A a an interjection of casual response

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LAIHŪWA the same as laihū

LAJU clumsy, awkward, heavy, cumbersome

LAJUKAN rather clumsy, rather cumbersome

LAK AKŪ inconvenient, inappropriate, not right

LAK OHO appropriate, just right

LAK SE quickly! hurry up!

LAK SEME just right, right on the nose, it happened that . . .



LAKCABUMBI caus. of lakcambi

LAKCAMBI 1. to break off (v.1.), to snap 2. to come to an end 3. to be outstanding 4. to be remote

LAKCAN interruption, breaking off, pause

LAKCAN AKŪ uninterrupted

LAKCAN I SIRABUN one of the six yang tones

LAKCASHŪN broken off, interrupted

LAKDA simple, foolish; cf. lckdo lakda

LAKDA LIKDI drooping, hanging down

LAKDAHŪN hanging down, drooping

LAKDAHŪN TUHEKE fell into a drooping position

LAKDAHŪRI fully drooping, hanging all the way down

LAKDARI just then, all of a sudden (caught or grasped)

LAKDARI NAMBUHA grabbed all of a sudden

LAKDARILAMBI to happen all of a sudden, to occur just at the right time

LAKDARŠAMBI to hang down, to droop

LAKIYABUMBI 1. caus./pass. of lakiyambi 2. to be in need, to be hard-pressed, to be in difficult straits

LAKIYAKŪ rod for hanging things

LAKIYAKŪ HACUHAN a hanging pot

LAKIYAMBI to hang, to let hang, to hang up, to suspend


LAKIYAN a string of cash

LAKIYANGGA hanging, suspended

LAKIYANGGA HANGSE noodles that are hung out to dry

LAKIYANGGA HUWEJEHEN a screen that is hung on the wall

LAKIYARI MONIO spider monkey

LAKŪ thick padded cotton trousers

LAKŪ see lahū

LALA 1. end, last, final, last throw with the gacuha 2. cooked glutinous millet or rice

LALA BUDA steamed glutinous millet or rice

LALA JUHE EFEN four-cornered dumplings made of glutinous rice wrapped in rush or bamboo leaves and boiled

LALAHA soft, weak

LALAHŪN 1. rather weak 2. faded

LALAKAI mushy, pulpy

LALANJI 1. very soft, mushy, pulpy, tender 2. exhausted, spent 3. repeatedly 4. very

LALANJI HENDUHE said repeatedly

LALI agile, nimble, effortless; cf. la li seme

LALIMBI 1. to be soft, tender, pulpy 2. to be weakened from hunger

LALIN open, direct, straightforward

LALURI DUDU the name of a green turtle-dove with heavy plumage, same as ilhuru dūdu

LAMA lama, monk

LAMA NIYEHE in older Manchu used for anngir niyehe and later used for ijifun niyehe

LAMPA chaos, disorder, chaotic, disordered

LAMPA I FON primeval chaos

LAMPALAMBI to be mixed up

LAMPANGGA desolate, primitive

LAMU indigo

LAMU ORHO indigo plant

LAMUDAI the same as the garunggū

LAMUKAN light blue, bluish

LAMUKE Eastern red-spotted bluethroat (Cyanosylvia svecica)

LAMUN blue

LAMUN BOJIRI ILHA China aster (Callistephus chinensis)

LAMUN CECIKE ILHA an exotic blue flower that resembles a small bird

LAMUN FUNGGALA Junior Bodyguard wearing the Blue Feather), BH 99

LAMUN FUNGGALA BE BORO DE HADAMBI to attach a blue feather to the summer hat

LAMUN GARUDAI a blue phoenix

LAMUN GŪSAI FALGA office for the blue banners in the Board of War

LAMUN GŪWASIHIYA Eastern gray heron, (Ardea cinerea)

LAMUN HOOHAN the same as lamun gūwasihiya

LAMUN LAHŪTA a black kite, a black vulture

LAMUN MUHELIYENGGE GU a flat piece of blue jade with a hole in the center used in sacrifices to heaven

LAMUN NARHŪNGGA HOLBONGGO HOOŠAN a type of blue paper used for mounting things

LAMUN SAMSU a type of fine blue linen

LAMUN ULGIYAN CECIKE black-capped kingfisher (Halcyon pileata)

LAMURCAN a bird that resembles the crane--it is over three Chinese feet tall and is raised in gardens

LAMURHAN one name for the heron

LAN 1. indigo; cf. lamu 2. Chinese orchid, see lan ilha

LAN DIYAN HŪWA ILGA indigo flower

LAN GAIMBI to attest, to base oneself on good evidence

LAN ILHA Chinese orchid

LAN ORHO indigo plant; cf. lamu orho

LANG LANG SEME (eating) with the mouth stuffed full

LANGCA garnet

LANGGABUMBI caus./pass. of langgambi

LANGGAMBI to detain, to hold up, to delay

LANGGAŠAMBI to be indecisive

LANGGŪ pumpkin

LANGJU one ten-millionth (of a Chinese foot)

LANGKA the flower of reeds or rushes

LANGLAI dung beetle

LANGSE dirty, unclean

LANGSE MOO the horizontal wooden supports at both ends of a wagon or sedan chair

LANGSEDAMBI to act or speak in a dirty manner, to be dirty

LANGTANAMBI to have a large head, to be thick or heavy at an extremity

LANGTANGGA see langtungga

LANGTU a large double-headed hammer for use on iron

LANGTULAMBI to hit with a double-headed hammer

LANGTUNGGA large-headed

LAR LIR SEME 1. profuse, abundant 2. sticky

LAR SEME 1. talkative, long-winded 2. sticky, viscous, gluey

LAR SEME DALHŪN viscous and sticky

LARBAHŪN weary, worn out

LARGIKAN rather profuse

LARGIN 1. profuse, abundant, complicated 2. annoying

LARGIN LAMPA complex, intricate

LARGIŠAMBI to act in a diffuse, complicated way

LARGIŠAME GISUREMBI to speak in a confused, complicated manner

LARHŪN sweet potato

LARIN one name for the donkey

LARSEN soggy

LARSENDA yam (Dioscorea japonica)

LARTURI moonseed (Menispermum dauricum)

LASAN a consolation toss in playing with gacuha

LASARI hanging down so as to form a canopy (leaves and branches)

LASARI MOO a tree with thick drooping branches

LASARI ŠUFATU an ancient-style hat with tassels hanging down in back

LASARINAMBI to hang down (of branches)

LASHA 1. asunder, into sections, in two, into pieces 2. decidedly, definitely

LASHA LASHA in sections, asunder, in two

LASHA OBUMBI to break off, to make a break with

LASHA SARKŪ don't know at all

LASHAJAMBI to break off, to break in two

LASHALABUMBI 1. caus. of lashalambi 2. to cut off, to terminate

LASHALAMBI 1. to break in two, to cut in two, to sever 2. to terminate 3. to make a decision, to act decisively

LASHALAME ICIHIYAMBI to manage decisively

LASHALAN cutting off, decision

LASHANGGA JAHŪDAI a boat used in rapids or shallows

LASHATAI decisively, decidedly, definitely

LASIHIBUMBI caus./pass. of lasihimbi

LASIHIDABUMBI caus./pass. of lasihidambi

LASIHIDAMBI to shake hard

LASIHIKŪ 1. thongs with balls at the end that are attached to a drum and that strike the drum when shaken 2. a weapon consisting of a pole with a shorter pole attached to its end by a chain, a flail

LASIHIKŪ TUNGKEN a hand drum with thongs attached that have balls at the end

LASIHIMBI 1. to shake, to toss around, to brandish 2. to write the cursive script

LASIHIME ARAMBI to write the cursive script

LASIHIRE HERGEN grass script--the most cursive of the Chinese scripts

LASIHIRE JANGKŪ a sword with a very long handle (more like a spear with a long curved blade)

LASIRI see lasari

LATA 1. slow 2. dull, not clever

LATA JATA untalented, not up to par

LATA MOYO slow, dull-witted

LATA MOYO ERDEMU AKŪ dull-witted and untalented

LATAI a candlestand

LATAKAN rather slow, rather dull

LATIHI torn piece of a mat

LATUBUKŪ a sticky pole used for catching birds

LATUBUMBI caus./pass. of latumbi

LATUBUHA AFAHA a page pasted to the back of a document

LATUKŪ SOGI a wild plant with yellow flowers and sticky leaves that can be cooked and eaten--similar to hūrga sogi

LATUMBI 1. to paste, to glue 2. to attach, to stick on 3. to have an illicit affair with, to commit adultery 4. to get dirty and sticky (of clothing) 5. to get (an illness) 6. to incite, to provoke

LATUNAMBI to go to incite, to go to encroach, to go to commit an illicit sexual act

LATUNGGA fond of interfering, fond of causing dissension, fond of butting into other people's business

LATUNJIMBI to come to incite, to come to encroach, to come to commit an illicit sexual act

LAYABUMBI caus. of layambi

LAYAMBI (-ka) to wilt, to wither

LE LA SEME (going) all together, coming and going all together

LEB SEME unexpectedly, spontaneously

LEBDEHUN spineless, untalented, stupid

LEBDEREMBI (-ke) 1. to lack talent, to appear stupid 2. to be spineless, to go limp, to droop (of birds' wings)

LEBENGGI swampy, marshy, damp, muddy

LEBENGGI BA marsh, swamp

LEBENGGI USIN muddy field

LEBKIDEMBI see lekidembi

LEDEHUN see letehun

LEDER SEME slow (of a flying object)

LEDER SEME DEYEMBI to fly slowly

LEDUREMBI to beat up on someone (of a group)

LEFU bear

LEFU ŠAN 'bear's ears,' a creeping plant with leaves that are green on the outside and white on the inside (Senecio campestris)

LEHEBUMBI caus. of lehembi

LEHELE 1. prostitute, whore 2. illegitimate, born of a whore

LEHELE JUI bastard, child of a whore

LEHELE MAMA mistress of a brothel

LEHEMBI to protest a fait accompli, to appeal, to complain, to regret

LEHENDUMBI/LEHENUMBI to appeal together

LEJIRHI one name for the wildcat; cf. ujirhi

LEKCEHUN the same as lekdehun

LEKDE LAKDA 1. hanging in shreds or rags 2. hanging like fruit on a plant 3. following closely behind

LEKDEDEMBI see lekderembi

LEKDEHUN hanging down and screening something

LEKDEHUN DALIBUMBI to hang down and screen something

LEKDEREMBI (-ke) to have an unkempt, dirty appearance

LEKDERI NIONGNIYAHA one name for the wild goose; cf., e.g., jurgangga gasha, kenderhen niongniyaha

LEKDERI NIYEHE one name for the duck

LEKE 1. a whetstone, a grinding stone 2. a type of honey pastry made in the form of a whetstone

LEKEBUMBI caus. of lekembi

LEKEDEMBI see lekidembi

LEKEMBI to sharpen, to grind on a whetstone

LEKERHI sea otter (Latax lutris)

LEKERHIN a seal (animal)

LEKERI a spiral shell used as a horn

LEKETEMBI see lekidembi

LEKIDEMBI to wave the hands over the head while dancing, to wave the hands and feet at wrestling

LEKSEI all together, in unison

LELI 1. extensive, vast, wide 2. protective armor for the chest

LEMBAN see lempen

LEMPEN 1. a tent of rush mats used as a shade from the sun 2. a protective shelter of rush mats for cattle

LEMPI prematurely gray, with white hairs among the black

LEMPINEMBI to turn prematurely gray, to get white hairs among the black

LEN immense, strong and big

LEN COKO one name for the chicken; cf. kemuri coko

LENGGERI a type of large rat

LENGGETU the name of a ceremonial hat of the Hsia dynasty

LENGKEN rather big and strong

LENGLEN LANGLAN SEME sloppy, careless, slovenly

LENGSEKI coarse, crude, clumsy, awkward

LENGSENGGI see lengseki

LENGTENEMBI to be crude or awkward

LEOLEBUMBI caus. of leolembi

LEOLEMBI to discuss, to talk over

LEOLEN discussion, disputation

LEOLENDUMBI/LEOLENUMBI to discuss together

LEOMBI (-ha) to perform feats of military prowess on horseback in front

of enemy troops in order to frighten them

LEOSE multistoried building, tower, building

LER BIYAR SEME walking slowly

LER LAR SEME the same as ler biyar seme

LER SEME 1. profuse, luxuriant (vegetation) 2. serious, upright, solemn 3. harmonious, ordered

LER SEME AGAMBI to rain a fine rain

LER SEME BANJIHABI grows profusely

LERGIYEN resolute, having great determination, having great capacity

LESEREMBI to ripple, to form ripples

LESUMBI 1. to run fast (of camels and horses) 2. to skim the earth (of birds)

LESUME ŠODOME galloping without stopping

LETE LATA 1. heavy (of a load) 2. lagging behind and trying to catch up

LETEHUN large or wide at the top

LETUHUN see letehun

LEYECUN ballad

LEYEMBI to sing without accompaniment

LI one-thousandth (of a Chinese foot)

LI JY litchi

LIB SEME right through, piercing (of a spear thrown at an animal)

LIBKI 1. worn-out horse, a horse that has been beaten with a whip 2. scorching hot, sweltering (weather)

LIBKIMBI (-ha) to be worn-out (of horses)

LIBU one-billionth (of a Chinese foot)

LICISE the name of an exotic fruit that resembles a crossbow projectile

LIDU mung bean (Phaseolus mango)

LIFA deep (into), penetrating

LIFA DANA penetrated deeply (of an arrow)

LIFA DOSIKA penetrated deeply

LIFA GIDALAHA pierced deeply

LIFABUMBI taus./pass. of lifambi

LIFADAMBI to sink slightly (into mud or mire)

LIFAGAN see lifahan

LIFAHAN mud, muck, slime

LIFAHAN CIFAHAN mud and slime

LIFAHANAMBI to become muddy

LIFAKŪ swamp, morass

LIFAMBI to engulf (in mud), to suck into (mud)

LIFAN a stone or wooden vessel used to catch oil and wine from a press

LILCI down, downward

LIMU see icihiyasi

LING PAI tally with a charm written on it--used by Taoist priests

LING SEME heavy, burdensome

LING YABUMBI to play wine-drinking games

LINGDAN a miraculous medicine, elixir

LINGGE a shining deed, glorious deed

LINGJY a kind of auspicious fungus (Forces ,japonicas)

LINGSE 1. a type of thin satinlike material, damask 2. collar

LINGSIKA one name for the tiger

LIO HŪWANG sulphur

LIO KIO GURUN I KUREN an establishment for taking care of Ryukyuan emissaries


LIOHO a white-striped sea fish, Siberian salmon

LIOHŪWANG the same as lio hūwang

LIR LIYAR SEME smooth and sticky (like a good paste)

LIRHA the name of a constellation

LIRHA TOKDONGGO KIRU a banner depicting the constellation lirha

LIYANSE curtain


LIYAR SEME sticky, pasty

LIYASE a hanging, a curtain or drape

LIYELIYEBUMBI caus. of liyeliyembi

LIYELIYEHUN dizzy, faint, delirious

LIYELIYEMBI to become dizzy, to become faint

LIYELIYEN ILHA a purple flower whose odor causes faintness


LIYELIYEŠEMBI to be (constantly) faint, to be very dizzy

LIYOLIYO an interjection of derision used toward untalented, worthless people

LIYOO fodder, forage


LO 1. cymbal, gong 2. silk gauze, crepe

LO SUJE a very thin, light silk gauze for autumn clothing

LO CA see raka

LO HAN an arhat

LO LA SEME unexpectedly, all of a sudden

LOB SEME suddenly dark

LOBI gluttonous, ravenous

LOBI HUTU the ghost of an evil person who can never satisfy his hunger or thirst, preta

LOBIN see lobi

LOCA see rakša

LODAN the anklebone of a cow or sheep (used in a dicelike game); cf. gacuha

LODUR SEME see ludur seme

LOHO sword

LOHO USIHA see lohū usiha

LOHOBUMBI to cause great trouble, to place in a difficult position, to

have difficulty, to be in difficult straits

LOHŪ USIHA the unlucky star Rahu--Ypsilon in the constellation Pegasus

LOK SEME suddenly, unexpectedly

LOKDI dense, thick

LOKDO LAKDA clumsy, awkward

LOKDOHON sitting alone, alone and quiet

LOKDORI unexpectedly, in an unforeseen manner

LOKSEME see lok seme

LOKSIMBI to speak foolishly or crazily

LOKSIN foolishness, nonsense

LOKSINAMBI to become pudgy, obese

LOKSOBUMBI to be despondent from teasing or taunting

LOKSON vexation, annoyance (at being teased)

LOKTOHON see lokdohon

LOKTOROMBI (-ko) to sit alone

LOLI FODOHO weeping willow (Salix babylonica)

LOLI FULANA ILHA a crabapple (Pyrus spectabilis) with hanging branches

LOLO the anklebone of a pig used as a die

LOLO SEME boasting idly, chattering foolishly

LOMI rice kept in storage for a number of years--the same as hukšeri bele

LOMIKTE a light yellow gem resembling the cat's-eye

LONG LONG SEME see long seme

LONG SEME to keep on talking foolishly, to talk nonsense

LONGKO a cooking pot made of bronze or copper

LONGKON a gong or cymbal

LONGSIKŪ a person who chatters on and on

LONGSIMBI to chatter on and on, to talk foolishness

LONGTO halter, headstall

LONGTOLOBUMBI caus. of longtolombi

LONGTOLOMBI to wear a halter or head-stall

LONGTU see longto

LOO 1. prison 2. gong; cf. lo 3. see lomi


LOO DZ jailer

LOO LOO maternal grandmother

LOO NIYANG old lady, lady of the household

LOO SIYAN ŠENG old man, old gentleman

LOODAN 1. old female role in Chinese opera 2. see Lodan

LOOMBI to bark or growl fiercely

LOOYE master of the household

LOR SEME speaking incessantly, talkative

LORBODO three-year-old deer

LORIN mule

LOSA the same as Lorin

LOSE the same as Lorin

LOSHAN a basket woven from willow branches used for carrying preserved vegetables; cf. šangšaha

LOSO slushy, muddy (especially refers to the spring when the fields are still too muddy to plow)

LOSTU JAHŪDAI a small, wide river boat with low sides

LU LU SEME see lulu seme

LU NIMAHA a sort of perch, see sahamha

LU ŠUI MUKE brine in which bean-curd is prepared

LUDAHŪN the name of a constellation

LUDAHŪN TOKDONGGO KIRU a banner depicting the constellation ludahūn

LUDUN a reed basket for grain

LUDUR SEME thick and sticky (of liquids)


LUDZ oven, stove

LUGIYA HENGKE bitter melon (Momordica charantia)

LUHU 1. a headless arrow with a dull point resembling a pestle--used for shooting sitting birds and for target practice

LUHU CECIKE one of the names of the snipe; cf. Parka cecike

LUHULEBUMBI caus. of luhulembi

LUHULEMBI to shoot a headless arrow (luhu)

LUJEN an imperial coach

LUJU one hundred-millionth

LUJURI pelt of a black fox

LUJURI DOBI black fox

LUK SEME strongly, intensely, thickly, in considerable quantity

LUK SEME DUSHUN intensely dark

LUK SEME HALHŪN hot and windless

LUK SEME TALMAKA a thick fog has descended

LUKA the young of the lynx; cf. silun

LUKDEREMBI see lukdurembi

LUKDU dense

LUKDU LAKDA wobbling, flopping about, flabby, pudgy

LUKDUHUN ruffled, dishevelled (of the feathers on sick birds)

LUKDUREMBI (-ke) to become ruffled, dishevelled (of the feathers on sick birds)

LUKSIMBI to throb (of a festered wound or sore)

LUKU 1. thick, dense (of hair and plants) 2. caterpillar

LUKUKEN rather thick, rather dense

LULU ordinary, common, average (of ability)

LULU LALA muddled, illogical

LULU SEME ordinary, average

LUMBABUMBI caus./pass. of lumbambi

LUMBAMBI to smear with glue or paste

LUMBANAMBI to become covered with dirt or mud

LUMBIMBI (-ha) see lumbambi

LUMBU suddenly flowing slowly (of a place in a stream)

LUMBU MUKE slow-flowing water

LUMBU OHO suddenly became slowflowing

LUMBURJAMBI to be soft, not firm (of wet earth)

LUNG SEME see luk seme

LUNGGU a male sable; cf. seke

LUR SEME thick, viscous, concentrated

LURGIKEN rather rough (of the voice)

LURGIN rough, coarse (of the voice)

LURGIŠEMBI to change (of an adolescent's voice), to be rough (of the voice)

LURGIYAN see lurgin

LUSHUN tired, weary

LUSU ŠOBIN a pastry with a walnut filling

LUSUMBI to become tired, to become weary

LUŠI secretary in a Board of the eighth or ninth rank

LUWAN the male of a colorful phoenix-like bird that was considered a symbol of concord between prince and minister as well as between husband and wife

LUWANGGON small bells on the bits of the horses that drew the imperial coach

MA here! (said when handing something to another person)

MABU a cloth for wiping off objects

MABULABUMBI caus. of mabulambi

MABULAKŪ mop, swab (a rag attached to a pole used for wiping the floor)

MABULANBI to wipe, to wipe off

MACA a bitter-tasting wild plant resembling garlic

MACA DUHA large intestine of horses, donkeys, and mules

MACI an iron ring on the crupper of beasts of burden

MACIBUMBI caus. of macimbi

MACIHA see macika

MACIHI the observation of the Buddhist commandments

MACIHI JAFAMBI to meditate and observe the Buddhist commandments

MACIKA border or edge of a mat or net

MACIKA ARAMBI to weave the rope border of a hunting or fishing net

MACIMBI 1. when patching a garment, to gather the edges of the patch on the inside while smoothing out the outside surface 2. to lay squares of grass to form a lawn

MACUMBI to become thin, skinny

MADABUMBI 1. caus. of madambi 2. to collect

MADAGA 1. interest 2. massive, large

MADAGAN interest (on money)

MADAGE an affectionate expression used while patting an old person or child on the back

MADAMBI 1. to expand, to swell, to grow (of interest) 2. to stand on end (of hair)

MADANGGA elastic, extensile

MADARI UJU an animal head made of bronze with a ring in its mouth attached to a door to facilitate opening and closing

MADASU leaven, fermenting agent

MADIYOO mah-jongg tiles; cf. sasuri

MAFA grandfather, ancestor, old man

MAFANGGE having a grandfather or ancestor

MAFARI plural of mafa

MAFARI MIYOO ancestral temple

MAFARI SOORIN ancestral tablets

MAFUTA 1. a buck deer 2. rope made of hemp

MAFUTA BUHŪ a buck deer (LAGER 1. a wild plant with edible roots--the white variety is known as šanggipan_ selbete, the red variety as monggo sedo

MAGI see maki

MAHALA hat, cap--especially the round fur winter hat of Manchu officials

MAHALA ELBEKU a cover for a hat (used when raining)

MAHALA GAHA a crow with a large body and white head

MAHALA IHAN a cow with head and body of different colors--usually black and white



MAHALALAMBI to wear a hat

MAHATU 1. hat worn by high officials and nobles in ancient times 2. hat worn by the emperor, crown

MAHATUN a hat of ancient times

MANILA stalk, stem

MAHŪ 1. a (devil) mask 2. a leather hood covering the head, neck, and shoulders

MAHŪLABUMBI caus . /pass . of mahūlambi

MAHŪLAMBI 1. to wipe out, to strike out (errors when writing) 2. to humiliate, to disgrace 3. to wear a hood

MAHŪNTU another name for the large black monkey called elintu

MAIDARI Maitreya, the coming Buddha

MAIFARAHA a motherless child

MAIGŪ deaf; cf. data


MAILACI krishum (Iris ensata)--the roots of this plant are used to make brushes

MAILAMBI to get infected

MAILAN Iris pallasii, or perhaps the same as mailaci

MAILAN I USE the seeds of Iris palasii

MAILARU 'won't you get infected please!'--an oath

MAILASUN arbor vitae, cypress

MAIMADAMBI to walk weaving from side to side, to stagger

MAIMAN business, trade; cf. hūda

MAIMAŠAMBI to do business

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