A a an interjection of casual response

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UYUN JAFAMBI before a big sacrifice, to make smaller offerings on the two previous days

UYUN JUBKI deep place in a body of water

UYUN MUDANGGA JIJUN the name of a style of seal writing (in Chinese calligraphy)

UYUN MUDURI DUIN GARUDAI MAHATUN the name of a hat worn by emperors in antiquity with nine dragons, four phoenixes, and a string of pearls attached to it

UYUN MUDURI MUDANGGA FESIN I SUWAYAN SARA the name of a yellow parasol of the imperial escort with a crooked handle and nine dragons depicted on it

UYUN MUDURINGGA SUWAYAN SARA a yellow parasol of the imperial escort with nine dragons depicted on it

UYUN SAITU the nine ministers (the heads of the six boards plus the heads of the Censorate, the Court of Judicature and Revision, and the Transmission Office)

UYUN SIHANGGA SUNTA a cartridge pouch for nine cartridges

UYUN TUHEBUKU I MAHATU a ceremonial hat of antiquity with nine tassels

UYUN UNCEHENGGE DOBI a nine-tailed fox

UYUNGGE pertaining to the ninth day of the ninth month (a festival)

UYUNGGE EFEN the name of cakes baked on the ninth day of the ninth month

UYUNGGE INENGGI the ninth day of the ninth month

UYUNGGERI nine times

UYUNJU ninety

UYUNJU DULEFUN I DURUNGGA TETUN an armillary sphere of the Peking observatory

UYUNJUCI ninetieth

UYUNJUTE ninety each

UYURI a black cat

UYURSU ninefold, consisting of nine layers

UYURSU MUHEREN a toy consisting of a piece of brass with nine brass

rings attached to it--a puzzle ring

UYURŠEMBI to laugh pleasantly, to laugh prettily

UYUTE nine each

UYUTU JOFOHORI an orange containing nine sections

UYUTUNGGE GASHA one name for the owl; cf. yabula

ŪLEN house

ŪLET Oirat, Elut

ŪN CECIKE bullfinch, birds of the genus Pyrrhula

ŪREN 1. an image, doll, a Buddhist image, a religious image 2. tablet of a deceased person

ŪREN I PAI tablet of a deceased person

ŪREN TUIBUMBI to burn the clothes and hat of a deceased person at the grave together with a paper image

WA odor, smell

WA EHE having a foul odor

WA SAIN having a pleasant odor, fragrant

WA TUCIKE YADARANGGE in dire need, like a polecat that passes foul-smelling gas when it is in distress

WA USUN having an obnoxious odor

WABUMBI caus./pass. of wambi

WABURU deserving of death!--a curse

WACAN a protective covering for the armpits on armor

WACIHIYABUMBI caus. of wacihiyambi

WACIHIYAMBI to complete, to conclude, to finish

WACIHIYAME completely, totally

WACIHIYAME OMI bottoms up!


WACIR thunderbolt of Indra, sacred instrument used in Lamaist rites as a symbol of the 'indestructible'

WADABUMBI to set a dog on a scent

WADAMBI to sniff, to follow a scent (of dogs)

WADAN 1. a cloth wrapping 2. curtain around a sedan chair 3. an unpadded bed cover 4. cloth of a flag, flag, banner

WADANAMBI to become distended (of livestock's bellies when they have over-eaten)

WAHAI extremely, very, to a great degree

WAHAN 1. hoof 2. end of a sleeve on a gown in the form of a hoof

WAHAN DABAMBI to stumble (of hoofed animals)

WAHIYABUMBI caus. of wahiyambi

WAHIYAMBI to support by holding under the arms, to help up in this way

WAHŪN stinking

WAHŪN JALGANGGA MOO tree of heaven (Ailanthus glandulosa)

WAHŪN JALGASU MOO the same as wahūn jalgangga moo

WAHŪN NIŠARGAN diphtheria eruption in the throat


WAHŪN URANGGA MOO stinking plane tree

WAHŪN YASA bare spot on the front leg of a horse

WAHŪNDA a stinking wild plant that resembles garlic

WAHŪTU CECIKE one name for the myna

WAI askew, tilted, crooked, curved

WAI SEME exhausted, tired out

WAIDABUMBI caus. of waidambi

WAIDAKŪ a dipper

WAIDAMBI to scoop out, to dip out (with a ladle or large spoon)

WAIDARA HOTO gourd used as a dipper

WAIDANAMBI to go to scoop out

WAIDANJIMBI to come to scoop out

WAIDANUMBI to scoop out together

WAIHŪ 1. askew, tilted, off-center; cf. waiku 2. unreasonable

WAIHŪDAMBI to act unreasonably

WAIHŪNGGA a person who acts unreasonably

WAIKIYAMBI see wangkiyambi

WAIKU askew, crooked

WAIKU DAIKŪ askew, tilted, crooked

WAIKURABUMBI caus. of waikurambi

WAIKURAMBI to be askew, to be tilted, to be crooked

WAIKURŠAMBI to walk leaning to one side

WAILAN 1. in antiquity, an official who was in charge of a city 2. a petty official

WAILAN HAFAN a minor official in charge of revenue and grain

WAILAN ŠUDESI secretary in a prefecture

WAINAMBI to be crooked (of part of a battue line)

WAITUKŪ a large, handled, water dipper

WAJIBUMBI caus. of wajimbi

WAJIMA end, termination

WAJIMBI to finish

WAJIN the finish, the end

WAKA 1. sentence particle that negates nominal predicates--is not, are not 2. mistake, error, guilt, blame

WAKA ALIMBI to accept blame, to apologize

WAKA BAHAMBI to commit an error

WAKA SABUBUMBI to commit an offense, to offend

WAKA WAKAI muddled, fouled up, confused

WAKAI ERUN unlawful punishment

WAKALABUMBI caus./pass. of wakalambi

WAKALAMBI 1. to blame, to fault, to accuse, to impeach, to deem wrong 2. to upbraid, to bawl out

WAKALAN error, transgression

WAKAN night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax)

WAKAO waka + o--isn't it? nest-ce pas?

WAKAŠABUMBI caus. of wakašambi

WAKAŠAMBI 1. to blame, to accuse 2.to deem wrong, to consider an error

WAKJAHŪN having a big belly, having a distended belly (of livestock that have overeaten)

WAKJANAMBI to form a big belly

WAKŠAN toad, frog

WAKŠAN BURGA 'toad willow'--a variety of willow tree

WALA 1. underneath, under, low 2. the west side of a Manchu house--the place of honor

WALDA base, vile--a term of contempt

WALGIYABUMBI caus. of walaiyambi

WALGIYAMBI 1. to sun, to expose to the sun 2. to heat

WALI trick

WALI EFIMBI to play tricks

WALI MAMA a goddess represented by a piece of cloth hung on the back of the door to which all food brought into the house must be presented for inspection

WALINGGA a device used for playing tricks

WALIYABUMBI 1. caus./pass. of waliyambi 2. to be lost, to get lost, to be left behind, to be abandoned

WALIYAMBI 1. to throw away, to throw down, to get rid of, to abandon 2. to spit out 3. to lay eggs (of insects) 4. to make an offering at a grave 5. to produce silk (of silk-worms)

WALIYAHA 1. (interjection) alas! woe is me! 2. now we're in trouble! now we've had it!


WALIYAHA USIN abandoned land, land unfit for cultivation

WALIYAME GAMAMBI to treat leniently, to excuse, to forgive

WALIYAME GAMARAO please excuse me

WALIYAN abandonment

WALIYAN GEMIN generous, unstinting

WALIYANAMBI to go to make an offering at a grave

WALIYATAI to the death, without regard for one's own safety

WALIYATAMBI 1. to fling about, to throw around 2. to lose (face)

WALU boil, furuncle

WAMBI to kill, to slay

WAHA INENGGI day of execution

WAME ABALAMBI to go on the autumn hunt

WAME MUKIYEBUMBI to annihilate, to exterminate

WAME ŠUSIHAŠAMBI to flog severely

WAME TANTAMBI to administer a severe beating

WARA BA execution ground

WARA WEILE capital crime

WAN ladder

WANCARAMBI to ridicule, to make fun of someone behind his back

WANCI an area on a pond that doesn't freeze in the winter

WANDUMBI/WANUMBI to kill together, to kill one another

WANDURE SUKDUN violent aspect, venomous appearance or mood WANDZ pill, small ball

WANG 1. prince 2. (in antiquity) king, monarch

WANG NI DUKAI HIYA Officer of a Prince's Bodyguard, BH 45

WANG SAI BAITAI KUNGGERI office concerned with the affairs of princes in the Board of Rites

WANG GIN a hair net

WANGGA 1. fragrant 2. crested heron 3. pertaining to the new moon

WANGGA GIYANCIHIYAN HOOŠAN perfumed letter paper

WANGGA INENGGI the fifteenth day of a lunar month

WANGGA JALGASU MOO Cedrela sinensis


WANGGA SOGI coriander, Chinese parsley

WANGGA ŠANGGA unconscious, in a coma

WANGGA ŠULHE Chinese pear (Pyrus sinensis)

WANGGARI citron (Citrus medico)

WANGGIYANAMBI to have a runny nose, to have a head cold

WANGGIYANAHABI has a head cold

WANGKIYABUMBI caus. of wangkiyambi

WANGKIYAMBI to smell (v.t.)

WANGNAMBI to embroider (designs on shoes)

WANGNAHA SABU embroidered shoes

WANSE pill, small ball

WANTAHA Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica)

WAR (onom.) the sound made by toads and frogs

WAR IR (onom.) the sound of toads and frogs croaking together

WARABUMBI caus. of warambi

WARAMBI to fish out, to remove from a pot (things that have been cooked)

WARDABUMBI caus. of wardambi

WARDAMBI 1. to tread water 2. to dig up (dirt)

WARDAŠAMBI to work with the hands and feet, to exert great effort

WARGI 1. under, underneath 2. west 3. right (side)

WARGI ASHAN an office of the Imperial Academy of Learning

WARGI ASHAN I BAITA HACIN I BOO archives in the Imperial Academy of Learning

WARGI BA the Western Regions--Sin-kiang


WARGI ERGI MUNGGAN the imperial tombs of Mukden

WARGI ERGI SIMNERE BITHEI KŪWARAN the rooms for examinees just to the right of the Ming-yiian tower in the Examination Compound

WARGI FIYENTEN an office in the Imperial Equipage Department

WARGI NAHAN the oven-bed on the western wall


WARGINGGE western, pertaining to the west

WARUMBI (-ka) to have a bad odor

WASE 1. tile 2. socks, stockings

WASE BOO house with a tile roof

WASEI FAKSI a tilemaker, roofer

WASEI HOLBOKŪ a timber that holds the tiles on the roof

WASEI JAIDA mason's trowel

WASELABUMBI caus. of waselambi

WASELAMBI to tile (a roof)

WASERI WEIJUN stork; cf. weijun

WASHA CECIKE one name for the sparrow

WASIBUMBI 1. caus. of wasimbi 2. to degrade, to demote

WASIHA claw, talon

WASIHALABUMBI caus. of wasihalambi

WASIHALAMBI to grasp in the claws, to snatch, to scratch, to claw

WASIHAŠAMBI 1. to scratch wildly 2. to dig in the earth (of domestic animals)

WASIHI awkward, clumsy

WASIHŪN 1. downward, down 2. westward, to the west

WASIHŪN BETHE GAIHA slipped down, fell down

WASIHŪN I HONTOHO the last quarter of the moon

WASIHŪRAME in the last ten days of the month

WASIMBI (-ka) 1. to descend, to go down, to sink 2. to fall (of rulers) 3. to decline (of value) 4. to become skinny 5. to die (of birds)

WASIFI GENGGEHUN OMBI to become thin and pale

WASIMBUMBI 1. caus. of wasimbi 2. to issue (an order), to send down (an edict) 3. to demote, to degrade; cf. wasibumbi

WASINAMBI to go down (there)

WASINGGA MUDAN the departing tone of classical Chinese phonology

WASINJIMBI to come down

WASURI MONIO one name for the monkey

WAŠAKTA BURGA a type of red willow whose leaves are wider and longer than those of the common willow

WAŠAKŪ an iron ladle-shaped instrument used for scraping hides

WAŠAMBI to scratch, to scrape; cf. ušambi

WATAI 1. to the death, fiercely 2. exceedingly

WATAI TANTAMBI to beat to death

WATAN a fishhook with barbs


WATANGGA GIDA a spear with barbs

WE who?

WEBE whom?

WECEBUMBI caus. of wecembi

WECEKU household god

WECEKU I SENDEHEN altar to the household god, a board on which offerings were made to the household god

WECEKU SOKO household god and earth god, the gods in general

WECEMBI 1. to make an offering to a deity, to sacrifice 2. to shamanize

WECERE BITHE book containing the rites of certain sacrifices

WECERE JAKA sacrificial vessel or object

WECERE JUKTERE BOLGOBURE FIYENTEN the name of an office concerned with sacrifice in the Board of Rites

WECERE JUKTERE KUNGGERI section on sacrifice in the Board of Rites and the Court of Sacri-

ficial Worship

WECERE USIN a field set aside for growing grain used in sacrifices

WECEN offering, sacrifice, shamanistic rite

WECEN BITHE book containing the rites of certain sacrifices

WECEN I BAITA BE ALIHA FALGARI the name of various offices concerned with sacrifices

WECEN I BAITA BE ALIHA YAMUN Court of Sacrificial Worship, BH 933

WECEN I KUMUN UREBURE FALGARI Office of Sacred Music, BH 390

WECEN I ULHA UJIRE FALGANGGA office of sacrificial animals in the Court of Sacrificial Worship

WECEN JUKTEN offerings and sacrifices

WECENEMBI to go to sacrifice

WECENJIMBI to come to sacrifice

WECI ablative form of we

WECU ILHA rainbow pink (Dianthus chinensis)

WEDE dative of we: to whom, for whom

WEHE stone, rock

WEHE ALIKŪ the lower millstone

WEHE BEI a stele

WEHE BIYANGSIRI ILHA the name of a purple flower with five petals that resembles a cicada


WEHE DABSUN rock salt

WEHE DALAN a stone dam


WEHE FUNGKŪ a stone roller

WEHE GIYEN smalt blue

WEHE HENGKE 'stone melon'--the name of a very hard melonlike fruit that grows on a tree in the vicinity of Mt. Omei in Szechuan

WEHE HŪWAISE hard coal


WEHE I KING a musical stone hanging from a frame

WEHE LAMUN cobalt blue

WEHE LEFU the name of a medium-sized bear with a white spot on its neck that hibernates in a cave in the winter, the same as mojihiyan

WEHE MUHALIYAN a stone ball

WEHE SELMIN 1. a stone drill 2. a crossbow for shooting stones

WEHE ŠU ILHA cotyledon

WEHE TUYEKU YONGGAN impure ammonia salts

WEHE YADALI CECIKE 'stone thrush'



WEHEI FUNGKŪ stone drum, stone cylinder

WEHEI NIKEBUKU a stone used for holding a door open

WEHENGGE stone, made of stone

WEHENGGE USIHA 'stone chestnut'-- a nut tasting like a walnut that is grown in the mountains of Tonkin

WEHETU COKO the name of a chicken from Southeast Asia that is supposed to cackle when the tide comes in

WEHIYEBUMBI caus. of wehiyembi

WEHIYEMBI to support, to aid, to watch after

WEHIYENDUMBI/WEHIYENUMBI to support together, to support one another

WEHIYETEMBI to support continually

WEI 1. whose?--genitive of we 2. minute, very small 3. sort of fish

WEI PING a screen

WEIBIN the name of a constellation

WEIBIN TOKDONGGO KIRU a banner depicting the constellation weibin

WEIFUTU see kuri weifutu

WEIHE 1. tooth 2. horn; cf. uihe

WEIHE DASAKŪ toothpick

WEIHE HADAMBI to attach the horn facing to a new bow


WEIHE JAKA space between the teeth

WEIHE JUYEMBI to clench the teeth


WEIHEDE leftover pieces of brick or tile

WEIHEN one name for the donkey

WEIHENGGE having teeth or horns

WEIHU boat made from a single tree, a hollowed-out canoe

WEIHUKELEBUMBI taus./pass. of weihukelembi

WEIHUKELEMBI to treat disrespectfully, to slight, to treat lightly

WEIHUKEN 1. light (in weight) 2. not serious, frivolous

WEIHUKEN FURDEHE a light fur coat

WEIHUN alive

WEIHUN JAFAMBI to capture alive

WEIHUN NINGGE a living creature

WEIHUNGGE living thing

WEIJUBUMBI 1. caus. of weijumbi 2. to revive, to bring back to life

WEIJUHEN one name for the stork; cf. weijun

WEIJUMBI to be alive, to live

WEIJUN 1. pliers, pincers, nippers, fire tongs 2. stork (Ciconia ciconia)

WEIJUN GASHA stork; cf. weijun

WEILE 1. crime, offense, guilt 2. punishment, sentence 3. matter, affair, work, deed; cf. weilen

WEILE ALIMBI to take the guilt upon one's self, to admit guilt

WEILE ARAMBI to sentence, to accuse of, to punish

WEILE BEIDEMBI to judge a case


WEILE BEIDERE KUNGGERI judicial section of the headquarters of a Provincial Commander-in-chief

WEILE BEIDERE TINGGIN a court dealing with matters between Manchu garrison troops and local Mongolians in Mongolia

WEILE DAKSA crimes and misdeeds, misdeeds in general

WEILE DE TAHA fell into crime

WEILE DE TANAHA see weile de taha

WEILE DE TUHENEHE see weile de taha

WEILEBUMBI 1. caus. of weilembi 2. to sentence to forced labor

WEILEBURE WEILE a crime carrying a penalty of forced labor

WEILEMBI 1. to work 2. to make, to construct 3. to serve

WEILERE ARARA BA Workshop of the Imperial Household, BH 86

WEILERE ARARA FIYENTEN Department of Works, BH 82

WEILERE ARARA KUNGGERI construction section of the Board of Works

WEILERE ARARA NAMUN warehouse for building materials in the Board of Works

WEILERE BOO a department of the Court of Colonial Affairs


WEILERE FALGA workshop, place of work

WEILERE FIYENTEN the office concerned with construction matters in the headquarters of the Manchu General-in-Chief in Mukden

WEILERE JAKAI BOO storage room for materials in the palace printing shop

WEILERE JURGAN the Board of Works, BH 460

WEILERE JURGAN I KUNGGE YAMUN office of the Board of Works in the Grand Secretariat

WEILEN work, construction

WEILEN BE ALIHA AMBAN minister of works (in Chou China)


WEILENEMBI to go to work

WEILENGGE guilty, a criminal

WEILENGGE NIYALMA criminal, guilty man



WEILUMBI 1. to do secretly, to act deceptively 2. to desert, to turn away from


WEIPING a screen; cf. huwejehen

WEISHA the name of a constellation

WEISHA TOKDONGGO KIRU a banner depicting the constellation weisha

WEJI (dense) forest

WEJI BA a (densely) forested area

WEJI UNA the fruit of a wild plant that has small yellow leaves and stems resembling artemisia

WEKCE weaver's beam

WEKE hey you! (word used for calling people whose name is unknown or forgotten)

WEKJI husk of any sort of grain

WEKJI ARA husks and chaff

WEKJIBUMBI caus. of wekjimbi

WEKJIMBI to move the shuttle across horizontally, to weave in the woof threads

WEKJIME DASARA AMBAN a high officer in charge of military affairs in border regions

WEKJIRE SIRGE woof threads


WELDERHEN one name for the Eastern house swallow (Hirunda rustica)

WELHŪME the name of a constellation

WELHŪME TOKDONGGO KIRU a banner depicting the constellation welhūme

WELMIYEBUMBI caus. of welmiyembi

WELMIYEKU fishing pole


WEMBI (-ngke, -re/ndere, -mpi) 1. to melt 2. to be transformed, to be converted, to become cultured or civilized, to be reformed, to be influenced

WEMBUMBI 1. caus. of wembi 2. to make cultured, to transform (to something better), to convert, to educate, to civilize, to improve, to reform, to influence

WEMBURI a species of edible hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida)

WEMPI (perfect converb of wembi) improved, converted, reformed

WEN 1. influence, reform, education 2. culture, civilization, cultural

pursuits 3. notch (for the string on an arrow)

WEN FETEMBI to make a notch

WEN JANG essay--the same as šu fiyelen

WEN TEBUMBI to put the notch of an arrow to the bowstring

WENCE the name of a plant whose leaves are used to make dye

WENCE MOO same as wence

WENCEN see wence

WENCEO a cloth made partly of silk and partly of coarse grass linen--the same as jurhu suri

WENDEDEN one name for the lark; cf. wenderhen

WENDERGEN see wenderhen

WENDERHEN North China crested lark (Galerida cristata)

WENEMBI to melt away, to go to be reformed

WENGGE highly educated, cultured

WENIYEBUMBI caus. of weniyembi

WENIYEMBI to smelt, to refine; cf. šarimbi

WENJE Chinese aster (Callistephus chinensis)

WENJE NIMEKU consumption

WENJEBUMBI caus. of wenjembi

WENJEHU see wenjehun

WENJEHUN abundant, prosperous

WENJEMBI 1. to warm up, to heat 2. to be warm, to have a fever 3. to be tipsy

WENJEN DOHOLON expression used to describe a horse or other beast of burden that limps when one first begins to ride it and then becomes normal after it has gone a little way

WENJENDUMBI/WENJENUMBI to become tipsy together


WENJENGGE GIYALAKŪ heated part of a house

WENJENGGE KIYOO a heated sedan chair

WENJENGGE YUWAN an inkstone heated with charcoal in the winter

WENŠU document

WER WER the sound used to call a dog

WERDEMBI to climb hand over hand on a rope

WERE see banjire were

WEREBUMBI caus. of werembi

WEREMBI 1. to wash (rice), to rinse 2. to pan (gold or other mineral) 3. to preserve on ice in the summer

WEREN 1. ripples on water 2. hoop (on a barrel, tub, etc.), a wire circle inside a hat

WERENEMBI to eat, to bore (of insects in the tender bark of trees)

WEREŠEBUMBI caus. of werešembi

WEREŠEMBI to investigate thoroughly, to get to the bottom of

WERI another, other, somebody else

WERI NIYALMA someone else

WERIBUMBI caus. of werimbi

WERIMBI 1. to leave behind, to leave (v.t.) 2. to retain in one's possession

WERINGGE somebody else's

WERINJEMBI see werešembi

WERIŠEMBI see weresembi

WERIYANGGE belonging to someone else

WERUMBI (-ke) to melt, to thaw out (of frozen meat)

WESIBUMBI 1. caus. of wesimbi 2. to lift, to raise 3. to promote, to advance 4. see wesimbumbi

WESIBUME FUNGNEMBI to give a higher title

WESIBUN advancement, lifting up

WESIHULEBUMBI caus. of wesihulembi

WESIHULEMBI to honor, to revere

WESIHULEN posthumous respect paid to one's parents

WESIHUN 1. upward, up 2. eastward, east 3. honorable, revered, respected 4. your (honorific)

WESIHUN BEYE you (honorific)

WESIHUN ERDEMUNGGE the Ch'ung-te reign period, 1627--1635

WESIHUN I HONTOHO first quarter of the moon--the eighth and ninth days of the lunar month

WESIHUN JALAN a brilliant age

WESIHUN MUKDEMBURE POO the name of a large iron cannon

WESIHUN SE how old are you? (respectful)

WESIHUN TEMBI to sit in the place of honor

WESIKU steps provided with a railing used to ascend an imperial sedan chair or coach

WESIMBI (-ke) 1. to ascend, to go up, to raise 2. to advance (in rank)

WESIRE FORGOŠORO KUNGGERI bureau of promotions and transfers in the Board of War

WESIMBUMBI 1. caus. of wesimbi 2. to raise, to lift 3. to advance, to promote; cf. wesimbi 4. to submit, to present (to the emperor), to report to the throne

WESIMBU SEME ARAMBI to write 'wesimbu'--i.e., to write on a document or memorial that it should be presented for the personal attention of the emperor

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