back (laughter) 7. to close, to shut, to turn off 8. to hide, to deceive, to put on 9. to salt, to preserve in brine or soy sauce 10. to brood, to hatch

GIDAME ARAMBI to write in the semicursive script

GIDARA HERGEN the semicursive script

GIDANAMBI to go to raid, to go to force

GIDANJIMBI to come to raid, to come to force

GIDARAKŪ without concealment, out in the open, frankly

GIDASHŪN somewhat bent forward, bent over

GIDAŠABUMBI caus./pass. of gidašambi

GIDAŠAMBI 1. to beckon to come, to wave to 2. to take unfair advantage of, to wrong, to oppress

GIDU USIHA one of the stars of Ursa Minor

GIDZ a clapper

GIHI deer hide

GIHI JIBCA a jacket made of deer hide

GIHINTU LORIN a mule born from a mare

GIRŪ ŠAKDAMBI to be stored away for too long (of edibles)


GIHŪŠAME BAIMBI to beg persistently

GIJAN fragments of meat left over after slicing

GIJIRI rice straw used for weaving mats

GIJUN a long three-pointed spear

GIKIBUMBI caus. of gikimbi

GIKIHANGGE a term of abuse used toward an incompetent, greedy person

GIKIMBI to fill up

GILACAMBI to have a fever


GILAJAN 1. bare, desiccated 2. an old desiccated tree without bark

GILAJAN HOTO a bald-headed man

GILAJIN 1. sharp and clear (of a voice) 2. see gilajan

GILBAR KEIRE a horse with a reddish body and black tail and mane

GILEMBI to advance in pairs to offer wine to a deceased person

GILERJEMBI to feign ignorance, to be secretive about something

GILERŠEMBI see gilerjembi

GILGAMBI to burn down to ashes, to come to the very end

GILHA INENGGI a clear windless day

GILHAMBI see gilgambi

GILI the base of an animal's horn; cf. jili

GILJABUMBI caus./pass. of giljambi

GILJACUKA forgivable, pardonable

GILJAMBI to pardon, to forgive

GILJAME GAMAMBI the same as giljambi

GILJAME GAMARAO please excuse me!

GILJAN pardon, forgiveness

GILJANGGA compassionate, merciful, clement

GILMAHŪN shining, glistening

GILMARI ILHA sunflower

GILMARJAMBI to shine, to glow, to flash

GILTA GILTA shining, glowing

GILTA GILTI glittering, gleaming

GILTAHŪN glittering, shining, clean

GILTARI shining, glittering

GILTARI AMIHŪN flowers of sulphur, sublimed sulphur

GILTARI NIOWERI shiny, colorful, bright

GILTARI SIŠARGAN one name for the rose finch; cf. fulgiyan sišargan

GILTARILAMBI to shine, to glitter

GILTARŠAMBI to shine brightly, to gleam

GILTASIKŪ silk brocade

GILTUKAN attractive, nice-looking, handsome

GILTUNGGA refined, talented

GILTUSI Bachelor (of the National Academy), BH 20I

GILUK a good horse that can traverse

a great distance in one day

GIMDA a Chinese constellation

GIMDA TOKDONGGO KIRU a banner of the imperial escort depicting the constellation gimda

GIMŠU the male quail

GIN 1. scale, steelyard 2. catty

GIN I ILHA the scale of a steelyard

GIN I TON number of catties

GIN ALHA colorful flower-patterned satin

GIN CIYAN GI a variety of pheasant-probabMy the North China ring-necked pheasant; cf. jihana. coko

GINA 1. a trap for sable and squirrels, a deadfall 2. sheepskin decorated with gold leaf

GINA ILHA Chinese balsam

GINCIHI shiny through continued long use

GINCIHINEMBI to become shiny through wear

GINCIHIYAN 1. fair, beautiful 2. bright, shining

GINCIHIYAN LEKE a thin smooth cake made of honey, flour, and sesame oil

GINCIHIYAN ŠOBIN flat baked wheat cakes with a smooth, shiny surface

GINCIHIYAN TUWABUNGGA HOOŠAN a type of slick paper used for public announcements

GINCIHIYARI TAIHA a type of dog with long smooth hair

GINCIRI MOO China fir (Cunninghamia sinensis)

GINCITU MOO a tall palm found in the Tonkin region (Caryota ochlandra)

GINDANA prison, jail

GINDANA BE KADALARA HAFAN Inspector of Prisons, BH 457


GINDERHEN one name for the crested lark; cf. wenderhen

GING 1. watch (of the night) 2. scripture, sutra 3. capital (city)

GING BITHE Buddhist scripture

GING FORIMBI to strike the watch (with a wooden clapper)

GING FORIRE NIYALMA a night watchman

GING FORIŠI watchman who strikes the night watches

GING HECEN capital city; cf. gemun hecen

GINGGACŪN sad, depressing

GINGGAMBI see gingkambi

GINGGE clean, pure

GINGGEN a catty

GINGGIN 1. a piece of wood attached to a dog's neck to keep him from biting 2. see ginggen

GINGGUHE one name for the parrot

GINGGUJI respectful, chaste

GINGGŪJI HEHE the wife of an enfeoffed official of the fourth rank

GINGGULEBUMBI caus./pass. of ginggulembi

GINGGULEMBI 1. to respect, to honor, to act respectfully 2. to write the standard form of the script

GINGGULEME ARAMBI to write the standard form of the script

GINGGULERE HERGEN the standard form of the script

GINGGŪLEN respectful, attentive, careful

GINGGUN respect, honor

GINGGUN AKŪ without respect or honor, improper

GINGGUN HOOŠAN a type of thick paper made in Peking

GINGGUN KUNDU respect and honor

GINGKABUMBI caus./pass. of aingkambi

GINGKACŪKA sad, depressing, depressed

GINGKAMBI to feel depressed, to feel downcast

GINGLI registrar, proctor

GINGLI JERGI HAFAN official advisor

GINGNEBŪMBI caus. of gingnembi

GINGNEHEN picul (I20 catties)

GINGNEMBI 1. to weigh on a steelyard 2. to offer a cup with both hands at a sacrifice or shamanistic rite

GINGŠIMBI 1. to mumble 2. to growl while sleeping (of a dog) 3. to recite in a singsong fashion

GINJI golden pheasant; cf. junggiri coko

GINJULE BURGA white willow (Salix alba)

GINTALA Chinese tubular celery (Oenanthe stolonifera)

GINTEHE see ayan gintehe, indahūn, gintehe

GINTOHO a unit of weight equivalent to twenty-four Chinese ounces

GINTU a wooden frame for holding straw in place (in a yurt)

GIO 1. roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) 2. mother's brother

GIO HOLHON Atractylis ovata

GIO URA Agaricus quercus

GIODOHON quick, alert, lively

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